Júma, 12 Tamyz 2022
Janalyqtar 125721 0 pikir 30 Qazan, 2010 saghat 14:06

Shoqan (Múhammed-Hanafiya) Shynghysúly Uәlihanovtyng ómiri men qyzmeti

Sh. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng ata-babalary bayyrghy súltandar әuletine jatady. Onyng babasy, Orta jýzding hany Abylay alghashqylardyng biri bolyp Reseyding qol astyna kirip, ómirining sonyna deyin Reseymen sauda jәne sayasy baylanys jasap otyrdy. Abylaydyng ýlken balasy, Orta jýzding songhy hany Uәly búl baylanysty odan әri damyta týsti*2. Shoqan Uәlihanov familiyasyna tughan atasy Uәly esimin alady.

HIH ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynda G. N. Potanin jazyp alghan Uәlihanovtardyng otbasyna qatysty әngimede bylay delinedi: «Uәly hannyng eki qystauy bolghan, biri - Kókshetaudyng shyghys jaghyndaghy han kólinde, ekinshisi - Syrymbette. Abylaydyng bәibishesi Saymannan órgen úrpaqtar qazir de sonda (yaghni, Burabay jaghasynda) túrady. Ayghanymnyng (Uәly hannyng kishi әieli) balalary Syrymbette»*3.

Uәly han men onyng úrpaqtaryna múrasy retinde tiygen Bas orda Burabay kólining jagha-synda ornalasqan jәne ol týrlishe (Orda, Han kóli, Hannyng Qyzylaghashy t. s. s.) atpen belgili bolatyn.

Han biyligi joyylyp, «Sibir qyrghyzdary jónindegi Jarghy» qabyldanghannan keyin Uәly hannyng múragerlikke qaldyrghan jerleri balalaryna bólinip berildi. Onyng qara shanyraghy Qyzylaghash ýlken balasy Ghúbaydollagha jәne onyng úrpaqtaryna kóship*4, al Syrymbet Uәliyding kishi әieli Ayghanymnyng balalarynyng enshisine tiydi.

Sh. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng ata-babalary bayyrghy súltandar әuletine jatady. Onyng babasy, Orta jýzding hany Abylay alghashqylardyng biri bolyp Reseyding qol astyna kirip, ómirining sonyna deyin Reseymen sauda jәne sayasy baylanys jasap otyrdy. Abylaydyng ýlken balasy, Orta jýzding songhy hany Uәly búl baylanysty odan әri damyta týsti*2. Shoqan Uәlihanov familiyasyna tughan atasy Uәly esimin alady.

HIH ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynda G. N. Potanin jazyp alghan Uәlihanovtardyng otbasyna qatysty әngimede bylay delinedi: «Uәly hannyng eki qystauy bolghan, biri - Kókshetaudyng shyghys jaghyndaghy han kólinde, ekinshisi - Syrymbette. Abylaydyng bәibishesi Saymannan órgen úrpaqtar qazir de sonda (yaghni, Burabay jaghasynda) túrady. Ayghanymnyng (Uәly hannyng kishi әieli) balalary Syrymbette»*3.

Uәly han men onyng úrpaqtaryna múrasy retinde tiygen Bas orda Burabay kólining jagha-synda ornalasqan jәne ol týrlishe (Orda, Han kóli, Hannyng Qyzylaghashy t. s. s.) atpen belgili bolatyn.

Han biyligi joyylyp, «Sibir qyrghyzdary jónindegi Jarghy» qabyldanghannan keyin Uәly hannyng múragerlikke qaldyrghan jerleri balalaryna bólinip berildi. Onyng qara shanyraghy Qyzylaghash ýlken balasy Ghúbaydollagha jәne onyng úrpaqtaryna kóship*4, al Syrymbet Uәliyding kishi әieli Ayghanymnyng balalarynyng enshisine tiydi.

Shoqannyng әkesi, Abylay hannyng nemeresi Shynghys Uәliyev 1811 jyly Qyzylaghashta (basqa derekter boyynsha Syrymbette) tughan. Uәly qaytys bolghanda Shynghys jeti jasta edi. Shynghys jas kezinen bastap orystarmen tyghyz qarym-qatynas jasady, Omby әskery uchiliyshesin tamamdady, patsha әkimshiligine jaqyn qazaq aqsýiekterining biri boldy. Áke múrasyna Uәliyding ýlken balasy Ghúbaydolla ie bolu kerek edi, alayda sayasy sebepterge baylanysty ol ózining búl qúqyghyna ie bola almady. Sóitip otbasyna Uәly hannyng jesiri, Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng әjesi Ayghanym (1783-1853 jj.) bas bolady.

Ayghanym aqyldy, kóregen, ózining zamanyna say bilimdi bolghan әiel. Ol shyghystyng birneshe tilderin bilgen, orys mәdeniyetine den qoyyp, Syrtqy ister ministrligining Aziya departamentimen jәne Peterbordaghy Sibir komiytetimen hat jazysyp, baylanysyp otyrghan. Ayghanym jergilikti halyqtyng arasynda óte zor bedelge ie boldy. Múraghat mәlimetteri Ayghanymnyng qoghamdyq-sayasy mýddelerining óte auqymdy bolghanyn kórsetedi. «Sibir qyrghyzdary jónindegi Jarghy» qabyldanghannan keyin, Ortalyq jәne Soltýstik Qazaqstandaghy qanday da manyzdy oqighalar onyng qatysuynsyz ótken emes.

Ayghanym qazaqtar men orystardyng arasyndaghy dostyq qarym-qatynastyng nyghangyna úmtylyp otyrdy. Ol Qazaq dalasynda geodeziyalyq zertteu júmystarymen ainalysyp jýrgen orys ghalymdary men injenerlerine kómek kórsetti. «Uәly hannyng orysqa baghynuyn, - dep jazdy P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy, - Ayghanymnyng ózge tuystary, Uәly hannyng alghashqy әielinen tughan balalary men inileri moyyndaghysy kelmegende, tek Shoqannyng әjesi, Uәly hannyng jesiri Ayghanym ghana ózining balalarymen birge Reseyge adal bolyp qaldy. Aleksandr I Uәly hannyng jesirine ýlken iltipat kórsetip, Qyrghyz dalasynda oghan arnap ýy saldyrugha әmir etken. Shoqan Uәlihanov sol ýide tughan*5».

Ayghanym oryssha bilim aludyng manyzyn jaqsy týsindi. 1827 jyly ol ózining balasy Shynghysty - Shoqannyng әkesin Sibirding sheptik kazaktarynyng әskery uchiliyshesine oqugha berdi. Uchiliyshe jalpy bilim beru baghytynda edi jәne ol orta bilim beretin, onyng janynda bilikti audarmashy mamandar men topograftardy dayarlaytyn shyghys tilderining arnauly synyby boldy. Jeti jyldyq bilim alghannan keyin Shynghys uchiliysheden jetkilikti dәrejede sauatty, ghylym, әdebiyet pen óner mәselelerinen habardar adam bolyp, sonday-aq tarih pen geografiyadan, óz elining statistikasynan tereng maghlúmat alyp shyqty. Shynghys orys tilin jaqsy biletin alghashqy qazaqtardyng biri boldy.

Áskery uchiliysheni bitirgennen keyin Shynghys 23 jasynda sol kezde jana qúrylghan Amanqaraghay okrugine agha súltan bolyp taghayyndalady da, oghan mayor, keyinnen polkovnik sheni beriledi. Áskery uchiliysheni bitirgen jyly (1834 j.) Shynghys Amanqaraghaygha kelgennen keyin dәstýr boyynsha jastayynan atastyryp qoyghan qalyndyghy Zeynep Shormanovagha ýilenedi.

Obaghan, Qúndyzdy, Terisbútaq ózenderi men Qúsmúryn kólin jaghalay qonystanghan atyghay, qarauyl, kerey, qypshaq jәne uaq rularynan túratyn kóptegen qazaq auyldary  agha súltannyng qaramaghynda boldy. Búl rulardyng otyrghan jerlerin, qystaulary men jaylaularyn jas Shoqan jazghy demalysqa kelip jýrgen kezderinde (1850-1852 jyldary) ózining suretteri men syzbalarynda beynelegen.

1835 jyly Amanqaraghay okrugining ortalyghy Qúsmúryngha kóshirildi de, osyghan baylanysty ol Qúsmúryn okrugi dep ataldy. Búl kezde barlyq túrghyn ýiler, sharuashylyq qúrylystar jәne garnizongha arnalghan jataq ýimen birge Qúsmú-ryn bekinisin salu da ayaqtaldy. Uәlihanovtyng otbasy osy bekiniske kelip qonystandy. Qúsmúryn kólinen alys emes jerde ormannyng sayasynda Uәlihanovtar «Kýntiymes» dep ataghan kelisti jazdyq orda salyndy. Shoqannyng kartasynda ol «bizding ýi» dep jazylghan. Onda Shynghys ózining barlyq orys dostaryn jinady, onda onymen ghalymdar, jurnalister jәne kóptegen injenerler әngime-dýken qúrdy.

Shynghys Qúsmúrynda jiyrma jyl túrdy. Búl jerde ol ýlken otbasyna ainaldy. Onyng jeti úly men bes qyzy boldy, osylardyng ishinde tek Saqypkerey (Qozyke) men Ápiya jәne eng kishileri Núrmúhammed (Kókish) qana Syrymbette tudy, ýlken balalardyng bәri Amanqaraghay men Qúsmúrynda tudy. Qúsmúryn Shynghystyng ekinshi otanyna ainaldy.

1853 jyly Batys Sibir general-guberna-torynyng úsynysy boyynsha patsha ýkimeti Qús-múryn okrugtik prikazyn taratu jәne «onyng qúramyndaghy bes bolysty Kókshetau okrugine qosu»*6 turaly ókim shyghardy. Ol búiryqta: «Taratylghan Qúsmúryn prikazynyng ornyna Atbasar stanisasy ornalasqan jerden Atbasar okrugtik prikazy dep atalatyn jana okrugtik prikaz ashylsyn»*7 delingen.

Sóitip Qúsmúrynnyng ornyna Esil ózenining boyyndaghy - Aqmola prikazynyng soltýstik-batys jaghyndaghy Atbasar eldi mekeni jana әkimshilik ortalyghyna ainaldy. Shynghys otbasymen birge 1853 jyldyng mausym aiynda kóp jyl túryp, bauyr basyp qalghan Obaghan ózenining jaghasynan kóship, Syrymbetke, anasynyng meke-nine qaytyp oraldy. Shoqan Uәlihanov balalyq shaghynyng kóbin sol arada ótkizdi.

Uәlihanovtardyng ata-babalarynan kele jatqan mekeni men ýi-ishilik jaghdayy 1865-1867 jyldary Dala komissiyasynyng mýshesi retinde Qazaqstandy zertteu júmystaryna qatysqan Bas shtabtyng ofiyseri A. K. Geynsting jazbalarynda tolyq sipattalghan: «Shynghystyng qystauy búl aradan on shaqyrymday jerde. Onyng mekenin qalyng qaraghayly әsem eki tau qorshap túrdy; tastaqty bir qyrqadan asyp, yldigha qaray týskenimizde bizdegi ortasha pomeshikterding dәstýrinde salynghan birneshe ýy men olardyng ortasynda túrghan meshitti kózimiz shaldy. Shynghys pen әieli ekeui túratyn ýiding jihazy pomeshikter ýiining jihazyna úqsaydy. Zalda on eki piesagha deyin oinaytyn organ; aralyq qabyrghada ainalar; hrustali salpynshaqty qola ýlken shyraghdan; sonday bra; júqa, biraq keng agramantpen tigilgen shaghyn jibek perdeler. Qonaq bólmesinde gardner nemese kornilov vazalarynyng ornyna qytay vazalary qoyylghan; stol ýstinde sham, divan jәne t. b. Edenge tashkent jәne parsy kilemderi tóselgen, jihazdargha jolbarys, barys, ai terileri jabylghan. Jalpy әser sýisinerlik»*8.

Shynghys Syrymbette qysta ghana túryp, jazdy jaylauda ótkizgen. Jazghy demalysqa kelgen kezderinde keyde Shoqan men G. N. Potanin de Shynghyspen birge kóship jýrgen. XIX ghasyrdyng 50-60 jyldarynda Shynghystyng jaz jaylauy Syrymbetten alys, Esil ózenining jogharghy jaghynda, qazirgi Atbasar dalasynda bolghan. G. N. Potaninning suretteui boyynsha Shynghystyng belgili jaylaulary - Qúlaayghyr, Qalmaqkól, Salqynkól jәne Toqty. Keyinnen kóship-qonu aumaghy tarylyp, Shynghys jaz mezgilin Syrymbetke jaqyn, Qazan audanyndaghy Saumalkól (Ayyrtau), Kýigenkól, Aqjar mekenderinde ótkizgen. XIX ghasyrdyng ayaghyna qaray Uәlihanovtardyng otbasy jaylaugha kóshudi dogharyp, Syrymbet tónireginde ómir sýrgen.

Shynghys turaly kóptegen múraghattyq jәne әdeby derekterde mәlimetter saqtalghan, olarda ol sol dәuirdegi qazaq qoghamy túrmysynyn, әdep-ghúryptarynyn, ekonomikasy men sayasy ómirining bilgiri retinde sipattalady. Shynghys óz zamanynyng mәdeniyetti jәne bilimdi adamy bolghan, ghylym men әdebiyetti, ónerdi baghalay bilgen.

Shynghys Soltýstik Qazaqstangha ghylymiy-zertteu júmystaryn jýrgizuge kelgen ghalymdargha jan-jaqty kómektesti. Ghylymy mekemeler men jekelegen ghalymdar odan Qazaqstan jóninde jana mәlimetter alu ýshin ótinish jasap otyrghan. Onday kezderde Shynghys ózining bilgenin jәne qolyndaghy bay materialdardy әrdayym zor yqylaspen bólisip otyrghan.

Ol qazaqtardyng adaty jóninde jazyp jýrgen S. Sotnikovke, I. I. Ibragimov pen A. K. Geynske, A. K. Krohalevke jәne basqa da zertteushilerge ózining zangha qatysty jәne statistikalyq mәlimetterimen jii kómektesip túrdy. Ghylymy mekemeler men jekelegen ghalymdardyng ótinishi boyynsha qazaq foliklory men etnografiyasy jayly materialdardy jinap, olardy M. V. Ladyjenskiyge, N. F. Kostyleskiyge, G. N. Potaninge, Qazan uniyversiytetining janyndaghy antropologiya jәne etnografiya qoghamyna tabys etti. Shoqannyng ústazy N. F. Kostyleskiy 1852 jyly professor I. N. Berezinge joldaghan hattarynyng birinde: «Sizdi búl tizim Orta jýzding songhy hany, Uәliyding balasy, Qúsmúryn prikazynyng agha súltany Shynghys qaytys bolghan tanystarymnyng birine tabys etken «Qozy Kórpesh-Bayan súlu» halyq poemasynyng mazmúnymen tanystyrghym keledi»*9.

Shynghysty Shoqannyng әkesi jәne orys ghylymy men aghartu isining Qazaq dalasyndaghy jaqtaushysy retinde, Mәskeu men Peterborda, әsirese Geografiyalyq jәne Antropologiyalyq qoghamdarda jaqsy bilgen. Búl qoghamdargha ol qazaqtardyng ómirinen alynghan siyrek kezdesetin etnografiyalyq jәdigerler jinaghan. Orta Aziya Reseyge qosylghannan keyin, Mәskeude úiymdastyrylghan ónerkәsip kórmesine ol kóp derekter berdi. Onyng etnografiyalyq kolleksiya ýshin professor V. V. Grigorievting ótinishi boyynsha jinaghan jekelegen zattary býginde Peterbordyn, Mәskeu men Gamburgting muzeylerinde saqtauly túr.

