Júma, 30 Qyrkýiek 2022
Alasapyran 5546 24 pikir 6 Qyrkýiek, 2021 saghat 16:30

Imperiya molasy: Kelesi kezek kimdiki?

15 tamyzda Taliban armiyasy Kabuldy soghyssyz basyp aldy. AQSh pen NATO-gha arqa sýiegen preziydent Ashraf Ghany asyghys-ýsigis, buynyp-týiinip ýshinshi el arqyly Dubaydan biraq shyqty. Sonymen órkeniyet, kisilik qúqyq, demokratiyany armandaghan, ózining mentaliytetinen, dәstýrinen, tilinen, dininen alystap, atalmysh ortaq qúndylyqtargha arqa sýiep, shetel armiyasyna sengen aughan biyligi men armiyasy islam fundamentalizmyn qúndylyq etip, qaruly kýreske sengen, sәldesin qabat-qabat orap, saqaly beline týsken, tәpishke sýiretip, avtomat asynghan tәlipterding qolyna ótip, әlem júrtyn tan-tamasha qaldyryp, ókindirdi, kýrsindirdi. «Aughan armiyasy men biyliginde erkek kindikti qalmaghan ba» degen sóz әrkimning kókeyinde sayrap túrdy.

16 tamyz kýni AQSh preziydenti Djo Bayden: «AQSh-tyng Aughanstangha әsker kirgizudegi maqsaty búl elde jana memleket qúru emes, halyqaralyq terrorizmge soqqy berip, tamyryna balta shabu, ol maqsat Usama Ben Ladenning kózi joyyluymen oryndaldy. Aughan ýkimeti men armiyasy óz biyligi men halqyn qorghaugha erik-jigeri jetpegen mynaday jaghdayda AQSh tekke bodau bermeydi. Aughan әskerine ozyq qaru-jaraqtyng bәrin berdik, jan-jaqty әskery jattyghulardan ótkizdik biraq olardyng boyyna jeniske degen senimi men jigerdi bere almadyq. Sondyqtan barlyq jaghdaygha Aughan ýkimeti men armiyasy kinәli», - dep airyqsha mәlimdeme jariyalady. Ári aughannan әsker shygharu mәselesi Tramp ýkimeti kezinde kelisilgenin, qazir sol kelisimdi atqaryp jatqanyn úmytpay eskerte ketti.

«11 qyrkýiek» oqighasynan keyin AQSh soltýstik aliyans әskerlerin bastap, Aughanstangha basyp kirgende, 46 myng adamnan túratyn Taliban armiyasy súrapyl soqqydan keyin tau-tasty panalay qashyp, 2008 jylgha kelgende nebәri 11 myng әskeri qalghan-dy. 2014 jyly qaytadan 60 myng adamgha jetti. Al militarister men taypa-úlys kósemderining qarmaghynda qyryq temirding qylauy bolghan aughan әskeri úzyn sany 300 myngha jetetin әri AQSh pen NATO-nyng qoldap, quattauynda әlemdegi eng ozyq әskery tehnikagha ie boldy. Dәp ótken ghasyrdaghy 1946 jylghy Qytaydaghy jaghday qaytalandy. Sol zamandaghy teniz-әue armiyasy bar AQSh-qa arqa sýiegen Gomini ýkimetining 2 million armiyasy bas ayaghy bes jylgha jetpeytin uaqytta iri qalalarda kóterilis jasap, JinGangShan-da baza qúryp, Yan-an da tynystaghan, auyl-qystaq arqyly qalany qorshaugha alghan kommunister jaghynan tas-talqan bolyp jenilgen edi. Kommunister kóp aitatyn «memleketting naqty jaghdayyn bilip, aqiqatty halyq arasynan izdeu kerek. Halyqtyng dengeyi men dәstýrin, tarihy men salt-sanasyn sezinu lazym» degen propagandasynda bir siqyr bar siyaqty. Tarihta «imperiyalar molasy» atanghan Aughanstan taghy da júrt nazaryn audaryp, kókeyimizde kóp súraq keptelip túryp qaldy. 2019-2020 jylghy Aughan ortalyq sanaq mekemesining sanaghyna jýginsek, Aughanda 32 million 200 myng adam ómir sýredi, olardyng 7 milliony qalada qonystansa, qalghan 23 milliony auylda túrady. 1,5 milliony kóshpeli taypalar. Úzaq jylghy soghystan halqynyng ¼ jan saughalap, jan-jaqqa auyp ketken, olardyng ishinde 2 million 700 myny bosqyn mәrtebiyesine iye. Halyqtyng 40%-nyn pushtyn últy ústasa, tәjikter 25%-nyn qúrap ekinshi orynda túr. Odan keyin ózbek, týrikmen, hazar siyaqty 20-dan astam últtar men úlystar ómir sýredi. Tenizden alys, qúrlyq memleket, aua-rayy da jangha jayly emes, jan-jaghyn qorshaghan tau men tas, menireu jartastar syrtpen qarym-qatynastyng mýmkindigen meylinshe azaytyp, túiyqtalyp qalghan. Din men dәstýr búl elding qos qanaty desek te bolady. Halqynyng 86%-y islamnyng sunnit jolyn ústansa, qalghan 13%-y sheyitter, 1%-y ghana ózge dinder ústanady.