Shynghystyng janashyldyqqa úmtylysy, әsire-se otstavkagha shyqqannan keyin aiqyn kórine týs-ti. Búl «Sibir separatisteri» sayasy prosesinen keyin bolghan oqighalarda belgili bir kórinis tapty. 1865 jyly Shynghysqa «Sibir patriottaryna» degen ýndeuding Ombynyng kadet korpusyna taraluyna tikeley qatysy bar degen syltaumen jәne Uәlihanovtardyng dostary - G. N. Potaniyn, N. M. Yadrinsev, F. N. Usov jәne basqalar tútqyndaluyna baylanysty sayasy aiyp taghyldy. Omby múraghatynda «Súltan polkovnik Shynghys Uәlihanovtyng ýkimetke qarsy qylmystyq oilary turaly» degen atpen is saqtalghan*10.

Shynghys Uәlihanovtyng Shoqannan basqa oryssha oqyp, bilim alghan taghy da birneshe daryndy balasy boldy. Shoqannyng bauyrlarynyng arasynda eng qabilettisi jastay dýniyeden ótken Saqypkerey (Qozyke) edi. Ónerdi baghalay bilgen Shoqan Uәlihanov auylgha kelgen kezderinde daryndy aqyn, әri kompozitor inisi ony әnderimen riza qylyp, quantyp jýrgen. Qozyke halyq kompozitory Aqan serimen dostyq qarym-qatynasta bolghan, onymen birge romantikalyq sarynda birqatar әn-әuen shygharghan*11. Ol shygharghan әnderding ishinde keng taralghandary - «Ay kókek», «Topay kók», «Syrymbet» jәne «Kókening amanaty». Songhy әn sýiikti aghasy Shoqan Uәlihanovqa arnalghan.

Shoqannyng taghy bir bauyry Maqy (Maqajan) Uәlihanov (1844-1923 jj.) suretshi bolghan. Ol Peterbordaghy mylqaular mektebinde bilim alyp, keyin týrli ghylymy mekemeler men kitaphanalarda suretshi bolyp qyzmet isteydi. Shoqan bauyrynyng darynyna nazar audaryp, Maqygha Kórkemóner akademiyasynyng sheberhanasyna ornalasugha kómek kórsetedi. Ol sol jerde suret salu ónerimen shúghyldanady. Maqy Peterborda 11 jyl túrghan*12. Tughan elge qaytyp oralghannan song qoghamdyq júmystarmen ainalysyp, qylqalamyn qolyna siyrek alady. Shoqan Uәlihanov arqyly Maqy Peterbor men Ombydaghy kóptegen ghalymdarmen, qogham qayratkerlerimen tanysady. Maqyny óte jaqsy bilgen G. N. Potanin bylay dep jazady: «Kókshetaudan shyghyp, Uәlihanovtardyng auylyn izdep kele jatyp men qazirgi kózi tiri aghayyndy tórteuining birimen óte ashyq baylanysta boluym kerek bolsa, ol әriyne Maqy bolar edi dep oiladym». G. N. Potaninning aituy boyynsha, Maqy Shoqan arqyly qabyldaghan orys halqy men mәdeniyetine degen keremet qúshtarlyghyn saqtap qalghan*13.

Shynghystyng ózge úldarynyng ishinen Mahmút Uәlihanovty (1848-1918 jyldary) atap ótken jón. Ol Shoqannyng kýshti yqpalynda bolyp, bala kezinen orys jәne batys-europa klassikterin oqugha qúmartty.

Mahmút ta aghalary siyaqty jas kezinen orys ghalymdarymen, jazushylarymen jәne injenerlerimen aralasty. Olarmen dostyq qarym-qatynasyn ómirining ayaghyna deyin ýzgen emes. Oghan Geografiyalyq qoghamnyng Batys Sibir bólimshesinen ghalymdar jii kelip túrdy, keyde Peterbordan da keletin. Ol 1908 jyly N. Pavlova arqyly Peterbordyng qoghamdyq kitaphanasyna (qazirgi M. E. Saltykov Shedrin atyndaghy memlekettik qoghamdyq kitaphana) F. M. Dostoevskiyding Shoqangha 1856 jyly Semeyde jazghan hatyn berip jiberdi.

Bolashaq ghalym jәne aghartushy Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng tuyp-ósken otbasy, mine, osynday edi.

 

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Shoqan Uәlihanov (tolyq esimi - Múhammed-Hanafiya, al Shoqan - anasynyng erkeletip qoyghan aty) 1835 jyldyng qarasha aiynda Qúsmúryn bekinisinde tughan. Búl derekting rastyghyn KSRO Syrtqy ister ministrligining múraghatyndaghy Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng qyzmeti jónindegi formulyarlyq tizim dәleldeydi*14.

Shoqan balalyq shaghyn әueli Qúsmúrynda, sodan keyin ata-babalarynyng mekeni bolghan Syrymbette ótkizdi. Búl tarihy anyzdargha bay Soltýstik Qazaqstandaghy kórkem jerler Shoqannyng balalyq shaghyn jәne jasóspirim kezinde salghan suretterinde beynelengen. Áli tipten jas Shoqan qazaq halyq epostaryn alghash Qúsmúrynda jazyp alghan.

Uәlihanovtardyng estelikterine qaraghanda, Shoqan óte shiraq, әri aqyldy bala bolghan. Onyng balalyq shaghy dalada, ózining erlikke toly ótkeni jayly kóptegen anyzdardy saqtaghan halyqtyng arasynda ótti. Alghyr bala jastayynan tarihy anyzdargha qúlaq qoyyp, halyq arasynan shyqqan adamdarmen aralasugha, әn-jyr jәne qarapayym adamdardyng әngimelerin tyndaugha qúshtar boldy. Shoqannyng ruhany baylyghynyng basty belgileri bala kezinde-aq biline bastaldy. Ol erte eseyip, ýlkendershe oilaytyn boldy.

Bala Shoqannyng ruhany jaghynan ósuine әjesi Ayghanym ýlken әser etti. Tumysynan sezimtal, daryndy balagha әjesi bilim men halyq danalyghynyng sarqylmas kózi boldy. Ol Shoqangha qazaqtyng ejelgi anyzdary men hikayalaryn qyzyqty etip әngimelep, kýni keshe ózi qatysqan tarihy oqighalardy eske alyp otyrdy. Halyqtyng ozyq dәstýrleri men әdet-ghúryptaryn boyyna sinirgen әjesining jarqyn beynesin Shoqan ómirining sonyna deyin úmytpay este saqtady.

Shoqan әueli Qúsmúryndaghy jeke qazaq mektebinde oqydy. Múnda ol arabsha hat tanyp, qaryndashpen suret saludy ýirendi. Ádette búl mektepte qypshaq jәne shaghatay tilderindegi ortaghasyrlyq әdeby múralardy oqumen, auyzeki arab jәne parsy sózderin bilumen jattyghyp, shyghys aqyndarynyng ólenderin jatqa oqumen ainalysatyn.

Dәstýr boyynsha súltannyng balalaryna birneshe shyghys tilderin ýirenu, yaghny «jeti júrttyng tilin bilu» mindet bolatyn. Búl dәstýr ol kezde әli saqtalyp túrdy, sondyqtan Shoqan, múraghat materialdarynan angharylghanday, shyghys tilderimen ainalysyp, әueli arab jazuyn, keyinnen úighyr jazuyn da jaqsy mengerdi.

Shoqannyng bala kezinde qúmartqan ónerining biri suret salu edi. Búl ónerdi ol Qúsmúryn bekinisindegi Uәlihanovtardyng ýiinde úzaq uaqyt túrghan orystyng suretshi-topogroftary men geodezisterinen ýirendi. Onyng ýstine Uәlihanovtardyng auylynda jii qonaq bolyp jýrgen orys ghalymdary, injenerler men bilimdi ofiyserler qabiletti balany óner men әdebiyetke qúshtarlandyra týsti.

Jas Shoqangha súnqarmen ang aulau ýlken lәzzat syilady. Shoqan dalada úzaq jýretin. Ony sheksiz de shetsiz keng dala, jasyl orman, ózen alqabynyng toghaylary men biyik jartastar ózine tartty, ol tughan elining súlu tabighatynan lәzzat alatyn. Osynday sayahattar Shoqandy tughan ólkesimen etene etti. Bala kezinde-aq ol Aqmola men Bayanauyl jerlerin aralap, Bayanauyl tauynyng manyndaghy naghashylaryna jii qonaq bop jýrdi. Búl saparlarynan alghan әserler kópke deyin Sh. Uәlihanovtyng esinen ketpedi. Kadet korpusynyng tәrbiyelenushisi bola jýrip ol dosy G. N. Potaninge sol jerler jayly estelikterdi әngimelep beretin*15.

Shoqan Uәlihanov erte jastan qazaqtyng halyq poeziyasyna qatty qúmartyp, onyng klassikalyq ýlgilerin jazyp alyp, ata-anasyna oqyp berip jýrdi. Bala kezding ózinde-aq ol «Qozy Kórpesh - Bayan súlu» jәne «Erkókshe» halyq poemalarynyng týrli ýlgilerin jazyp alyp, keyin olardy ústazy N. F. Kostyleskiyge tabys etti.

Onyng otbasynda jii qonaq bolatyn qazaq әnshileri men jyrshylary Shoqannyng halyq poeziyasyna degen qyzyghushylyghyn oyatugha kóp әser etti.

Shoqan shyghystyng basqa da halyqtarynyng poeziyasymen shúghyldandy. Auylda jýrgen kezining ózinde ol shyghys әdebiyeti klassikterining ólenderin oqudan bas kótergen emes. Shoqan ózi jazghanday, shyghys poeziyasyna degen sýiispenshiligin ómir boyy saqtap qaldy. «Shoqan aqynjandy jәne shyghystyq keyiptegi adam edi, - dep jazdy Shoqannyng jaqyn dostarynyng biri, belgili publisist N. M. Yadrinsev*16, - oghan arab ólenderi qatty únaytyn jәne ol ústazy Kostyleskiymen birge sol ólendermen masattanyp otyratyn».

Shoqannyng ghylymgha qyzyghushylyghyn qalyptastyruda, jogharyda aitqanymyzday, әkesining aldynghy qatarly orys ziyaly qauym ókilderimen baylanysta boluy kóp әser etti. Shynghystyng auylynda akademik A. I. Shrenk, Sibir qazaqtarynyng oblystyq basqarmasynda qyzmet istegen dekabrister S. M. Semenov, V. I. Shteyngeli, N. V. Basargiyn, Qazan uniyversiytetining studentteri S. Sotnikov, N. F. Kostyleskiy, T. Seyfullin siyaqty kóptegen joghary bilimdi adamdar boldy*17.

Qazaqstandy zerttep jýrgen orys ghalymdary ýshin týrli materialdar jinap, olardy dayyndaugha Shynghys keyde balasyn da qatystyryp otyrdy.

Shynghysqa qazaqtyng halyq poeziyasy men ertegilerinin, anyz-әngi-melerining núsqalaryn jinau jóninde dekabrist V. I. Shteyngeliding sol uaqytta Shekaralyq komissiyanyng bastyghy polkovnik M. V. La-dyjenskiyding atynan jazghan haty býginge deyin jetken.

Shynghys M. V. Ladyjenskiyding ótinishin orynday otyryp, ýiine ýzdik aqyndar men jyrshylardy talay ret shaqyryp, Shoqannyng kómegimen qazaqtyng әnderi men anyzdaryn jazdyryp alyp, olardy odan song Ombygha jiberip otyrghan*18.

***

 

Shoqannyng bilmekke qúshtarlyghy barghan sayyn kýsheye týsti. Ol ýlken qalada oqudy armandaydy. Shynghys balasyn jaqsy bilim alatyn oqu ornyna bergisi keledi.

1847 jyldyng kýzinde әkesi 12 jasar Shoqandy Ombygha oqugha әkeldi. Shynghystyng orys dostary oghan balasyn Sibirding sol kezdegi eng jaqsy oqu orny dep sanalghan Sibir kadet korpusyna oqugha týsiruge kómektesti.

Ýlken qala, baytaq ólkening ortalyghy auyldan jana kelgen qabiletti balagha kýshti әser etedi. Shoqan ýlken sýiispenshilikpen Ombynyng kórinisterin qaryndashpen sala bastady. «Orystyng qalasy balany tanqaldyryp, ol qaryndashpen qala kórinisterining birin saldy», - dep eske alady G. N. Potaniyn*19.

Shoqannyng kadet korpusyndaghy oqu jyldary - búl nikolaev reaksiyasynyng jyldary jәne sonymen qatar feodaldyq-basybaylyq qúrylysqa qarsy qoghamdyq-sayasy kýresting kýsheygen jyldary. Resey búl kezde zor tarihy oqighalardyng qarsanynda túrghan bolatyn. Patshalyq qúrylysqa qarsy azattyq kýresting janghyryghy, petrashevskiyshilder jayly habarlar samoderjaviyege qarsy kýreske shaqyrghan V. G. Beliyn-skiyding N. V. Gogolige jazghan haty elding shalghay aimaqtaryna da jetip jatqandy.

Belinskiy men Gersenning aldynghy qatarly revolusiyalyq-demokratiyalyq iydeyalary bý-kil Reseyge belgili boldy, orys qoghamynyng mandayaldy ókilderining aqyl-oyyna ózgerister engizdi, azattyq qozghalysynyng damuyna barynsha yqpalyn tiygizdi. V. G. Belinskiy men A. I. Gersenning iydeyalary Sibir men qiyandaghy Qazaqstangha, sol kezde Shoqan Uәlihanov oqyp jýrgen Sibir kadet korpusyna da jetedi.

Sibir kadet korpusy 1845 jyly Sibir sheptik kazaktarynyng әskery uchiliyshesi negizinde qúrylyp, sol kezdegi eng jaqsy oqu oryn-darynyng biri dep sanaldy. Dekabrist I. Za-valishinning bergen baghasy boyynsha ol «oqu-aghartu men patriotizmning ordasy boldy». N. G. Chernyshevskiyding dosy, korpusta dәris bergen V. P. Lobodovskiy Sibir kadet korpusyn «әskery jәne jalpy bilim beruding alghashqy ordasy» degen edi. Búl oqu ornynyng mәdeny manyzyn dәl baghalau óte qiyn. Asa kórnekti qogham jәne әskery qayratkerler, ghalymdar men publisister osynda tәrbiyelenip shyqty. Olardyng keybiri ózderining geografiyalyq jәne ghylymy janalyqtarymen әigili boldy. Sibirdi jetik biletin, keyinnen aghartushy ghalym, Sibirdegi túnghysh jekemenshik baspa organy «Amur» gazetin shygharushy әri redaktor bolghan V. I. Vagin osy korpusta oqydy. Ol ózining korpustaghy oquy jayly qyzyqty estelikter qaldyrdy.

Omby kadet korpusynda keyinnen asa kórnek-ti sayahatshy jәne Sibir, Qazaqstan, Mongholiya men Ortalyq Aziyany zertteushi G. N. Pota-nin oqydy. Sibir kadet korpusymen XIX ghasyrdaghy aldynghy qatarly orys qoghamdyq oishyldarynyng kórnekti ókilderining biri, Qazaqstan men Sibir halyqtaryn zertteushi, publisist N. M. Yadrinsevting esimi de baylanysty. Sibir kadet korpusynyng asa kórnekti týlekterining qataryna Shoqan Uәlihanov pen G. N. Potaninning dosy, keyinnen ataqty ghalym-statist jәne publisist bolghan N. F. Annenskiy de jatady. Korpustaghy oqu onyng kóptegen shәkirtterine, sonyng ishinde Shoqan Uәlihanovqa ýlken iygi yqpal etti.