Aughan handyghy 1747 jyly qúrylyp bir mezgil dәuren sýrgen. 19-ghasyrdyng sonynda әlsirey bastady. Sol kezde Orta Aziya kelesi imperiyanyng jýregine ainalady degen tanym «múhit biyligi» degen teoriyanyng kólenkesinde qalghanda, Ospan imperiyasy men Qytay Sini imperiyasynyn arasyndaghy osy ónir orys pen múhitty baghyndyra bastaghan elder arasyndaghy «beytarap, bos jer» sanaldy.  1892 jyly aughan patshasy pushtyndardyng kósemi Ábduhadyr Rahman ózin han dep jariyalaghanymen, onyng biyligi Kabulgha ghana jýrdi, әr shatqaldyng kirer qaqpasyna kýzet qoyyp alghan taypalar men úlystardyng óz aqsaqaly, jasaghy jәne mollasy boldy. Osydan keyin Aughanstan Resey men aghylshyndardyng óz yqpalyn jýrgizuge úmtylatyn, sol ýshin ólispey-berispeytin nýktesine ainaldy. Aghylshyndar 1838-1919 jyldar aralyghynda aughandarmen 3 ret soghysyp, ýsheuinde de onbay jenildi. Imperiyalar soghysta jenilse de bitim kezinde esesin qaytaratyn әdeti boyynsha, Aughanstannyn әkimshilik aimaghyn jәne keyin Indiya men Pakistannyng shekarasyn belgileude kómip ketken «jasyryn minalary» qazirge deyin jarylyp keledi.

Aughanstan halqy, han әuleti jәne әr kezendegi sayasy túlghalar eldegi jetekshi últ – pushtyndardyng ainalasyna toptasa otyryp tútas memleketti birlikke keltirip, tәuelsizdikke qol jetkizuge әri sayasi, ekonomikalyq, zandyq baghyttaghy reformalar jasaugha talpynyp keledi. Biraq bәri de sәtsizdikke úshyrady. 1906 jyly Týrkiya, 1908 jyly Qytay men Iran konstitusiyalyq reforma jasaghanda, 1923 jyly jenimpaz Amanolla han Týrkiyadaghy jas týrikterding yqpalymen «Tәrtip kitәbin» jariyalady. Keyingiler aughannyng túnghysh Ata Zany atap ketken osy zanda jazylghan keybir tarmaqtar qazirge deyin oryndalmasa da qúnyn joyghan joq. Onda «barlyq aughan halqy islam sharighaty men memleket zang aldynda teng qúqyly.

Sheyitter, evreyler jәne hristiandardyng qúqyghy qorghalady. Tәn jazasy, mәjbýrli enbekke jegu kýshin joyyp, әielder «ekinshi dәrejeli músylman» degen attan qútylady. Kóp әiel alu kýshin joyyp, qyz balanyng mektepke baruyna rúqsat beriledi». Osydan keyin jana zangha qarsy kóterilis býkil aughandy sharpyp, búlghaqtyng sony handy taqtan taydyrdy. Aziya, Afrika, Latyn Amerika elderining tәuelsizdikke degen talpynysy sol kezdegi solshyl, tәuekelsiz jastardy kommunizm qozghalysynan shyghar jol izdeuge baghyttady. Biylikti qolgha alghan Mohammed Dәuithan, Mústafa Kemali Atatýrk, Ly Guang Yau siyaqty tegeurindi biylik jýrgizip, zang men dinning arasyn ashyp, sayasi-ekonomikalyq reformalar jasaugha úmtylghan edi. Aqyry sayasy tónkeristing qúrbany boldy. Búl kezde aghylshyndar ýsh retki jenilisten keyin «imperiya molasynan» sheginip sayasy oiynnyng saqasy AQSh pen Sovet odaghy syndy eki alyp derjavanyng qolyna ótken. AQSh-ta bilim alghan 28 jastaghy Hayzolla Amini men AQSh-taghy aughan diplomaty Núrmúhammed Tarazy kommunizm dertimen auyra bastaydy. Olar eline kelgen song Sovetting yqpalymen aughan halyqtyq demokratiyalyq partiyasyn qúryp, M.Dәuithanmen birlesip patshany taqtan taydyrady. Kelesi sayasy kýreste M.Dәuithan qastandyqqa úshyraydy. Sonymen demokratiya, kisilik qúqyq, erkindikke qol jetken sayasatkerler qyryq pyshaq bolady. Erkindik bar, qalay sayrasa óz erikteri oiynshy kóbeydi. Egiypetten aspirantura oqyp kelgen teolog Niyazdyng ainalasyna Rabbani, Hikmetiyar siyaqty biraz dinshilder jinalyp, uniyversiytet aumaghynda parandja kiymegen әielderge kýkirt shashyp, sayasatqa aralasyp, óz sayasy tanymdaryn әigiley bastady.

Orystyng pighylyn sezip, onyng qol jaulyghy bolghysy kelmegen Hafizolla Amini qaytadan Qúrama shtattan qoldau izdep, N.Taraziydi óltirip, sayasy baghytyn ózgertuge úmtylady. 1978 jyly jeltoqsannyng 12-si kýni Sovet odaghy desanttar jiberip H. Aminidi bala-shaghasymen qyryp tastap, Babarak Karmaldy biylikke alyp keledi.