Kadet korpusy jan-jaqty jәne tereng jalpy bilim beretin oqu orny boldy. Korpustyng oqu baghdarlamasynda әskery pәndermen birge jalpy geografiya, Resey geografiyasy, jalpy tarih pen Resey tarihy, orys jәne batys europa әdebiyeti, filosofiya negizderi, botanika, zoologiya, fizika, matematika, geodeziya, arhiytekturanyng basty negizindegi qúrylys óneri jәne jaratylys tarihynyng jalpy týsinikteri, sonymen qatar syzu men suret sabaghy, kalligrafiya jýrgizilip, orys, fransuz jәne nemis tilderi oqytyldy. Oghan qosa korpusta shyghys tilderining arnayy synyby da bar edi*20. Búl synypta týrik, monghol, arab, parsy tilderi oqytyldy.

Kadet korpusy segizjyldyq oqu orny edi. Onda eki dayarlau synyby, bes negizgi jәne altynshy - arnauly synyp boldy. Songhy synypta әskery ghylymdar (taktika, artilleriya, dalalyq fortifikasiya) jәne auylsharuashylyq ghylymynyng negizderi oqytyldy*21. Dayarlau synyptarynda shәkirtter orys tili men arifmetika jәne suret sabaqtaryn oqydy. Negizgi synyptarda shet tilderi, oghan qosa shyghys tilderi: qazaq, tatar, shaghatay tilderi de oqyp-ýiretildi. Búl tilderdi ýiretu sabaqtary mәtin oqu, sóz jattau, ólender men anyz-ertegilerdi mәnerlep oqugha jattyqtyru tәsilderinen túrdy. Oqu baghdarlamasyn ayaqtaghanda shәkirtter búl tilderdi tәuir iygerip, erkin sóilep, týsinise alatyn.

Tariyh, geografiya jәne әdebiyetten baghdarlama kóp nәrseni qamtydy. Bastauysh synyptardan-aq kadetter ejelgi zaman tarihyn, Europa geografiyasyn ótti. Tórtinshi jәne besinshi synyptarda әdebiyet teoriyasy, orys jәne batys europa әdebiyetterining tarihy, Resey imperiyasynyng tarihy men geografiyasy oqytyldy. Geografiyagha pәn retinde entografiya men antropologiya, adamzat nәsilderin zertteu, tilderdi toptastyru, tuystas tilderdi basty toptargha bólu, halyqtardy diny týsinikterine jәne ómir saltyna qaray bólu engizildi.

Aziya elderin (Qytay, Ýndistan, Aughanstan, Iran) zertteuge ýlken manyz berildi. Múnda Aziya halyqtary, olardyng shyghu tarihy, dinderi, túrmys-salty; Qytay imperiyasy, onyng jeri, qúrylymy men basqaryluy; Qytay biyligindegi jәne onyng qanaty astyndaghy jerler, Túrannyng geografiyalyq jәne sayasy túrghydan bólinui; Búqara, Qoqan, Hiua men Qúndyz handyqtary; Shyghys Ýndistan men Arabiya memleketteri qaraldy*22.

Resey imperiyasynyng geografiyasy jónindegi oqu baghdarlamasy da keng kólemdi boldy. Ol ekonomikalyq geografiya, statistika baghdarynda oqyp ýiretildi jәne Reseyding ónerkәsibi men auylsharuashylyghy mәselelerin qamtydy.

Qazaqstan geografiyasyna zor kónil bólindi, alayda, onyng tabighy baylyqtaryn zerttep, iygeru maqsatynda emes, әskeriy-strategiyalyq túrghyda qaraldy. Onda «Qyrghyz dalasynyng shekaralary, jeri, jer sipaty, ózender men kólder; sudyng erekshelikteri, qatynas joldary, keruender jýretin tau joldary; shýigin alqaptar, aua rayy jәne tabighy baylyq mәseleleri oqytyldy. Qyrghyzdardyng sany, tegi, tili men dini, bodandyqtyng bastaluy, handyq ókimet biyligining joyylu kezeni, Bókey ordasynyng payda boluy; sol kezdegi ordalardyng sany jәne geografiyalyq ornalasuy; Bókey, Orynbor, Sibir qyrghyzdaryn basqaru jәne songhylarynyng ishki qúrylymy; Reseyding Úly jýzdi qarauyna aluy; Qyrghyz dalasyndaghy bekinis oryndary jәne tamasha stanisalar*23.

Qoldanbaly ghylymdar salasynan syzba geometriya, topografiyalyq syzu jәne sәulet óneri meylinshe keninen sóz boldy. Songhysy Orynbordaghy Nepluev kadet korpusynyng azamattyq sәulet óneri baghdarlamasy boyynsha oqytyldy. Oqu baghdarlamasy sәulet óneri jәne ony qúraytyn elementter jayly kirispe dәristerdi qamtydy.

Shәkirtter dәrister tyndaumen qatar, qú-rylystarda tәjiriybeden ótuge, salynyp jat-qan ýi-jaylardyng josparlaryn belgileumen, irgetastardy týzetumen ainalysugha tiyis bol-dy*24.

Omby kadet korpusynda oqylghan osy kólemdi kurstardan kórinip túrghanday, ol әdettegi orta bilim oqu oryndarynan kósh ilgeri túrdy. Ol shyn mәninde ghylym ordasy boldy. Onyng oqu baghdarlamasyna tek arnauly joghary oqu oryndarynda ghana oqylatyn pәnder (sәulet óneri, syzba geometriya, topografiyalyq syzu jәne basqalar) engizildi. Korpus Reseyding shet aimaqtary zәru bolyp otyrghan joghary bilikti jәne jan-jaqty bilimdi adamdar dayarlaudy jýzege asyrdy.

Baghdarlamadaghy oqu pәnderine qosymsha retinde әn, gimnastika, jýzu, bi, semserlesu jәne shabandozdyq óneri engizildi. Synyptan tys uaqytta kadetter әskery taktikamen ainalysugha tiyis boldy. Jazghy lageri mausymynda olar týrli úrys tәsilderin, topografiyalyq suretke týsirudi, saperlik jәne әskeriy-laboratoriyalyq júmystardy, atysudy ýirendi.

Ishki túrmys tәrtibi boyynsha kadet korpusynda tәrbiyelenushiler eki bólimge: rota men eskadrongha bólindi. Rotagha iri sheneunikter men joghary shendi ofiyserlerding balalary bólindi, olar jeke, erekshe dortuarlargha ornalastyryldy. Eskadron kazaktardyng balalarynan qúryldy da, dәrejesi boyynsha rotadan tómen túrdy. Shoqan eskadrongha jiberildi. Rota men eskadron shәkirtteri bólek dortuarlarda túrghanymen, synyp sabaqtary kezinde bir jerge jinalatyn.

Sol kezdegi әskery oqu oryndarynyng basqarushysy general-adiutant Ya. I. Rostov-sevting (1803-1860 jj.)  búiryq haty boyynsha 1851 jyldan bastap qazaq tәrbiyelenushilerge korpusta keybir pәnderdi (sayasy jәne jana tariyh) oqytu shekteldi, olar әskery ghylymdar oqytylatyn arnauly synypqa kóshpey, korpusty bir jyl erte bitiretin. Ya. I. Rostovsev qazaq balalaryn «astanalyq korpustardan jalpy tórtinshi synyp kursyn bitirgennen keyin ofiyser bolyp shyghatyn» taulyqtardyng jaghdayymen tenestirudi úsyndy*25.

Osydan song korpustyng oqu baghdarlamasynyng jana jobasy jasaldy.

Omby kadet korpusy tәjiriybeli pedagog, jan-jaqty bilimdi, synyptar inspektory, keyinnen Mәskeu kadet korpusynyng basshysy bolghan I. V. Jdan-Pushkin iriktep alghan asa bilikti oqytushylar qúramymen erekshelendi. Oqytushylar men professorlar arasynda uniyversiytettik bilim alghan qabiletti pedagogtar kóp boldy.

Shoqan kadet korpusyna kelgende orys tilin jaqsy bilmeytin*26, biraq siyrek kezdesetin qabiletining arqasynda osy qiynshylyqty tez jenip shyqty. «Shoqan tez damydy, - dep eske alady onyng mekteptes dosy G. N. Potaniyn, - orys joldastaryn basyp ozyp, oghan kóp adam nazar audardy, onyng qabilettiligi sonday, tipti oqugha týspesten búryn suret sala bastaghan edi»*27.

Arada eki-ýsh jyl ótkennen keyin-aq Shoqan «tek óz synybynyng aldy bolyp qoymay, ózining zerektigimen eki jyl joghary synyp oqushylaryn da basyp ozdy»*28.

Ekinshi kurstan bastap Shoqan men onyng ús-tazdary arasynda etene jaqyndyq jәne dostyq qatynas ornady.

Shoqannyng damuyna Qazan uniyversiytetining shyghys fakulitetin ayaqtaghan jәne korpusta orys әdebiyetinen sabaq beretin әdebiyetshi jәne shyghystanushy N. F. Kostylesskiy (1818-1867 jj.); órkeniyetter tarihynan sabaq beretin, jer audarylghan ghalym P. V. Gonsevskiy; jas kezinde N. G. Chernyshevskiymen dos bolghan jәne onyng iydeyalaryn jaqtaushy әdebiyetshi P. V. Lobodovskiy kóp yqpal etti*29. V. G. Belinskiy men A. I. Gersenning revolusiya-demokratiyalyq iydeyalarymen tәrbiyelengen demokrat orys ziyalylary edi.

Múraghattarda N. F. Kostylesskiy men Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng sol kezdegi ataqty shyghystanushylardyng biri I. N. Berezinmen bolghan ghylymy jәne әdeby baylanystardyng erteden bastalghanyn kórsetetin epistolyarlyq jәne qoljazba materialdar saqtalghan. Ombyda N. F. Kostylesskiyding qolynda qazaq halyq poeziyasynyng kóptep jinalghan qoljazbalary, sonyng ishinde Obaghan ólkesinde Sh. Uәlihanov qaghaz betine týsirtip, keyin Shoqan ózi tabys etken belgili «Qozy Kórpesh-Bayan súlu» jyrynyng birneshe ýlgisi búl әdeby baylanysty jandandyra týsti*30. Qazaq halyq әdebiyetining qazynasyn ghylymy ortada jyldamyraq jariya etu ýshin N. F. Kostylesskiy búl kóp materialdy Peterborgha, professor I. N. Berezinge jiberdi, sodan beri olar ghalymnyng múraghatynda saqtauly*31.

N. F. Kostyleskiy jas Shoqannyng eng jaqsy ústazy boldy. Olar biraz jyl boyy zor sýiispenshilikpen qazaqtyng halyq eposyn zertteumen shúghyldandy, olardyng osy saladaghy birlesken júmysy jemisti boldy. Olar «Qozy Kórpesh-Bayan súlu» poemasynyng ejelgi anaghúrlym tolyq núsqasyn orys tiline audaryp shyqty.

1852 jyly N. F. Kostyleskiy arqyly Shoqan men I. N. Berezinning arasynda dostyq baylanys ornady. I. N. Berezinge han jarlyqtarynda kezdesetin keybir terminderdi taldap týsindiru ýshin kómek qajet boldy. Biraq N. F. Kostyleskiy I. N. Berezinge: «Toqtamystyng jarlyghyndaghy» taldaugha mýldem kelmeytin keybir sózder jóninde bar yqylasymmen kómekteseyin-aq desem de sizding qasiretinizdi jenildetuge sharasyz bolyp otyrmyn»*32 dep jauap qaytaryp, oghan búl mәsele turaly Shoqan Uәlihanovpen baylanysudy úsyndy.

I. N. Berezin men Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng arasyndaghy hat arqyly baylanys osylay bastalghan edi. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng I. N. Berezinge jazghan jauap haty býginge deyin jetip otyr. Búl hatynda Shoqan I. N. Berezinning barlyq súraqtaryna tolyq jauap beredi*33. Shoqan: «Toqtamystyng jarlyghyndaghy» býginde tatar tilinde qoldanylmaytyn keybir sózderding maghynasyn qyrghyz tilinen izdestiru jónindegi sizding úsynysynyzdy ózimning búrynghy ústazym N. F. Kostyleskiyden estigennen keyin men qazaq qariyalarynan súrastyra jýrip, bizding tilimizden birsypyra sózder taptym, olardy sizge jiberuge asyq bop otyrmyn», - dep jazdy*34.

G. N. Potanin kórsetkendey, Shoqannyng tez damuyna onyng jeke basynyng eresen daryndylyghy men sol kezdegi kadet korpusynda qazaq halqynyng jalghyz ókili retinde oghan erekshe nazar audaryluy sebep boldy. Shoqangha tek korpustyng oqytushylary emes, sonymen qatar Omby ziyalylarynyng keybir kórnekti ókilderi de zeyin qoydy. Ádette merekelerde ony Uәlihanovtardyng otbasymen dostyq qatynastaghy adamdardyng biri ýiine qonaqqa shaqyrushy edi. Alghashqy oqu jyldarynda Shoqan shyghystanushy Sotnikovtyng otbasynda bolyp, keyin suret pәnining oqytushysy Pomeransevting ýiine baryp túrdy. Korpustaghy songhy jyldarda ol bilimdi ofiyser K. K. Gutkovskiyding otbasynda jii qonaq boldy. Osy baylanystardyng arqasynda Shoqannyng kemeldenui tanystyq shenberi әdette kadet korpusynan әri aspaytyn qúrby-qúrdastaryna qaraghanda tez boldy. «Onyng kemeldenuine, - dep jazdy G. N. Potaniyn, - jәne onyng jalpy taghdyrynda Gutkovskiyding jәne onyng tuysy Kapustinder otbasynyng manyzy zor boldy...»*35.

N. F. Kostyleskiyden keyin Uәlihanovtyng oi-órisining kenenine yqpal jasaghan pedagog, tarih pәnining oqytushysy, ghylymy qyzmetke dayyndalyp jýrgen asa bilimdi adam - Gonsevskiy edi. Ol korpusta qoghamdyq qozghalystar tarihy jóninde dәris oqydy jәne «onyng dәristeri, - deydi G. N. Potaniyn, - bizder ýshin óte manyzdy boldy»*36.

Korpustyng osynday mandayaldy oqytu-shylary, óz zamanynyng aldynghy qatarly adamdary jas Shoqandy bilimge, ghylymgha talpyndyryp, onyng demokratiyalyq kózqarastarynyng qalyptasuyna kómektesip, zorlyq-zombylyq pen býlinushilikke qarsy óshpendilikti tәrbiyeledi.

Jas Shoqan burjuaziyalyq qogham shynayy kórsetilgen filosofiyalyq traktattar men әleumettik romandardy terendey zerttedi. V. G. Belinskiy men A. I. Gersenning әshkereleushi maqalalary, N. V. Gogoliding ashy mysqyly Shoqangha әser etetin jәne ol qoghamdyq keseldermen, ómirdegi әdepsizdikpen betpe-bet kelgende әrdayym jogharydaghylardyng enbekterine nazar audaratyn. Shoqan filosofiyalyq tanymyn kóbinese V. G. Belinskiy, A. I. Gersen, keyinirek N. G. Chernyshevskiy men N. A. Dobrolubov sekildi úly orys oishyldarynyng shygharmalary arqyly jetildirip otyrdy.

Uәlihanov T. Karleyliding әleumettik-filosofiyalyq traktattarymen zeyin qoya tanysty. Keyde Shoqan óz maqalalary men jazbalarynda solargha silteme jasady.