Eges endi bastaldy. Eki alyp derjava jana qarularyn synap, bir-birine ketken esesin aughan jerinde qaytarady, esesine aughan halqynyng qany su shaghyp, tynyshtyq ketedi. Tús tústan militarister bas kóterip, ashtyq, soghys, narkotik Aughanstannyng ómir daghdysyna ainalady. On jylgha tayaghan Sovet shapqynshylyghy o basta qyryq pyshaq bolghan aughandy ondyrghan joq. Býlingennen býldirge alamyn dep jýrip ózi de onbady. AQSh bastaghan Batys elderi qatang ekonomikalyq sanksiya saldy. Arab, Iran, Irak, Pakistan, Egiypet, Týrkiya elderimen birlese otyryp modjahedterdi qoldady, әskery kurstan ótkizdi. Áriyne búl әreketter keyin ózine tayaq bolyp tiyerin bilmedi. Múnaydyng 1 barrelin 10 dollargha týsirip, Mәskeu olimpiyadasyna qatysudan bas tartty. Sovet odaghy taptyq kýres, jer reformasy siyaqty bayyrghy maqsattaryn jayma shuaqtap, órkeniyet pen tendikti, ghylym men bilimdi jan sala nasihattasa da, aughan halqynyng jýregine jol tappady. 10 jylda Aughanstanda әiel sudiyalardyng salmaghy alghashqy 10%-gha jetpeytin kórsetkishten 70%-gha deyin jogharylasa da, aughan әielderinin, ziyaly qauymnyng qoldauyna ie bola almady. Mine, osydan qúldyq psihologiyanyng qanshalyq terenge tamyr jayghanyn kóruge bolady. Qyzyl imperiya soghystan, әskery bәsekeden әbden tityqtap, 1988 jyl sәuirding 4-i kýni amalsyzlan «Jeneva kelisimine» qol qoyyp, soghysty toqtatugha mәjbýr boldy. 1989 jyly 15-shi jelttoqsanda songhy Sovet әskeri sheginip shyqqansha 12,210 soldatynan aiyrylyp, 35,480 adam jaradar bolyp, 311 әsker is-týssiz joghalyp ketti. Búl daghdarys sozyla kele Sovet odaghynyng ydyrauyna әkelip soqty, aughannyng tau-tastyry men shyn-qúzdarynda orys tankilerining qaldyqtary men raketa PZRK «Stinger» atyp týsirgen tik úshaqtardyng synyghy úiylyp qaldy.  1988 jyly Sovet odaghy aughannan shegine bastaghanda auyldy jerding 90%-y modjahedterding qolyna ótken edi. Sol kezde Kandagardaghy jas molla Mohammed Omar sunniyterden qúralghan 800 shәkirtti bastap «militaristerding kózin joyyp, memleketke tәrtip ornatayyq» degen úranmen maydangha shyqty. Mine, búl tәlipter edi. Pakistan arnayy qyzmetining qoldauyna ie bolghan tәlipter tez kóterildi. Ekonomikasy bir shama jaqsy aumaqqa barghanda «korrupsiyany joyyp, ekonomikany qayta qúramyz» dep ýndeu saldy. 1996 jyly 27-i qyrkýiekte Kabuldy basyp alyp, Aughan islam әmirligin qúrdy. Tәlipter 1998 jyly Mazar shәripti basyp alghanda, soltýstik aliyanstyng qolbasshysy, Pandjemir arystany atanghan Masut Shah aralyqqa jýrip, ózine premier ministr qyzmetin úsyna kelgen elshilerge bas kiyimin laqtyryp jiberip: «Osy doppamday jer qalghansha kýresemin, óitkeni bizding kózqarasymyz týbirinen úqsamaydy. Aughan islam әmirligining barlyq tәrtibine qarsymyn», - degen edi.