Shoqangha A. S. Pushkin men M. Yu. Lermontovtyng poeziyasy zor әser etti. Olardyng kóptegen ólenderin ol jatqa bildi. Shoqan batys europa jazushylarynan J.J. Russonyn, Ch. Dikkenstin, U. Tekkereyding enbekterin ýlken zeyinmen oqydy.

Alayda, Shoqangha ózin qyzyqtyrghan kitaptardy tauyp aludyng sәti týse bermedi. Korpus basshylyghy kadettegilerge progresshil baghyttaghy әdebiyetti, әsirese V. G. Belinskiy, A. I. Gersen jәne batys europa materialisterining filosofiyalyq enbekterin oqugha tyiym saldy. Sóitkenmen de Shoqan korpusta oqyp jýrgen kezinde tyiym salynghan әdebiyetting kóbin oqy aldy.

Jazghy demalys kezderinde Shoqan Uәlihanov auyly - Syrymbetke baratyn. Búl saparlary oghan ýlken lәzzat alumen qatar tughan halqynyng ómirimen etene tanysyp, halyq auzynan ólen-jyrlar, anyz-ertegiler jazyp alyp, túrmys-tirshilik kórinisterin suretke salyp beyneleuge mýmkindik beretin.

Zeyindi Shoqangha suret salu óneri sol kezding ózinde-aq halyq ómirin beyneleuding tamasha bir qúraly boldy. Ol auylda, tuystary men dostarynyng arasynda jýrip, Syrymbettin, jaz jaylau men meken-qonystardyng suretterin salumen shúghyldandy. 1847-1852 jyldarda salghan suretterin Shoqan «korpustan elge, otpuskige barghanda yazmysh suretter», yaghny «korpustan elge, demalysqa barghan kezde salghan suretter» dep atady.

Búrynghysynsha, demalys kezinde Shoqannyng qyzyqtaytyny qús salu boldy. Alayda Shoqan súnqarmen sayat qúrugha endi basqasha kózben qarady. Anshylyq ol ýshin tek kónil aulaytyn sport týri emes, sonymen qatar zertteu nysany da boldy.

Tughan eli men Shyghys elderin zertteuge degen qyzyghushy-lyq Shoqannyng boyynda kadet korpusynda oqyp jýrgen kezde-aq payda boldy. Ol osy bastan «belgisiz Aziyanyn» dalasyna ýlken ghylymiy-zertteu júmystaryn jýrgizudi arman etti. «Korpus oqytushylary Shoqan - bolashaq zertteushi, ghalym dep qarap jýrgen kezde, ol nebәri 14-15 jasta bolatyn», - deydi G. N. Potaniyn*37. Shoqan Ombyda tabyla qoiyy qiyn siyrek basylymgha jatatyn tarihiy-geografiyalyq әdebiyetti qúnygha oqydy. «Men ýshin basshylardyng Shoqangha bas kitaphanadan kitap alugha rúqsat etkeni, ýlken quanysh boldy. Shoqan kitap qoymasynan Pallastyng saparnamasy men Rychkovtyng kýndelik jazbalaryn әkelgende búl bizding damuymyzdyng bir kezeni boldy. Qalyng kitaptar, olardyng pishimi, kóne baspa, kóne sózder men eskirgen qaghaz iysi - qanday ghajap, әdetten tys, kóne zaman poeziyasyna toly edi. Biz Pallastyng kitabyn, әsirese, onyng biz ýshin qymbat jerlerdi surettegen betterin qyzygha oqydyq»*38 - dep jazady G.N. Potaniyn.

S. F. Durov, P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy, G. N. Potaniyn, N. M. Yadrinsev Sh. Uәlihanovtyng bilim-darlyghyn, әsirese, shyghys әdebiyeti salasyndaghy bilimpazdyghyn joghary baghalady.

Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng aghartushylyq iydeyalary men demokratiyalyq kózqarastary kadet korpusynda oqyp jýrgen kezinde-aq qalyptasa bastady. Shoqan korpustan jan-jaqty tereng bilim alyp, zamandastarynan óresi anaghúrlym biyik adam bolyp shyqty. «Shoqan naghyz plebeylik ortagha týsti... Plebeylik ortada ómir sýru Shoqannyng demokratiyalyq iydeyalarynyng qalyptasuyna, sirә, әser etpey túra almaghan boluy kerek», - dep jazady G.N. Potaniyn*39.

1853 jyly 18 jasynda Shoqan kadet korpusyn bitirip, «armiyalyq atty әskerdin» korneti bolyp shyqty*40.

***

 

Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng qoghamdyq jәne әdeby qyzmeti oqudy bitirip shyghysymen-aq birden bastaldy. Qaghaz jýzinde Shoqan Sibirding kazak әskerlerinin*41 6-atty әsker polkining ofiyseri bolyp taghayyndalghanymen, shyn mәninde Batys Sibir general-gubernatorynyng janynda qaldyrylady da, arada bir jyl ótkennen keyin Batys Sibir men Qazaqstannyng soltýstik-shyghys audandaryn basqaryp otyrghan general G. H. Gas-forttyng adiutanty bolyp taghayyndalady. Sonymen qatar ólkening Bas basqarmasy boyynsha Shoqan Uәlihanovqa tótenshe tapsyrmalardy oryndaytyn ofiyser qyzmeti jýkteledi*42.

Qyzmetke ornalasqannan keyin jas Shoqan Uәlihanov birden ofiyserler men sheneunikter ortasyna, korpustaghy ózine mәlim bilimdi jәne aldynghy qatarly adamdargha mýldem qarama-qarsy ortagha tap boldy. Olardyng kópshiligi patshanyng otarshyl apparatyn qúraghan reaksiyashyl ofiyserler men sheneunikter edi. Olardyng basynda general G. H. Gasfort*43 pen Sibirlik qazaqtar oblysyn basqaryp otyrghan kómekshisi fon Fridrihs túrdy.

D. Fridrihsting tikeley basshylyghynda júmys isteuge tiyis bolghan Shoqannyng jaghdayy óte auyr boldy. Shoqannyng Peterbordaghy dostaryna jazghan hattarynan kórinip túrghanday, Dugameli Fridrihs jәne onyng jәrdemshileri Kroyerus pen Kury Shoqandy olardyng qylmysty isterin әshkerelep, zansyzdyqqa, talaushylyqqa, paraqorlyqqa qarsy jәne patshanyng otarshyldyq apparaty tudyryp otyrghan zúlymdyq ataulynyng bәrine qarsy ayanbay kýreskeni ýshin ýnemi qudalap, jәbirlep otyrghan. Patsha sheneunikteri Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng ghylymy bastamalaryna kedergi jasap, Qashghar ekspedisiyasynyng nәtiyjelerin tómendetip kórsetuge tyrysty, onyng Atbasar okrugtik prikazynyng agha súltany bolyp saylanuyna bóget bolugha aila-әreket jasady. Osynday jaghdayda qyzmet etu Shoqannyng densaulyghyn әlsiretedi. A. K. Geyns 1865 jyly әrdayym «qorlap, tobyqtan qaghu biyl Shoqannyng týbine jetti», - dep ashyq jazdy*44.

Shoqan qyzmetining alghashqy kýnderinen bastap búl ortada ózin jalghyz sezinip, ózin qorshaghan orta men patsha sheneunikterining nadandyghynan qútylugha tyrysyp, qoghamdyq paydaly enbekpen shúghyldanugha úmtyldy. F. M. Dostoevskiyge jazghan hatynda (1856) ol ózining bylyqqan pasyq ortada ómir sýrip, qyzmet isteuine tura keletinine nalyp, múnyn shaghady: «Ombynyng ósek-ayany men alauyzdyghy әbden jiyrendirip boldy, shynymen-aq osy jerden ketkim keledi. Siz búghan qalay qarar ediniz? Aqylynyzdy aitynyzshy, Fedor Mihaylovich. Ne istegenim jón?»

Otanyna qyzmet etudi ansaghan Shoqan jemisti jәne shygharmashylyq qyzmetke úmtyldy.

Oghan múnday mýmkindik kóp úzamay tap keldi. Búghan sol kezderi Qazaqstanda qalyptasqan tarihy jaghdaygha baylanysty Úly jýz qazaqtary men Ystyqkól qyrghyzdarynyng Reseyge qosyluy sep boldy. HIH ghasyrdyng 40 jyldarynyng basynda Úly jýz qazaqtary Reseyge mәngilikke bodan bolugha ant berdi, osyghan baylanysty 1845 jyly Qapal bekinisi salyndy. Vernyy bekinisi ol kezde joq edi. Ile ólkesinde, Tyani-Shani tauynda, sonymen birge Shu alqabynda ýlken de kýrdeli júmys atqaryluy tiyis edi. Búl arada Qoqan handyghynyng yqpaly әli kýshti edi, múny Jetisu shonjary Toyshybekting boy kóteruinen angharugha bolady*45.

Qoqan handyghynyng yqpalyn toqtatu ýshin Jetisuda búl aumaqtardyng beybit jolmen qosyluyna baghyttalghan saq jәne kóregen sayasat jýrgizu qajet boldy. Algha qoyghan mindetti sheshumen ofiyserlerding bir toby ainalysugha tiyisti edi, múnda K. K. Gutkovskiy, M. M. Homentovskiy, M. D. Peremysheliskiy jәne Shoqan Uәlihanov basty ról atqardy.

Patsha әkimshiligi jergilikti halyqtan shyqqan, Orta Aziya halyqtarynyng tirshilik jaghdayyn, túrmysy men әdet-ghúryptaryn jaqsy biletin bilimdi adamdargha óte zәru boldy. Búl jaghynan Shoqan Uәlihanov taptyrmaytyn adam edi. Jastyghyna qaramastan (18 jas) ol qazaq halqynyng túrmysyn, әdet-ghúryptaryn, ruhany jәne materialdyq mәdeniyetining erekshelikterin basqa ofiyserlerge qaraghanda jaqsy bildi, birqatar shyghys tilderin bildi. Atalghan sebepterge baylanysty Shoqan osy manyzdy mindetti oryndaugha qatystyryldy.

Uәlihanovtyng dostary - K. K. Gutkovskiy, M. M. Homentovskiy, M. D. Peremysheliskiy bilimdi ofiyserler, ozyq kózqarasty adamdar boldy. Mәskeu uniyversiytetinen M. Yu. Lermontovtyng joldasy M. D. Peremysheliskiy Peterbordan shyghatyn «Sovremenniyk» jurnalyn jazdyryp alyp, ózining pikirlesterimen orys baspasózining osy demokratiyalyq organyn birge oqityn. Osy kezde (1854 j.) Jetisu ólkesinde júmys istegen G. N. Potanin «Peremysheliskiyding otryadynda men orys jurnalistikasymen birinshi ret tanystym», - dep jazdy*46.

1854-1857 jyldary Shoqan Úly jýz qazaqtarynyng jәne qyrghyzdardyng bughu, sarybaghysh jәne soltu rularynyng Reseyge beybit jolmen qosyluy turaly mәseleni sheshuge zor jigermen qatysty. Ol qyzmettik mindetin ghylymy ispen tabysty ýilestire bildi: geografiya, tariyh, geneologiya boyynsha әrtýrli maghlúmattar jinap, әdet-ghúryptaryn, halyq poeziyasyn qaghazgha týsirdi.

1855 jyly Shoqan general G. H. Gasforttyng saparyna qatysyp, Ortalyq Qazaqstan, Jetisu jәne Tarbaghataygha ýlken sayahat jasaydy. Onyng baghyty Ombydan Semeyge, odan Ayagóz, Qapal jәne búl kezde Vernyy bekinisin salu isi jýrgizilip jatqan Ile Alatauy arqyly ótti *47. Búl sapar Sh. Uәlihanovtyng qazaq halqynyng tarihy men túrmysyn tereng zertteuge bastama boldy. Shoqan statistika, qazaqtardyng zan-dәstýrleri men ertedegi dini jóninde mәlimetter jinady.

Qaytar jolda Shoqan G. H. Gasfortty Altyn Emel jotasyna deyin ghana shygharyp salyp, osy jerden Jonghar qaqpasyna deyin baryp, Alakól manynda jәne Tarbaghataygha sapar shekti, sodan keyin Ortalyq Qazaqstangha bettep, Qarqaraly jәne Kókshetau, Bayanauyl arqyly jýrip, kýzde Ombygha oraldy. Búl sapar jas Uәlihanovqa úmtylmas әser qaldyrdy.

Tipti, general G. H. Gasforttyng ózi jas ofiyser-ghalymnyng daryny men bilimin dúrys baghalamaugha sharasy joq edi. Saparynan qaytyp kelgennen keyin ol Shoqangha asa maqtauly minezdeme berip, marapatqa úsyndy: «Marapatqa úsynylyp otyrghandardyng ishinde, - dep jazdy general, - mening qol astymda qyzmet etetin kornet súltan Uәlihanov ta bar, onyng qyzmet istegenine nebәri 2 jylday bolsa da, qyrghyz tili men jergilikti qyrghyzdardyng әdet-ghúryptaryn meylinshe jetik biluining arqasynda mening qasyma ere jýrip, ýlken payda keltirdi... Ol Sibir kadet korpusynan tereng bilim alyp shyghyp, әskery qyzmetke kirdi, sondyqtan múnday iygi bastamany quattau retinde, әri qyrghyzdardyng balalaryn bizding qyzmetimizge beruge yntasyn kýsheyte týsu maqsatymen jәne sol arqyly olardyng bizge neghúrlym jaqynday beruin kózdep, men Uәlihanovty marhabatty syilyqpen marapattaudy qajet dep tabamyn, onyng ýstine Uәlihanovty jergilikti qyrghyzdar erekshe qúrmetteydi»*48.

1856 jyldyng basynda Sh. Uәlihanovqa kezekti poruchik sheni berildi*49.

Ombygha qaytyp kelgennen keyin Shoqan ózining jinaghan materialdaryn qorytyndylaugha kirisip, sol materialdar negizinde qazaqtardyng jerdi paydalanu, rulyq jәne otbasylyq qarym-qatynastary men ertedegi diny ústanymy jayly resmy esep jazdy.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng ghylymy enbegining damyp, órkendeuine keng óris 1856 jyly ashyldy. Ol polkovnik M. M. Homentovskiyding basshylyghymen úiymdastyrylghan iri әskeriy-ghylymy ekspedisiyagha qatysty. Ekspedisiyanyng maqsaty - qyrghyz halqymen tanysu jәne Ystyqkól alabyn topografiyalyq kartagha týsiru edi. «Búl ekspedisiyagha qatysuymyz ýlken abyroy boldy, - dep jazady Uәlihanov, - jәne qara qyrghyzdardyng arasynda eki ay jýrip, kóbinese olardyng anyzdary men tilin zerttep, әrqily paydaly mәlimetter jinap aldyq»*50.

Ystyqkól ekspedisiyasy turaly M. M. Homentovskiyding resmy esepteri men habarlarynan qúralghan is saqtalghan. Bayandau mәneri men tәsiline qaraghanda, olardyng kóp bóligin, sirә, Shoqan Uәlihanov qúrastyrghan bolu kerek jәne jalpy alghanda mazmúny jaghynan onyng Ystyqkól turaly kýndeligining derekterimen sәikes keledi.