2001 jyly qyrkýiekting 9-y kýni jurnalist bolyp jasanyp kelgen jankeshti jaghynan óltirildi. Ile-shala tәlipter Bamiyan shatqalyndaghy II – V ghasyrlardaghy alyp Budda eskertkishterin talqandap, әlemdik órkeniyetke ólsheusiz ziyan keltirdi. Múnyng sony Niu-Yorktaghy «11-qyrkýiek» oqighasyna jalghasyp, Ali-kaida úiymynyng atamany Usama Ben Laden tәlipterge kelip panalady. AQSh terroristerge pana bolghan әmirlikti qatang jazalap, tau-tasqa quyp tyqty. 2003 jyly AQSh pen NATO kýshteri aughangha basyp kirip, Hamit Karzaydy saylau arqyly biylikke alyp keledi. Taghy da tarih qaytalandy. AQSh әskery kýshpen bir mezgil tynyshtyq ornatqanymen tau-tasqa baryp bekinip alghan talibandy týp tamyrymen qúrta almady. Aughanda jiyrma jyl әsker túrghyzu AQSh-qa onay týsken joq. Sana-sezimin, diny nanym-senim jaulap alghan, eshqashan bastary bir qazanda pispeytin, memlekettik sanadan góri taypalyq sanany qúndy kóretin, biylikting ýsh bútaghyn aiqyndap, zangha jýginiuden góri taypa kósemi men mollagha kóbirek senim artatyn, qúral ústaghandardyng toqsan payyzy sauatsyz elde jas sarbazdarynyng basyn bәigege tigip, órkeniyetke jaqyndatudyng mýmkin emestigine qúrama shtattyng biyligi әbden kózi jetken siyaqty. AQSh qazir joghary tehnologiya men әlemdi shyrmauyqsha shyrmaghan aqparat kenistigine sýiene otyryp kózge shyqqan sýieldey bolghan jaularyn jer sharynyng kez-kelgen nýktesinen joya alatyn dengeyge jetti. Sondyqtan da bóten elde әsker ústaudyng qajeti azayyp barady. Búl soghysta 2448 sarbazynan aiyrylyp, 20772 jauyngeri jaraqat aldy. Jalpy soghys shyghyny 2.26 trillion AQSh dollar boldy. Búl degenimiz armiyanyng әr kýngi shyghyny 300 milion dollar degen sóz. Ash pәleden qash pәle degen osy shyghar. Aughandardyng maqalyna jýginsek «aghayyndy ekeuimiz nemere tuysty ornyna qoydyq, nemere tuys ýsheuimiz jatty jalpasynan týsirdik, eshkim qalmaghanda ózara qyrylystyq». Mine, osydan-aq, aughan halqynyng «jauyngerlik quatyn» týsinesiz.

Búl soghysta jenimpaz joq siyaqty. Qyrghyn, ashtyq, bosqyn tarihta tanba bolyp qaldy. Eki ghasyrdan beri «imperiya mollasy» atanghan búl ónir jaralghaly, basyna noqta týspegen halyq emes, buddizm múragha qaldyrghan púttar el esinen әli kóterilgen joq. Ariyler búl júrtty baghyndyryp, parsy tilin múragha qaldyrsa, arabtar at oinatyp islam dinin múragha qaldyrdy. Ghúndar kelip túlparyn suaryp, qayqy qylyshyn jarqyldatty. Grekterde jәy adasyp kelgen joq. Shynghyshannyng atty әskeri de jaypap óte shyqqan, Babyr babamyz Badaqshandy basyp ótip, Ýndi múhittyng jaghasynan biraq shyqqan.

Búl «mollany» AQSh-ta jiyrma jyl jalynan sipap, arqasyn qaghyp kórdi. Biraq nәtiyjesi mynau. Qayta shapqan jau jaman deseng de Taliban etek-jenin týrip qayta oraldy. Osyndayda «halqy qalay bolsa kósemi de solay» degen batys tәmsili eske týsedi. 2021 jylghy halyqtyng ishki ónimi әreng 500 $ qúrapty. Eki ghasyr aldyndaghy  apiyn soghysy kezindegi Qytaydyng ishki ónimi 600 $ bolghan eken. Býkil órkeniyet әlemi aiyptap otyrghan ony desen, Talibannyng sayasy platformasyna kirgen korrupsiyagha toqtau bola ma? Shetelden kelgen sonshama gumanitarlyq kómek, qazba baylyqty iygeriuge tartylghan investisiya militarister men aqsaqal, mollalardyng jemsauyna týse bere me? Býkil halyqtyng sanasyna sәule týspese, dýnie tanymy ózgermese, bayaghy jartas sol jartas bolyp qala bermey me?!