1856 jyldyng mamyr aiynyng ekinshi jartysynda M. M. Homentovskiyding ekspedisiyasyna qatysa otyryp, Sh. Uәlihanov ózining sayahatyn bastady. Onyng sapary Alakólden Ortalyq Tyani-Shanigha jәne Ystyqkólge baghyttaldy. Alghashynda ol Ile Alatauyna baryp, asularmen Kýngey Alataugha, odan keyin Teriskey Alataugha ótip, Ystyqkólding soltýstik jәne shyghys jaghalaularynda boldy, sodan song Jyrghalang ózenining alqabymen joghary kóterilip, Ortalyq Tyani-Shani shynyna shyghyp, Han tәnirin sholugha mýmkindik aldy. «Mening sayahatymdy, - dep jazdy Uәlihanov, - jýrgen jerlerimning sipatyna qaray eki kezenge bóluge bolady. Birinshi kezeng Jonghariyagha, yaghni, Jetisu men Ile ólkesine jәne Ystyqkólge deyingi saparymdy qamtidy... Men Jonghariyada birinshi ret 1856 jyly boldym, onda polkovnik Homentovskiyding Ystyqkólge jasaghan birinshi ekspedisiyasyna qatystym. Sodan song Qúljada ýsh ay túrdym. Jonghariyada bas-ayaghy bes ay bolyp, búl ólkenining Alakólden Tyani-Shanigha deyingi aimaghyn týgel kórip shyqtym, al Tyani-Shanigha sol jyly Jyrghalang ózenimen kóterildim»*51. Búl saparynda Shoqan ornitologiyalyq (zoologiyanyng qústardy zertteytin bólimi) jәne entomologiyalyq (zoologiyanyng qúrt-qúmyrsqalardy zertteytin bólimi) toptama jasap*52, gerbariy jinap, Jetisu men Ystyqkólding ósimdikter men hayuanattar әlemin zerttep, Ystyqkóldi qaghaz betine týsiruge qatysty. Nәtiyjesinde jana kartagha kól jaghajayynyng ózgertilgen formasy týsti.

Sh. Uәlihanovqa Jetisu men Tyani-Shanida kezdesken erte zamanghy mәdeniyetting óte siyrek eskertkishteri ýlken әser etti. Ony әsirese Ystyqkóldegi ertedegi qala mәdeniyeti, sulandyru jýielerining qaldyqtary, sәulet ónerining eskertkishteri, epigrafika (kóne eskertkish jazular turaly ghylym) jәne balbal tastar qatty qyzyqtyrdy. Búl eskertkishterdi zertteu Uәlihanovqa ótken zamandardaghy Ystyqkól alqaby men býkil Jetisu atyrabyn mekendegen halyqtar ómirining kórinisin meylinshe qalpyna keltiruge mýmkindik berdi. «Orys Jonghariyasynda*53, - dep jazdy ol, - kóshpeli túrmys anaghúrlym basym bolghanymen, az da bolsa otyryqshylyq bolghan; búl turaly alghashqy tarihy mәlimetti, atap aitqanda, Chigu qalasy turaly maghlúmatty qytay tarihynan tabamyz, búl qala Ystyqkólding shyghys jaghalauynda ornalasqan boluy mýmkin jәne ony ýisin kýnmiyine arnap qytay júmysshylary saldy dep shamalaugha bolady. Ortaghasyrlarda múnda, әsirese, Ile alqabynda otyryqshylyq keng óris alghan. Almalyq (qazir Týrkistan qystaghy) Qanaqay men Qaynaq (qazir de bar) jәne Almatu (qazirgi Vernyy bekinisi) qalalary saudamen aty shyghyp, genuya kópesterining Qytaygha jәne qypshaq elshilerining úly hangha baratyn ýlken jolynyng boyyndaghy stansiyalar qyzmetin atqarghan. Taghy bir aita ketetin jay, Aziyanyng búl bóliginde nestoriandyq jәne monofizittik diny kongregasiyalar óte kóp bolghan, al Ystyqkólde katalondyq karta mәlimetine qaraghanda, siriyalyq yakobitterding ghibadathanasy bolypty. Hristian dinining múnda keng taralghany sonday, ol birneshe ret qughyn-sýrginge úshyraghan. XVI ghasyrda Ystyqkólde birneshe músylman mekenderi bolghan. Búl mәlimetter meni qatty qyzyqtyrdy...» Búl saparynda Shoqan orys Jonghariyasynyng barlyq jerinde derlik otyryqshylyq izderin tauyp, ol jerlerde taraghan anyzdardy jinady. Ol bylay dep jazdy: «...ejelgi Almalyqtyng qirandylarynan tabylghan birneshe altyn zattar men tiyndardy qolyma týsire aldym. Múny arnayy maqalada aitudy kózdep otyrmyn»*54.

Ystyqkól men Ortalyq Tyani-Shanida sayahattay jýrip Shoqan qyrghyz auyldarynda bolyp, bughu, sarybaghysh, soltu rularynyng ómirimen jәne túrmysymen tanysady. Shoqan solardyng arasynda úzaq túryp, qyrghyzdardyng ótkenin jaqsy biletin adamdarmen әngimelesip, qyrghyz jyrshylarynyng jyrlary men әngimelerin tyndap, tynbastan anyz, tarihy jәne shejire әngimelerdi, ertegiler men epostyq dastandardy jazyp alyp otyrdy.

Shoqan Tyani-Shani men Ystyqkól basseyni qyrghyzdary arasynda ghylymy izdenisterin jýrgizip jýrgende, Peterborda Shәueshek qalasyndaghy orys faktoriyasyn órtep jibergennen keyin Qytaymen ýzilip qalghan sauda qatynastaryn rettestiruge Qytay ýkimetimen kelissóz jýrgizu ýshin «ayryqsha adamdy» Qúljagha attandyru mәse-lesi sheshilip jatty. Osy mәseleni eki jaqqa da tiyimdi etip sheshu ýshin Qytay ýkimetine «birlese oilasudy talap etetin nәrselerdi Qúljada talqylaytyn eki jaqtan da senim kórsetilgen adamdar taghayyndau» úsynyldy*55. Búl úsynysty Qytay ýkimeti qabyldady. Bastapqyda Resey ókili retinde Úly jýz qazaqtarynyng pristavy, podpolkovnik M. D. Peremysheliskiy taghayyndalghan edi, biraq keyinnen búl mindet Shoqan Uәlihanovqa tapsyryldy. Osyghan baylanysty general G. H. Gasfort M. M. Homentovskiyge Ystyqkól ekspedisiyasynyng júmysyn dereu toqtatyp, keri oralugha shúghyl jarlyq berdi. Búghan jauap retinde Homentovskiy bylay dep jazdy: «Úly mәrtebelim otryadty Ystyqkólden keri qaytaru jónindegi әmirinizdi shabarmannan 27 mausymda alyp, men sol kýni býkil otryadpen Aqsudan shyghyp, Vernyy bekinisine attandym». 13 shildede Shoqan kýndeligine: «Men Ystyqkólden ketudi úighardym. Mening kórip-biluime kerekting bәrin bitirdim», - dep jazdy*56.

Shoqan shildening ortasynda Vernyy bekinisine oralyp, odan ózin Qúljagha baratyn ókildik missiyagha qatysatyn basqa adamdar kýtip otyrghan Qapalgha bettedi. Shoqanmen birge Qapalgha dosy M. M. Homentovskiy de attandy.

1856 jyly tamyz aiynyng bas kezinde Shoqan Uәlihanov Qúlja qalasyna attandy. Jolshybay Batys Qytaydyng birneshe shekara beketterine soqty. Shoqangha Syrtqy ister ministrligi núsqau bergen edi. Onda: «Barlyq әreketter Qúljadaghy konsulmen kenesip jýrgizilsin»..., «Basty maqsat Qytaymen dostyq jolmen kelisimge kelip, ýzilgen sauda baylanystaryn tezdetip qalpyna keltiru..», «qytaylyqtar talap etken jaghdayda, Qytaymen shekara jóninde kelissózge kelu kerek»*57. Osylaysha Sh. Uәlihanovqa Qytaymen sauda-sattyqty qalpyna keltirip, talas tudyrghan mәselelerdi sheshuge baylanysty kýrdeli diplomatiyalyq missiya jýkteldi. Búl manyzdy tapsyrma oidaghyday oryndaldy. Qytay sheneunikterimen Qúljada ótkizgen birneshe kezdesulerden keyin ókimet sauda qarym-qatynastaryn rettep, eki memleket arasyndaghy dostyq baylanystar qalpyna keldi. A. K. Geynsting kuәlik etui boyynsha, Uәlihanovtyng Qúljagha jasaghan sapary «Tarbaghatay kelisimine jәne Qúlja men Shәueshekte konsuldyq ashugha» negiz saldy*58.

Shoqan Uәlihanov Qúlja ólkesinde ýsh aiday bolyp, sodan keyin kýzding songhy ailarynda Omby qalasyna qaytyp oraldy.

1857 jyly ol Alatau qyrghyzdaryna taghy da sapar shekti. Uәlihanovtyng búl sapary jóninde Batys  Sibir general-gubernatory G. H. Gasfort Syrtqy Ister ministrligine bylay dep habarlady: «Mening qol astymda qyzmet isteytin poruchik - súltan Uәlihanov Alatau qyrghyzdarynyng meken-jaylaryna Batys Qytaydyng bizding Ontýstik shekaramyzben irgeles bólimderindegi oqighalardyng barysyn - Qashghar kóterilisining betalysyn, kóterilisti basu ýshin Qytay ýkimetining qanday sharalar qoldanyp otyrghanyn jәne Qúlja men Aqsu qalalarynyng manyndaghy halyqtardy, atap aitqanda, Manichjur әuletine narazy ekeni mәlim qytaydyng qyrghyzdar men sarttardan túratyn taypalaryn jaqynnan baqylau ýshin attandyryldy»*59.

Tyani-Shani taularynda bolghan uaqytta Shoqan qyrghyz halqynyng ómiri men túrmysy jayly mәlimet jinaudy jalghastyryp, onyng tarihy men etnografiyasyn, halyq poeziyasyn tereng zerttedi. Qajymas enbekting nәtiyjesinde ol qyrghyz halqy turaly óte bay tarihi-etnografiyalyq material jinady. «Etnografiyalyq ocherkter, statistikalyq mәlimetter, tarihy oqighalar, ýisinder men Alatau qyrghyzdary halyq әdebiyetining múralary jayly jazbalarym birneshe dәpter boldy», - dep jazdy Shoqan Uәlihanov*60.

Jas zertteushining qyrghyz halqynyng ataqty epikalyq jyry «Manasqa» alghash ret kónil bólip, onyng birinshi ghylymy jazbasyn jasap, ishinara orys tiline audaruynyng erekshe manyzy boldy. Ol jyrgha túnghysh ret tarihy jәne әdeby túrghydan saraptama jasap, aty anyzgha ainalghan bas keyipkeri - Manas obrazyna jәne qyrghyz foliklorynyng basqa keyipkerlerine taldau jasaydy. «Qyrghyzdardyn, - dep jazdy Sh. Uәlihanov, - noghayly dәuirine jatatyn «Manas» atty jalghyz jyry bar. «Manas» - qara qyrghyzdardyng barlyq mifter, ertegi, anyz-әngimelerining bir kezenge jәne bir adamnyng - Manas batyrdyng tóniregine toptastyrylghan ensiklopediyalyq jinaghy. Búl dala Iliadasy tәrizdi nәrse. Qyrghyzdardyng túrmysy, әdep-ghúrpy, salt-dәstýri, geografiyasy, diny úghymdary men medisinalyq týsinikteri jәne olardyng halyqaralyq qatynastary osy orasan zor jyrda aiqyn suretteledi. «Manas» - jekelegen kóp oqighalardan qúralghan tútas enbek. «Semetey» atty ekinshi bir jyr «Manastyn» jalghasy ispetti jәne ol qyrghyzdardyng «Odisseyasy»*61.

Shoqan «Manastyn» «Kóketay hannyng ólimi men onyng asy» degen qyzyqty ýzindisin orys tiline audardy. Búl ýzindi Shoqangha ózining shynayylyghymen, qyrghyzdar jayly tarihi-etnografiyalyq, sharuashylyq, túrmys-salt jәne zang salasyndaghy qúndy mәlimetterimen, sonymen birge Qazaqstan jerin mekendegen ertedegi taypalardyng qarym-qatynastary jónindegi maghlúmattarymen únaydy. Búghan qosa, ýzindide ertedegi qyrghyzdardyng Ontýstik Sibirden Tyani-Shanigha kóshui aiqyn surettelgen.

Jas Sh. Uәlihanovtyng 1856-1857 jyldardaghy alghashqy sayahattarynyng ghylymy nәtiyjeleleri «Ystyqkól saparynyng kýndeligi», «Qytay imperiyasynyng Batys provinsiyasy jәne Qúlja qalasy», «Qyrghyzdar jayly jazbalar» atty tamasha sapar -ocherkterinde bayandalghan. Búl enbekter Sh. Uәlihanovtyng jiyrma jasynda jazyldy. Solardyng ózinde Shoqan Uәlihanov ózin bayqampaz, Tyani-Shani men Jetisu geografiyasy, ejelgi zamanda osy jerdi mekendegen halyqtardyng tarihy jayly tereng tanymy bar bilimdi ghalym retinde kórsetti. Onyng Tyani-Shani men Jetisu tabighatyn, jergilikti jerding orografiyasy, ósimdik dýniyesi men hayuanattar әlemin sipattauy qyzyghushylyq tudyrady.

Ásirese, onyng 1856 jyly Qúlja turaly jazghan kýndeligi óte qyzyqty. Búl kýndelikte Qúljagha barghan sayahat tolyqtay tartymdy әri kórkem tilmen jazylghan, shekaralyq Jonghariyany mekendeushi halyqtardyng (qytaylar, sibo, solondar men qalmaqtardyng jәne t. b.) ómiri men túrmys salty surettelgen.

Shoqan Uәlihanov qyrghyz halqynyng kóne zamanghy tarihyna qyzyghushylyq tanytady. Ásirese, ony qyrghyzdardyng bir uaqytta Eniysey men Tyani-Shani, Pamir men Altay taularyn mekendegen deregi oilandyrdy. Búl manyzdy mәseleni sheshu, qyrghyz halqynyng Sayan taulary men Tyani-Shani arasynda kóship-qonu tarihyn anyqtau jas ghalym ýshin manyzy zor ghylymy mәsele bolady. Búl mәseleni tek jazba mәlimetter negizinde, shejire әngimeler men anyzdardyng negizinde sheshuge bolatynyn Shoqan óte jaqsy týsingen Sh. Uәlihanov XVII- XVIII ghasyrlardaghy qyrghyzdar tarihyn aiqyndaytyn mәlimetter tabudan ýmittenip, múraghat materialdaryn qarastyrdy.

Jinaqtalghan derekter negizinde Tyani-Shani qyrghyzdary sol ónirding avtohtondy túrghyndary jәne ol arany ejelden mekendegenin Sh. Uәlihanov túnghysh ret dәleldedi. Biraq olar erte zamanda, Eniysey aimaghy Altay men Jonghar dalasy jәne Tyani-Shanimen olardyng bir tarmaghy retinde geografiyalyq birtútas ólke bolyp túrghan shaqta baylanysyp otyrghan, qyrghyz taypalarynyng ontýstikten soltýstikke qaray kóship-qonyp jýretin joldary osy jerlerdi basyp ótken. «Qyrghyzdar Ándijan taularyn ózderining alghashqy otany sanaydy, - dep jazdy Sh. Uәlihanov, - Ontýstik Sibirden Alataugha kóshu jayly anyz-әngimeler olarda saqtalmaghan, biraq olar ontýstikten soltýstikke kóshkende Qara Ertiske, Altay men Qanghaygha deyin, al shyghysqa qaray Ýrimshige deyin taraghan degen anyz bar»*62.