Oyyn qayta bastalghan osy jirma jylda halqy milliardtan asatyn Qytay men Ýndistan Aughanstanda tabylghan qazba baylyqqa eng kóp qarjy salugha úmtylys jasaghany aitylyp jatyr. Saqaldary beline týsken taliban kósemderi Pekin men Mәskeudi bir-bir ainalyp shyghyp, DAISh pen Shyghys Týrkistan terroristerine aughanda oryn joq ekenin birneshe mәrte qaytalap aitty. Tәlipter Qabuldy ala sap, Indiya azamattaryna qysym jasap, tútqynday bastady. 26 qyrkýiektegi Kabuldaghy jankeshti jasaghan eki joyqyn jarylysty DAISh óz moynyna aldy. Orta Aziyadaghy elderdi bauyryna basqan orys isimen de, sózimen de óz yqpal kólemine eshkimning túmsyghyn súqpyzpaytynyn aityp, aibattanyp qoyady. Mirasqor mehanizmin qalyptastyryp ýlgirgen Týrkimen men Tәjikting jany múrnynyng úshynda túr. Ózin Aughan biyligining zandy jalghasy dep jәriyalaghan viyse preziydent Amirolla Salih Pandjemir shatqalyna baryp soltýstik aliyansstyng kósemi Masud Shahtyng úly Ahmed Shahpen birikti. Pakistan Taliban ýkimetin moyyndaugha dayar. Al Qytay Talipterge ket ary bolmasa, Ýndistan ata jauy Pakistangha qarama-qarsy júmys jasary sózsiz. Endi qúrylghan qaqpangha Aziyalyq eki alyp týse me týspey me? Álde Tәlipter Qytay kommunisteri siyaqty soghystan qajyghan Aughandy kýshpen biriktirip, militaristerdi ornyna qoyyp, birikken әmirlik qúra ma? Álde etnosaralyq janjaldyng kókesi bastalyp, tәjik, ózbek, týrikmen etnostary Orta Aziyagha lap qoysa ne isteymiz?  Tәjik pen Ózbek ótken ghasyrdyng toqsanynshy jyldarynan bastap tynysh ketip, әsirese, radikaldar orayly sәtti kýtkeli qashan. «Bostandyq araly» atanyp sayasi, ekonomikalyq reformalardyt sәtti bastaghan Qyrghyz qyzdy-qyzdymen Manas әue jayyn AQSh armiyasyna jalgha bergennen bastap tynyshy ketip týrli-týsti tónkeristen kóz ashpady. Elimizding ontýstik, batys aimaqtary da din atyn jamylghan tәuekelshilder men orayshyldardyng bazary jýrip túrghan siyaqty. Komsomaldan shyqqan auyr salmaqtaghy sayasatkerimizding zeynetke shygha sap, Saudy arabiyadan belgi beriui nening signaly? Saqaldylardyng Parlament tórinen vaksinagha qarsy túruy, hidjab dauyn qyzdyra týsiui, qysqa balaqtylardyng pandemiya kezindegi shekteuge ashyq qarsy shyghuy bizdi oilandyrsa kerek. Ásirese, Aughannyn, Irannyng ótken ghasyrdan bergi tarihy men taghdyry eshimdi bey-jay qaldyrmaghany jón. E.Karin bastaghan sayasatkerlerding «Jusan» operasiyasy óz ónimin berip jatyr. Biraq «Asyl» arnanyng memlekettik menshikke qaytaryluy, Abu-Daby plazanyng Qazaqstan plaza atanuy, Huseyin ben Talal danghylynyng Úly Dala danghylyna ainaluy sanagha dendep enip, tez jayylghan udyng betin tolyq qaytaruy mýmkin emes. Jan sanymyzdyng 70% payyzgha jetkenin qanaghat qylumen birge bizding de mentaliytetimizding Aziyalyq ekenin, dәstýr-saltymyzdyng shekteulerin, otarlyq ezgining qaltyrghan zardabyn úmytpaghanymyz jón. «Aqymaq óz qateliginen sabaq alsa, aqyldy ózgening qateleginen sabaq alady» degen naqyl kәperimizde bolsyn.

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