Shoqan Uәlihanov geograf K. Ritter men A. Gumbolidtyng jәne shyghystanushy V. Shott pen G. Yu. Klaprottyng enbekterindegi ertedegi qyrghyzdar tarihy jóninde jiberilgen qatelikterdi syngha aldy.

Qazaqtyng jas ghalymynyng geografiyalyq jәne tarihy zertteuleri P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy arqyly Peterbordyng ghylymy ortasyna belgili boldy. 1857 jyly aqpan aiynyng 27 kýni Shoqan Uәlihanovty Orys geografiyalyq qoghamynyng tolyq mýsheligine qabyldady. Jas ghalymgha P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy men V. I. Lamanskiy auyzsha minezdeme berdi. Olar Sh. Uәlihanovty, әsirese osy kezge deyin tyng jatqan Orta Aziya men Qazaqstandy tanuda kóp paydasy tiyetin talantty zertteushi retinde úsyndy. P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiyding pikiri de hattamanyng sarang tilimen saqtalyp qalghan: «Shoqan Uәlihanov Ystyqkólding shyghys jaghalauyna sayahat jasap, qazaq dalasy jóninde geografiyalyq, etnografiyalyq jәne tarihy qúndy materialdar qoryn jinady jәne olardy jariyalaugha әzir» dep jazylghan*63. Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng Orys geografiyalyq qoghamynyng tolyq mýsheligine saylanuy, onyng orys ghylymyna qosqan eren enbekterin moyyndaudy bildirdi.

 

***

Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng ghylymy jәne aghartushylyq qyzmeti, әsirese, XIX gh. 50-shi jyldardyng ayaghy men 60-shy jyldardyng bas kezinde jandana týsti.

1858-1859 jyldary ol ózin batyl sayahatshy retinde danqqa bólegen belgili Qashghargha sayahatyn jasady. Europagha beymәlim derlik búl elding geografiyasymen, tarihymen jәne sayasy jaghdayymen, mәdeniyet ereksheligimen tanysyp, Sh. Uәlihanov Shyghys Týrkistandy zertteuge ýlken ýles qosty. Erteden qalyptasqan Qashghariyadaghy tәrtip boyynsha búl el europalyqtar ýshin jabyq edi. Shoqannan bir jyl búryn Qashghariyagha barghan belgili geograf Adolif Shlagintveytting basyn qoja Uәlihan tóre alady. Taghdyry býkil ghylymy qauymdy tolqytqan ghalymnyng qayghyly qazasy jayly anyq habardy alghash Shoqan alyp keledi. «Shoqan Uәlihanov býkil Altyshardyng jaghdayy turaly qúndy materialdar jinap ýlgerdi, - dep jazdy P. P. Semenov Tyani- Shaniskiy*64, - jәne sonymen qatar Ad. Shlagintveytting qazasynyng sebepteri men qanday jaghdayda bolghanyn birinshi ret anyqtap bildi».

Qashghargha baru óte qauipti edi. Ol kezde býkil Shyghys Týrkistandy narazy bolghan jergilikti halyqtardyng (úighyr, dúnghan, qyrghyz jәne t. b.) kóterilisi alyp túrghan bolatyn.

Shoqannyng Qashghar saparyna negizinen úitqy bolghandar orystyng tamasha ghalymdary E. P. Kovalevskiy men P. P. Semenov Tyani Shanskiy edi. Búghan Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng Shyghys Týrkistandy zertteuge degen ystyq yqylasy qosyldy.

Tyani-Shani ekspedisiyasynan qaytyp kele jatyp, P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy Qashghargha ekspedisiya jiberu qajet ekendigi jóninde G. H. Gasfortqa oy salyp, ol mindetti oryndaudy Sh. Uәlihanovqa tapsyrugha kenes beredi. «Mening búl daryndy jasqa general Gasforttyng erekshe kónil audaruyn ózime mindet dep sanaghanym ózinen-ózi týsinikti, - dep ghalym keyinnen eske alady, - sondyqtan Tyani-Shani sayahatynan qaytyp kelgennen keyin, Uәlihanovty qyrghyzsha kiyindirip, sauda keruenimen Qashghargha jiberu jayly oy saldym jәne Uәlihanov búl mindetti zor tabyspen oryndap qaytty»*65. Ol G. H. Gasfortqa: «general-gubernatordyng qaramaghyndaghy qyzmetkerlerding arasynda Qashghargha qyrghyzdardyng últtyq kiyimin kiygizip jibergen kýnde, ózining bilimi men daryndylyghynyng arqasynda tek Qashghar emes, býkil Altyshardyng býgingi jaghdayy jóninde Resey ýshin asa baghaly mәlimetter jinap jәne sol kezdegi Qytay Týrkistanynda bolyp jatqan býlikterding sebepterin anyqtay alatyn birden-bir ofiyser - Uәlihanov» dep atap kórsetedi*66. P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy jәne K. K. Gutkovskiy Shyghys Týrkistandy zertteu jóninde materialdar jinaudyng baghdarlamasyn jasady. Ghylym qamqorshysy degen ataqqa úmtylghan G. H. Gasfort búl úsynysty qúptap, P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiyden múnday ekspedisiyany úiymdastyru rúqsatsyz jýzege aspaytyndyqtan, ýkimet aldynda qoldaugha kómektesuin súrady.

P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy Peterborgha kelgennen keyin búl mәseleni kóterdi. Onyng úsynysyn shyghystanushy-ghalymdar jәne osydan biraz búryn Syrtqy ister ministrligining Aziya departamentining diyrektory bolyp taghayyndalghan sayahatshy E. P. Kovalevskiy qoldady.

Qashghargha sapar shegu turaly Geografiya qoghamynan qoldau alghannan keyin, E. P. Kovalevskiy 1857 jyldyng kókteminde-aq ekspedisiyanyng ghylymy jәne sayasy manyzy turaly pikirin dәleldep, Syrtqy Ister ministri A. M. Gorchakovtyng atyna bayandama hat*67 jazdy.

Múraghat qorlarynda Sh. Uәlihanovtyng Qashghar ekspedisiyasynyng derekti materialdaryn ghana emes, onyng ómirbayanynnyng jarqyn betterin de qamtityn ýlken is saqtauly. Ol «Poruchik súltan Shoqan Uәlihanovty Qashghariyagha attandyru turaly» degen atpen belgili*68.

Sonday alys jәne belgisiz elderge sayahat jasaudy kópten arman etip jýrgen Shoqan Uәlihanov Qashghar ekspedisiyasyn basqaru úsynysyn zor quanyshpen qabyldady. Ol kezde Shyghys Týrkistan men oghan shektes Tyani-Shani men Pamir aimaqtary belgisiz el bolatyn.

Omby qalasy men men Peterborda ekspedisiyagha qyzu dayyndyq bastalghan kezde (1857 jyldyng ayaghy men 1858 jyldyng basy), Sh. Uәlihanov Tyani-Shani taularynda qyrghyzdardy zertteumen ainalysyp jýrgen bolatyn. Ekspedisiya keruenin kýtip 1858 jyldyng jazyna deyin Jetisudan shyqpady.

Ekspedisiyanyng attanar orny Qapaldan 30 shaqyrym jerdegi Qaramola jotasynyng etegindegi Sarybas auyly bolyp belgilendi. Shoqan 1858 jyldyng 28 mausymynda Qaramolagha jetip, Semeyden kelgen 43 adam, 101 týie, jýk tieytin jәne miniske arnalghan 65 jylqy, 6 qosy bar sauda keruenine qosyldy. Shoqan shashyn aldyryp, qazaq kiyimin kiydi de, keruenbasy, Qapal saudageri Músabaydyng tuysy Álimbay bolyp jýrdi. Keruenge ýkimetting resmy rúqsaty berilip, alym-salyqtyng barlyq týrinen de bosatylghan edi*69.

Birinshi shildede keruen Altyn Emel jotasy arqyly Ile ózenining alqabyna qaray bet aldy. Ol kezde Ileden ótu óte qiyn bolatyn. Ózende kópir joq, sondyqtan keruen alban ruynyng qayyqshy qazaqtarynyng eski jalpaq taban qayyqtarymen ótkiziledi.

Ile ózenining boyynda birneshe kýn demalghan keruen ary qaray qozghaldy, 25 shildede tabighaty kórkem tauly Qarqara jaylauyna jetti. Shoqan Uәlihanov búl jaylauda búdan búryn birneshe ret bolghan. Semeyden Qarqaragha deyin úzaq jol jýrgen januarlardyng әbden tityqtaghanyn bayqap, Qarqarada eki aptaday kidirudi úighardy.

Tamyz aiynyng bas kezinde keruen juyrda Reseyding qol astyna kirgen qyrghyzdardyng bughu ruyna qaray bet aldy. Shoqan Uәlihanov bughu ruynyng toptanghan jeri Tekes pen Qarqara, Kókjar alqaptarynda býkil tamyz aiyn ótkizip, jogharghy manap Boranbaydyng jylyna qatysyp, baqylau jasaydy. Osy uaqytta syrttan kelgen qashgharlyqtar sauda jasady. Shoqan Uәlihanov pen onyng serikteri qashgharlyq kópestermen baylanys jasap, Qashghargha deyin birge jýretin bolyp kelisti.

Tekes pen Qarqaragha olar eki ret qonyp, Santas ótkeli men Qyzylqiya asuynan asyp, Jyrghalang ózenining boyymen jolgha týsti. Odan ary Ystyqkólding tegis, qúnarly alabynda jol jatty. Sh. Uәlihanov qyrghyzdardyng osynau keng jazyqty týgeldey egin eguge óndegenderine kónil audardy.

Toghyzynshy qyrkýiekte keruen Zәuki (Juuku) ózenine jetedi. Múnda Shoqannyng Qashghariyagha ótetin eng tiyimdi joldy belgileui qajet edi. Ystyqkólden Qashghariyagha ýsh negizgi jol ótetin edi: a) shyghys jol, ol Ýsh Túrpan arqyly ótedi; ә) Ýlken Aqsay joly; b) Atbas-Arpu arqyly ótetin jol.

Shoqan men onyng serikteri Qashghargha Ortalyq Tyani-Shaninyng Syrtymen ótetin Aqsay jolymen jýrdi. Búl bayyrghy mәdeny aimaqtardy jalghap jatqan manyzdy ýlken keruen joly bolatyn. Zәuki alqabynda shatqalmen joghary órleu óte qiyn boldy. Asudan asatyn kýni suly qar jauyp túrdy. Jýk artqan attar men týieler tasqa tayghanap, qúlay berdi. Keruen bes týiesi men eki atynan aiyryldy.

«Býgin Zәukiden asyp, búryn-sondy kórmegen, bilmegen elge kirgeli otyrmyz, - dep jazdy Shoqan. - Búl belgisizdik mening kýndelikti neghúrlym anyq jәne dúrys jazuymdy talap etedi. Keruenimiz qos pen shatyrlaryn jana ghana tigip boldy... Aynalada aq basty taular, tómende shatqal qarauytady, onyng týbinde kishkene kól kórinedi. Qar jauyp túr, kýn - suyq. Men búl joldardy qostyng ishinde, ottyng jaryghynda jazyp otyrmyn»*70.

Shoqan túnghysh ret jalpy Syrttyng geografiyalyq sipattamasyn berip, onyng tabighaty men aua-rayy erekshelikterin, orografiyasyn, hayuanattar men ósimdik әlemin suretteydi. Onyng oiynsha, Tyani-Shani Syrty 4000 metr biyiktikte, sondyqtan da múnda aua-rayy suyq. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng anyqtauynsha, jalpy Syrt - elsiz biyik tauly quang dala. Ol arada ýnemi suyq, jeri әrdayym ton, aua az ýstemdik etedi. Búl qúbylysty qyrghyzdar «týtek» dep ataydy. Týtek degen auanyn, ottegining jetispeuinen bolatyn túnshyghu. Sodan adamdar men keruen kóligi kóp zardap shegip, jii ólimge de úshyrap otyrdy.

Anyghynda, Shoqan keruenmen Ortalyq Tyani-Shani adyrlaryn meridian boyymen soltýstikten ontýstikke qaray jýrip ótti. Búl sayahat 12 kýnge sozylyp, Tyani-Shaninyng ontýstik baurayynda, Terekti-Dauan asuynda ayaqtaldy, búl jerge ekspedisiya 26 qyrkýiekte jetti.

Jiyrma jetinshi qyrkýiek kýni keruen Qytay imperiyasynyng shekarasynan ótip, saz balshyqtan soghylghan múnaraly dualmen qorshalghan kishirek shekaralyq bekiniske jetti. Shekarashylar qarap, tekserip bolghannan keyin keruenning qalagha kiruine rúqsat beriledi. Shoqan men keruenbasyn qoqandyq aqsaqal saltanatpen qarsy alyp, ózining keruen sarayyna ornalastyrdy, olardy óz qamqorlyghyna aldy.

Shoqan Qashgharda jarty jylday (1858 jyldyng 1 qazanynan 1859 jyldyng nauryz aiynyng ortasyna deyin) boldy. Osy uaqyttyng ishinde ol Qashghar qalasyn jaqsy bilip, Altyshar elin de jaqsy zerttedi. Ol kezde Altyshar dep, soltýstiginde Tyani-Shani taularymen, ontýstiginde Kuen-Lunimen qorshalghan qalalar: Qashghar, Aqsu, Ýsh Túrpan, Yanysar, Yarkend jәne Hotan qalalaryn ataghan.

Shoqan alghashqy kýnderden-aq múnda qoqandyqtar erekshe artyqshylyqtargha ie ekenin bayqaydy. Mysaly, Qytay ýkimeti qoqandyqtar basqa elderden kelgen tauarlargha óz paydasy ýshin salyq alyp otyrugha erik berdi. Qoqan hanynyng Qashgharda sauda konsuly, әri sayasy ókili retinde «aqsaqal» dep atalatyn airyqsha sheneunigi boldy.

Uәlihanov Qashgharda túrghan kezde bastapqyda «aqsaqal» Nasreddiyn, keyinnen Núrmaghambet dat boldy. Ekeui de Shoqandy jәne onyng serikterin jaqsy qarsy alyp, qamqorlyqtaryna aldy. Búl óte manyzdy boldy, eger aqsaqaldar qorghauyna almaghanda, Sh. Uәlihanovtyng da Shlaginveytting qayghyly taghdyryn keshui yqtimal edi.

Aqsaqal men onyng balasynyng arqasynda Uәlihanov týrli elderding kópesterimen, sayasy qayratkerlerimen, ghalymdarymen, aqyndarymen tanysyp, olardan Altyshardyng ótkeni men býgini jayly senimdi aqparattardy estidi. «Týrli taypalar men týrli elderding kópesterimen tanys boluym, - dep jazdy Shoqan, - kóp jol baghyttaryn biluime, kórshi elder jóninde etnografiyalyq, statistikalyq jәne sauda mәlimetterin alugha mýmkindik berdi»*71.

Sonday-aq tarihy mәlimetterdi de ol jazba derekterden, jergilikti resmy qújattar men kitaptardan alyp, sheneunikter men kópesterding qosymsha әngimelerinen tolyqtyra týsti *72.

Sh. Uәlihanov Qashgharda bolghan kezinde úighyr tilin mengerudi jalghastyrady. Onyng jeke múraghatynda Qashgharda úighyr tilinde jazghan jazbalary saqtalghan.

Sh. Uәlihanov ghalym dostarynyng jәrdemimen siyrek kezdesetin birqatar shyghys qoljazbalaryna ie boldy, numizmatikalyq jiyntyq, gerbariy jәne Mirdjay tauy men Qara-Qash*73 ózenining alabynda óndirilgen nefrit kesekteri de bar tau jynystarynyng jinaghyn jasady. Sonymen qatar ol eskiden qalghan múralardy: erte zamanghy gramotalardy, qoldanbaly jәne halyqtyq qolóner, kórkem keramika ýlgilerin jәne t. s. s. jinady.

1859 jylghy aqpan aiynyng ayaq sheninde Qashgharda naghyz kóktem edi, keyin qaray qaytu turaly oilaytyn uaqyt jetken. Onyng ýstine Uәlihan tórening qashyp ketuine baylanysty, qashqarlyqtar qaytadan tynyshsyzdanyp qalada qauipti jaghday jariyalandy. Týnde qalada atty kýzet jýrip, qala qaqpalarynda qarauyl kýsheytildi, qala manynda qaruly otryadtar kýzetke qoyyldy. Shoqannyng búdan әri múnda qaluy qauipti edi. Qaladan tezdetip ketuge tura keldi. «Qantardyng ayaghynda, - dep jazdy Sh. Uәlihanov - Qashghariyagha bizden keyin Semeyden shyqqan qashqarlyq jәne tashkenttik birneshe kópester keldi. Olar arqyly keruende orys agenti bar degen laqap tarady. Qoqanda saudagerler arasynda da osynday qaueset shyghyp, oghan orys agenti qalada emes, týielerimizdi ústap túrghan auylda degen sóz qosyldy. Qoqan múhtary Qashghargha jibergen óz sheneunigine auyl men bizding júmysshylardy tekseruge tapsyrma berdi»*74. Qauip turaly shәuken de aitqan. Sondyqtan Shoqan kóp keshikpey jana dostarymen qoshtasyp, 11 nauryzda qaytar jolgha shyqty. Ony aqsaqaldyng ózi bastaghan qashgharlyqtar toby shygharyp saldy.

Shoqan qaytar jolynda Terektining ontýstigindegi Túrghart asuy arqyly jýrdi. Nauryz aiynyng ortasynda Terekti asuymen ótu mýmkin bolmady, onda qalyng qar jatty. Shoqan men onyng serikteri Ontýstik Qyrghyzstan arqyly jýrudi dúrys dep tauyp, jolay Ferghana jotasymen shektes jana jerlerdi kóre ketpek boldy.

Túrgharttan olar kóptegen tarihy anyzdarda aitylatyn biyik tau basyndaghy ghajayyp súlu Shatyrkólge qaray jýredi. Shoqangha deyin búl jerde birde-bir ghalym bolyp kórmepti. Sol jerden Shoqan men onyng serikteri Atbas pen Ýzgen ózenderi arqyly jýrip otyryp, Naryn ózenining ong jaghasyndaghy Qoqannyng Qúrtqa bekinisine iyek artty.

Shoqan Uәlihanovty tauly Syrtqa qaraghanda, sharuashylyq ýshin anaghúrlym kóp mýmkindikteri bar oazis bolyp keletin Atbas pen Arpa jәne Narynnyng keng alaptary qatty qyzyqtyrdy. Sayahatshy búl alqaptardyng Ontýstik qyrghyzdarynyng ekonomikalyq ómirinde sheshushi manyzy baryn jәne osy tauly elding ortalyghy dep bildi. Bayqampaz ghalym búl jerlerden sәulet ónerining monumentalidy eskertkishteri men bay qalalyq mәdeniyeti týrinde saqtalghan ótken uaqyttyng qaynaghan ómirining izderin tapty. «Tauly Syrtta, - dep jazdy Sh. Uәlihanov, - tek Atbas, Arpa jәne Narynnyng jazyqtary men aua rayy júmsaq angharlarynda biday men arpa ósedi. Erte kezde búl jerlerdi otyryqshy jәne jartylay otyryqshy halyq qonystanghan dep esepteu kerek, óitkeni, qyrghyzdardyng aituy boyynsha, Atbastyng tómengi jaghynda ýlken qalanyng qirandysy bar kórinedi, al Narynda erte zamanghy eginshilikting izin óz kózimizben kórdik»*75.

Búdan әri keruen soltýstik-shyghys baghytqa, Naryn ózenimen joghary qaray jýrip, altynshy sәuir kýni Jetimshoqy manynda, Zәuki asuy arqyly Ystyqkól alqabyna aparatyn ýlken keruen jolyn kesip ótti.

Ózining sayahatyn on ay on tórt kýnde tabyspen ayaqtap,1859 jyldyng 12 sәuirinde «Qashghar turaly qyzyqty da bay maghlúmattary» bar Shoqan Vernyy bekinisine (Almaty) jetti*76. Búl jerde bir jarym ay shamasynda demalyp, Semeyge soghyp, F. M. Dostoevskiymen kezdesip, Ombygha qaytty da, jinaghan materialdaryn óndeuge kiristi.

Peterborda Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng oraluyn әri onyng ekspedisiyasynyng nәtiyjeleri turaly esebin de asygha kýtti. Ekspedisiya esebin әzirleudi jәne Uәlihanovty Peterborgha issapargha jóneltudi tezdetu turaly Peterbor men Ombynyng arasynda hat-habar qyzu jýrip jatty. General I. F. Babkov bylay dep jazdy: «Syrtqy ister ministrliginde Uәlihanovtyng osy kezge deyin beymәlim bolyp kelgen Qashghargha saparynyng býge shigesin habarlaudy asygha jәne qatty yntamen kýtti... Bәrinen búryn osy isting bastamashysy jәne bir jaghynan shyghystanushy bolghandyqtan, E. P. Kovalevskiy mýddeli boldy». Bizding agenttin... Qashgharda bolghandyghy jәne onyng Shyghys Týrkistan nemese Kishi Búhariya turaly jinaghan qyzyqty mәlimetteri turaly habar E. P. Kovalevskiyding graf Bludovpen jaqyn tanystyghy bolghandyqtan, Peterbordyng jogharghy qauymyna da jetti. Búl sybystyn, әsirese, Ýndistannan Qashghargha jiberilgen aghylshyn agenti Adolif Shlagintveytting Qashqarda qazagha úshyrauy Syrtqy ister ministrliginde belgili bolghandyqtan da әseri eselene týsti*77.

1859 jyldyng qara kýzine deyin Shoqan Ombyda bolyp, sapary jayly esebin jazdy. Ol esebin tez ayaqtap, shana joly ashylysymen Peterbogha baryp, óte bay jәne asa qúndy ghylymy materialdaryn qorytyp, óndeu ýshin, tez jetuge asyq boldy. Tamyzdyng ayaghynda oghan Tveri qalasyna qaytyp bara jatqan F. M. Dostoevskiy jolyqty. Shoqan ózin Peterborda keluin talap etip otyrghandaryn, endi bir aidan song jolgha shyghatynyn aitty*78.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng Qashghar ekspedisiyasynyng nәtiyjeleleri óte manyzdy boldy. Olar ghalymdardyng orasan zor qyzyghushylyghyn tughyzdy.

Shoqan Qashghardan «Tazkiryan Súltan Sutuq Boghra han» (Sútúq Búghrahan tarihy), «Tazkiryan Tughluq Temir han» (Tughluq Temir han tarihy), «Tazkiryan Hodjagan» (Qojalar tarihy), «Abumýslim Mauruzi» jәne basqa da siyrek kezdesetin shyghys qoljazbalaryn, sonymen qatar, tau jynystarynyng kolleksiyasyn, nefrit ýlgilerin, gerbariy, numizmatika eskertkishterin jәne t. b. alyp keldi.

Sh. Uәlihanov jinaqtaghan bay materialdardyng ishinde onyng Shyghys Týrkistan halqy men olardyng kәsibin beyneleytin qaryndashpen salghan suretteri ýlken oryn alady.

Uәlihanov saparynyng eng basty nәtiyjesi «Altyshardyng nemese Qytaydyng Nan-Lu (Kishi Búhara) provinsiyasynyng shyghystaghy alty qalasynyng jayy turaly» atty ýlken enbegi boldy. Búl Shyghys Týrkistan halyqtarynyng tarihy men geografiyasyna, әleumettik qúrylysyna arnalghan, Sh. Uәlihanov zamanyndaghy ghylym jetistikterine oraylastyra jazylghan alghashqy ghylymy enbek edi. Jana materialdardy qamtu jәne olardy tereng taldau jaghynan onyng enbegi otandyq ghylymgha qosylghan ýlken ýles boldy. Ol kýni býginge deyin ózining manyzyn joyghan joq.

Búl tamasha enbekte jas ghalymnyng jan-jaqty tereng bilimi, asqan daryndylyghy, kóregen aqyldylyghy aiqyn kórinedi, búl enbekting taza әdeby sapasy  jaqsy әser qaldyrady - kórkem tili, nәzik yumor, qyzyqtylyghy.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng búl enbegining is jýzinde qoldanyluynyng da ýlken manyzy boldy.

Uәlihanovtyng zamandastary - ghalymdar, jazushylar men әskery mamandar Sh. Uәlihanovtyng Qashghardy zertteuin joghary baghalap, ony «shyn mәnisindegi geografiyalyq janalyq, ýkimet әri ghylym ýshin asa paydaly», «osy kezge deyin basshylyqqa alyp kelgen europalyq geograf-ghalymdar men shyghystanushylardyng kemshilikterin» tolyqtyratyn enbek dep sanady*79.

Uәlihanovtyng esebi keyinnen Qashgharda sauda faktoriyalaryn ornatuda, sonday-aq, Reseyding Batys Qytaymen sauda jәne mәdeny baylanysyn ornyqtyruda paydalanyldy*80.

Sayahatshy-ghalymgha enbegi ýshin shtabs-rotmistr ataghy berilip, ordenmen marapattaldy, aqshalay syilyq berildi. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng úsynysy boyynsha, Qashghar sayahatyna qatysqan adal serikteri, barlyghy 23 adam marapattaldy*81. Keruenbasy Músabay men Semey kópesi Búqash, polkovnik K. K. Gutkovskiy jәne basqalary da marapatqa ie boldy*82.

Sh. Uәlihanov Peterborgha 1859 jyldyng kýzinde keldi. Orys ghalymdary ony batyl sayahatshy, tamasha zertteushi, Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan halyqtarynyng ómirin tereng biletin adam retinde qarsy aldy.

Orta   Aziya  mәseleleri boyynsha bedeldigimen tanylghan Sh. Uәliy-hanov Syrtqy ister ministrligi jaghynan da, Bas shtab jaghynan da airyqshy yqylasqa ie boldy. Eki mekeme de P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiyding Sh. Uәlihanovty ghylymy júmyspen ainalysuy ýshin Peterborda qaldyru turaly aitqan pikirin qoldap, mәseleni ýkimetting aldyna qoydy. E. P. Kovalevskiy 1860 jyly 3 sәuirde Áskery ministrding atyna jazghan hatynda: «shtabs-rotmistr Uәlihanovty Syrtqy ister ministrliginen alatyn aqysyna qosa, әskery vedomostvonyng qarajatynan shenine qaray beriletin syiaqysyn saqtay otyryp, Aziya departamentine qyzmetke tirkeudi» súraydy*83. E. P. Kovaliskiy qajet bolghan jaghdayda «shtabs-rotmistr Uәlihanovqa Áskery ministrlik aldaghy Qoqangha qarsy ekspedisiyagha baylanysty tapsyrma beruge» bolady, Syrtqy ister ministrligi ony issapargha jiberuge eshqanday qarsy emes»*84, - dep jazdy.

Syrtqy ister ministri A. M. Gorchakov Sh. Uәlihanovty әskery ministrlikten Aziya departamentine auystyru jóninde Aleksandr II ge ótinish jasap, Shoqangha mynanday minezdeme beredi: «Ótken jyly Qashghargha sapar shegip, Orta Aziyanyng Shyghys bólimin zerttep qaytqan jәne týrki tilining birneshe dialektisin jetik biletin shtabs-rotmistr Uәlihanov ózining arnayy mәlimetterimen Aziya departamentine payda keltirui mýmkin. Sondyqtan, Áskery ministrmen aldyn-ala kelisim boyynsha Uәlihanovty atalghan departamentting qaramaghyna aludy úsynar edim*85.

Sh. Uәlihanovty Aziya departamentine auystyru turaly búiryqty Aleksandr II 1860 jyly 15 mausymda bekitedi*86. Onda bylay delingen: «Atty әsker shtabs rotmistri súltan Shoqan Uәlihanov atty әsker qúramynda da qaldyryla otyryp, Aziya departamentine auystyryp qyzmetke alynsyn»*87.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng Aziya departamentinde bolghan uaqyty ómirindegi eng jarqyn kezenderding biri boldy. Ol turaly erekshe is*88 saqtalghan jәne ol qújattar Ontýstik Qazaqstan men Orta Aziyanyng Reseyge qosyluy kezeninde Sh. Uәlihanovtyng manyzdy ról atqarghanyn kórsetedi.

Sh. Uәlihanov Peterborgha Tyani-Shani taulary men Shyghys Týrkistangha jasaghan sayahaty barysynda jinaqtaghan qyzyqty mәlimetterge bay zor bilim qorymen keldi. Búl mәlimetter Sh. Uәlihanovtyng Peterborda kórnekti orys ghalymdarymen, jazushylarymen bolghan ghylymy әngimelerding taqyryby boldy.

Peterbor turaly Shoqan Ombyda jýrgende jer audarylghan S. F. Durovtan kóp estigen edi. S. F. Durov revolusioner demokrat, patsha ýkimetine qarsy kýresker edi. Ol 1849 jyly 23 sәuir kýni petrashevshi 35 adam - negizgi toppen birge tútqyndaldy. Petropavl bekinisinde segiz ay qamauda otyrghannan keyin, Áskery sot S. F. Durovty atu jazasyna búiyrdy, keyin ol ýkim jer audarugha ózgertildi*89.

Qol ayaghy kisendeuli S. F. Durov F. M. Dostoevskiymen birge Tobylgha etappen aidalyp, sodan keyin 1850 jyly 23 qantarda Ombynyng katorgalyq týrmesine qamaldy*90. Onda jaghday jan tózgisiz boldy. S. F. Durov týrmeden densaulyghy mýldem nasharlap shyqty. Katorga merzimi ayaqtalghannan keyin, 1854 jyly 11 qantar kýni Petropavl qalasyndaghy sheptik ýshinshi Sibir batalionynyng әskery týzetu qyzmetine qatardaghy jauynger esebinde jiberildi. Biraq densaulyghyna baylanysty S. F. Durov әskery qyzmet atqarugha jaramady. Oghan azamattyq qyzmetke túrugha rúqsat berilip, «Sibir qazaqtarynyng oblystyq basqarmasyna tórtinshi razryadtaghy kense qyzmetkeri» etip taghayyndaldy*91. Sonymen qatar, Nikolay I-ning núsqauy boyynsha, S. F. Durovtyng syrtynan «qatal jasyryn baqylau qoyylyp, onyng ýstinen sol mandaghy basshylyq qadaghalap otyratyn» boldy*92. Basshylyqtyng qatarynda - Sibir qazaqtarynyng әskery gubernatory fon Fridrihs te bar. Oblystyq basqarmada qyzmet istey jýrip, S. F. Durov adamdargha degen izgilik qarym-qatynasymen, adaldyghymen, enbeksýigishtigimen jәne iskerligimen ózine nazar audartty, K. K. Gutkovskiy men Sh. Uәlihanovtyng talaby boyynsha, keshikpey ýshinshi razryadty kense qyzmetkerine auystyryldy*93.

Oblystyq basqarmada qyzmet isteu S. F. Durovqa qyrgha shyghyp, qazaq halqynyng ómirimen tanysuyna mýmkindik berdi. 1855 jәne 1856 jyldary oghan «densaulyghyn týzetu ýshin» Kókshetau okruginde túrugha rúqsat etildi*94. Biraq múnda da ol «jasyryn polisiya baqylauyna» alyndy*95. General Fridrihstyng núsqauy boyynsha, Kókshetau okrugtik prikazy ay sayyn S. F. Durovtyng jýris-túrysyn habarlap otyrugha tiyis boldy.

1856 jyly 26 tamyz kýni S. F. Durovqa «Sibirden qaytyp, Peterbor men Mәskeuden basqa, imperiyanyng qalaghan jerine túruyna rúqsat etildi»*96. Alayda ony Batys Sibirde taghy bir jyl ústady. Tek 1857 jyly, tamyz aiynyng sonynda ol Ombyny tastap, Odessagha qonys tepti*97.

Sh. Uәlihanov pen S. F. Durovtyng dostyq qarym-qatynasy Sergey Fedorovich Omby bekinisining abaqtysynan bosap shyghysymen bastaldy*98. Búryn Sh. Uәlihanov ol turaly K. K. Gutkovskiy arqyly estip, onyng taghdyryna jany ashyp, niyettes ekenin bildirip, onymen kezdesuding sәtin izdep jýrdi*99.

1854 jyldyng kókteminen dostardyng әrdayym kezdesetin jeri Kapustinderding ýii men Sh. Uәlihanovtyng pәteri boldy. Kezdesuler kezinde jan tolqytar әngimeler ortagha salynyp, elding sol kezdegi barlyq aldynghy qatarly adamdardy tolghandyratyn әleumettik sayasy ómirining eng kókeykesti mәseleleri talqylanatyn. S. F. Durov pen Sh. Uәlihanovtyng qózqarastarynda kóp nәrse ortaq bolyp shyqty.

Shoqan S. F. Durovpen birge Omby bekinisinde katorga merzimin ótep jýrgen orys jazushysy F. M. Dostoevskiymen jaqyn tanys boldy. Shoqan F. M. Dostoevskiy turaly Kapustinder men Gutkovskiyler ýiinde kóp estigen. A. E. Vrangeliding aituynsha, Shoqan F. M. Dostoevskiymen alghash 1854 jyly Ombyda, Dostoevskiy jii baryp túratyn*100 Ivanovtar ýiinde*101 tanysady. Búl kezdesu ekeuining qózqarastarynyng jaqyndyghyn, mýddelerining bir ekendigin tanytty, sóitip olar jaqyn dos bolyp ketti. Ózi «óli ýi» dep ataghan Ombynyng katorgalyq týrmesinde otyryp jәne odan shyqqannan keyin de F. M. Dostoevskiy petrashevshiler tobynda qalyptasqan aldynghy qatarly kózqarastarynan bas tartpady. Shoqanmen әngimesinde, oghan jazghan hattarynda da ol ózin ýlken progresshil, oishyl, Reseydegi tozyghy jetken pomeshiktik qúrylystyng kemistikterin әshkereleushi etip kórsetti. Shoqan  jazushynyng jaqyn dostarynyng biri bolghan kezde 19 jasta edi.

Shoqannyng Ivanovtar ýiindegi tanystyqtan bastalghan F. M. Dostoevskiymen dostyq qatynasy Semey pen Peterbordaghy kezdesulermen jalghasyp, alty jyl (1856-1862 jj.) hat jazysugha sozyldy.

1854 jyldyng kókteminde patsha ýkimeti F. M. Dostoevskiydi oblys ortalyghynan alystatyp, shalghaygha jiberu qajet dep tapty. Ol Semeyge, Sibirding sheptik kazak әskerlerining 7-shi batalionyna merzimsiz uaqytqa soldattyq qyzmetke jiberildi.

1856-1858 jyldary elge shyqqan saparlarynda Sh. Uәlihanov F. M. Dostoevskiyge mindetti týrde soghyp, sayasy jәne filosofiyalyq taqyryptarda әngimelesip jýrdi.

Shoqannyng F. M. Dostoevskiymen Semeyde kezdesui onyng ómirindegi asa bir jarqyn better boldy. Búl kezdesu osy kýnge deyin saqtalghan fotosurette beynelengen. «Songhy kezde bizge kelip-ketip jýrgen az ghana adamdardyng ishinen, - dep jazady A. E. Vrangeli*102, - F. M. Dostoevskiymen kórisu ýshin óte sýikimdi jas qyrghyz ofiyseri, Omby kadet korpusynda tәrbiyelengen Múhammed Hanafiya Uәlihanovtyng jolay soghyp ketkeni esimde... Ol F. M. Dostoevskiymen Ombyda, Ivanovtardyng ýiinde tanysyp, ony óte jaqsy kórdi».

F. M. Dostoevskiy qazaq auylynyng ómirin jaqsy bildi. Popov, A. E. Vrangeli men M. M. Homentovskiy sekildi sol kezde jauapty qyzmette jýrgen adamdargha jaqyndyghyn paydalanyp, F. M. Dostoevskiy Sh. Uәlihanov jәne A. E. Vrangelimen birge qazaq auyldaryn aralap, arheologiyalyq zertteu jýrgizu ýshin Arqatqa, Shynghys jәne Tarbaghatay taularyna bara aldy. Qazaq halqynyng ómiri Sh. Uәlihanov pen F. M. Dostoevskiy әngimelerining jana qyzyqty taqyryby boldy.

Semeydegi kezdesuden keyin olar kópke deyin ajyrap qaldy. Ýlken qoghamdyq tarihy mýddeni anghartatyn eki bauyrlas halyqtyng tamasha ókilderining jaqyn iydeyalyq qarym-qatynasynyng ýlgisi sanalatyn hattar ghana olardy ózara baylanystyrdy jәne Sh. Uәlihanovtyng hattarynda onyng qoghamdyq kózqarastary, orys halqyna, orys mәdeniyetine degen onyng sýiispenshiligi kórinis tapty.

Ataqty orys jazushysy uaqytsha Barnaulgha ketkennen son, Semeyden shyqqan Sh. Uәlihanov F. M. Dostoevskiyge bylay dep jazdy: «Óziniz ketkennen keyin men Sizding qalanyzda tek bir qonyp, kelesi kýni ertemen jolgha shyqtym. Búl kesh men ýshin óte kónilsiz boldy. Ózime jaqyn adamdardan ajyrau jәne ózime jaqsy niyet bildirgen adamdarmen aiyrylysu maghan óte auyr tiydi. Sizben birge Semeyde ótkizgen az ghana kýn maghan sonday ystyq, endigi mening bar oiym - sizben taghy da kezdesu. Men adamnyng sezimderi men jay-kýii turaly jazugha sheber emespin, biraq onyng qajeti de joq qoy deymin: mening Sizge qanday berilgenimdi jәne Sizdi qalay jaqsy kóretinimdi, әriyne, bilesiz».

F. M. Dostoevskiy jauap retinde Sh. Uәlihanovqa shyn jýreginen shyqqan jyly sózdermen bylay dep jauap qayyrdy: «Meyirban dosym menin, Sizding hatynyzdy maghan Aleksandr Nikolaevich*103 tabys etti. Siz meni jaqsy kórem dep jazypsyz. Al men Sizge qysylmay-aq tura aitayyn - men Sizge ghashyq bolyp qaldym. Men esh uaqytta da jәne eshkimge de, tipti, tughan bauyryma da, tap Sizge kónilim týskendey jaqyndyqty sezgen emespin... Búl jerde kóp nәrseni aitugha bolar edi, biraq Sizdi nesine maqtay berem! Siz mening aq niyetime dәlelsiz-aq senetin shygharsyz, qymbatty Uәly han, búl turaly 10 kitap jazsang da, eshtene jaza almaysyn. Sezim men qúshtarlyq degendi týsindiruge bolmaydy... Sizben kýimede túryp qosh aitysqanda, bәrimiz kýni boyy kónilsiz boldyq. Sizdi býkil jol boyy eske aldyq»*104.

F. M. Dostoevskiy hatynda Shoqangha paydaly kenes berip, ony tughan halqyna qyzmet etuge shaqyrady, ózining kýshin publisistika salasynda bayqap kórudi úsynady. Ol: «Qolgha alghan isinizdi tastay kórmeniz, - dep jazady. - Sizding materialdarynyz óte kóp. Dala turaly maqala jazynyz... Siz óz taghdyrynyzdy Otanynyzgha óte paydaly bolatynday baghyshtauynyzgha bolar edi. Mysaly, dalanyng ne ekenin, onyng manyzyn jәne óz halqynyzdyng Reseyge qanday qatysy bar ekenin Resey halqyna týsindiru úly maqsat, qasiyetti is emes pe?.. Europasha tolyq bilim alghan túnghysh qyrghyz ekeninizdi esinizge alynyz. Onyng ýstine taghdyr Sizdi abzal adam etip jaratqan. Artta qalugha bolmaydy, bolmaydy», - dep jazdy. F. M. Dostoevskiy búl jalyndy sózderimen halyq aghartu maydanynda belsendi qimyldaugha jigerlendirdi. Ári qaray F. M. Dostoevskiy: «Men sizdi jaqsy kóretinim sonday, Siz jәne Sizding taghdyrynyz turaly oilanam. Áriyne, qiyaldarymda Sizding taghdyrynyzdy oilastyryp, әlpeshteymin. Biraq sol qiyaldarymnyng ishinde bir shyndyq bar, ol - Sizding óz elinizden europalyq bilimge túnghysh qol jetken adam ekeniniz. Osynyng bir ózi ghajayyp nәrse jәne sony úghynudyng ózi Sizge mindet jýkteydi... Qosh bolynyz, qymbattym, ózinizdi qúshaqtauyma, 10 qaytara sýyime rúqsat etiniz», - dep jazady.

F.M. Dostoevskiy búdan keyin de Sh. Uәlihanovtyng ghylymy tabystaryn qadaghalap, onyng odan arghy taghdyryna shyn mәninde mýddelik tanytyp jýrdi. F. M. Dostoevskiy A. E. Vrangelige Tveriden jazghan hatynda: «Uәlihanov óte sýikimdi, óte tamasha adam. Shamasy, qazir ol Peterborda bolsa kerek? Men sizge ol turaly jazdym ghoy deymin? Ol - Geografiyalyq qoghamnyng mýshesi. Uaqytynyz bolsa, Uәlihanov jayly súrastyryp, biliniz. Men ony óte jaqsy kóremin jәne onyng hal-jayyn biluge óte qúshtarmyn»*105.

Sh. Uәlihanov pen F. M. Dostoevskiyding dostyq qarym-qatynastary kóp jylgha jalghasty. Olardyng baylanysy Peterborda da ýzilmedi (1860 j.). 1861 jylghy reformadan keyin mistisizmge salynyp, samoderjaviyege qarsy kýresten boyyn aulaq sala bastaghan jazushynyng qyzmeti men kózqarastaryna Shoqan syn kózben qaray bastady. A. N. Maykovke jazghan hatynda Shoqan bylay deydi: «Endi Sizder turaly, Peterbor jayly, mening peterborlyq dostarym jayynda aitayyq! Dostoevskiyler ne istep jýr? Olar siyrek jazatyn boldy, biraq oghan ózim de kinәlimin, óitkeni siyrek jauap qaytaramyn. Jurnaldarynyng jaghdayy qalay? «Jalghasy bar» deulerine qaraghanda, jaqsy bolu kerek. Óz aramyzda aitqanda, men solardyng negizin, halyqshyldyghyn jóndi úqpaymyn, birese slavyanshyldyqtyng iyisi anqidy, birese shekten asqan batysshyldyqtyng iyisi shyghady. Bitisu bayqalmaydy nemese bitisu qoldarynan kelmey jýr. Mening oiymsha, ekining biri, ne batys ýlgisimen týbirinen qayta qúru kerek, ne eskiden aiyrylmay, tipti eski senimning ózin de paydalanu kerek. Qytaylar sekildi «ortany ústanu» endi jaramaydy»*106.

F. M. Dostoevskiy qazaq dosyn ómir boyy eske alyp jýrdi. Shoqan Uәlihanovtan alghan zattarynyng bәri keyinnen ol ýshin eng qymbat estelik bolyp qaldy. 1866 jyly Shoqan qaytys bolghannan keyin F. M. Dostoevskiy birde әieli A. G. Dostoevskayagha: «Myna ýlken palisandr jәshikti kórdiniz be? Búl - mening sibirlik dosym Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng syilyghy, sondyqtan ol maghan óte qymbat. Men qoljazbalarymdy, hattarym men qymbat estelikterimdi osynda saqtaymyn»*107, - degen.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng Peterborda bolghan jyldary - ómirining jarqyn betterining biri. Ózining әrbir tabysty qadamyn qadaghalap jýrgen orystyng aldynghy qatarly ziyalylarymen aralasa jýrip, Sh. Uәlihanov osy jyldary әdetten tys erekshe talanty men bilimdarlyghyn tanyta aldy. Sol kezdegi baspasóz betterinde onyng astanagha kelui turaly maqalalar jariyalanyp túratyn. XIX ghasyrdyng orta shenindegi iri ghalymdardyng biri P. I. Nebolisin Shoqan turaly: «Peterborda qyrghyzdar az, bes-alty adam bola qoyar ma eken? Olar jalpyeuropalyq әskery kiyim kiyip jýredi, tek bir adamnan basqasy ghana búl adam ózining bar ekendigi turaly erekshe eshtene bayqatpaydy. Ol bireu - óte jas, kavaleriya ofiyseri, súltan Shoqan Shynghysúly Uәlihanov» - dep jazdy. «Men Uәlihanovpen Peterborda jaqyn tanystym jәne birneshe óte tartymdy keshti birge ótkizdim, - deydi L. N. Plotnikov, - onyng qabilettiligi men bilimine olar (Múhammed Qaly Tәukin jәne Babajanov) týgil, biz Nebolisin myrza ekeumiz de teng kelmespiz».

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng qyzmeti Peterborda qaynap jatqan jәne jan-jaqty boldy. Ol birneshe mekemede qyzmet istedi: Bas shtabtyng Áskeriy-ghylymy komiytetinde, Aziya departamenti men Geografiyalyq qoghamda jәne sonymen birge uniyversiyette leksiya tyndady. Áskery ghylymy komiytetting tapsyruymen ol Orta Aziya men Shyghys Týrkistan kartasyn jasady*108. Onyng redaksiyasymen «Balqash kóli men Alatau jotalary aralyghynyng kartasy», «Ile ólkesining batys bólimin rekognosirovkalau» (1856 j.), «Qúlja qalasynyng syzbasy», «Ystyqkól ekspedisiyasynyng nәtiyjeleri turaly esepke qosymsha karta» (1856 j.), «Qytay imperiyasynyng Batys ólkesining kartasy» jәne t. b. jasaldy. Ol әrqily tilderdegi eski kartalardy zeyin sala zerttedi*109.

«Shoqan Uәlihanovty men Peterborda ofiyser kezinde úshyrastyrdym, - dep esine alady N. M. Yadrinsev, - búl onyng danqy shyghyp túrghan kez edi. Men onyng Shyghystyng kóne zamanghy jazbalarymen jәne kartalarymen júmys istep otyrghan ýstine tap bolushy edim»*110.

Geografiyalyq qoghamda ol K. Ritterding enbekterin baspagha dayyndau isine qatysyp, Qazaqstan men Orta Aziyanyng geografiyasy men etnografiyasy jónindegi materialdardy qúrastyryp, Shyghys Týrkistan jәne Tyani-Shani jәne Qyrghyzstan jayly qogham mýshelerine dәris oqydy. Onyng dәristeri qyzyqty, әri tartymdy boldy, keybir dәristeri qysqartylyp gazetterge de basylyp túrdy*111.

Peterborda Shoqan ylghy da kóptegen kórnekti orys ghalymdarymen jәne әdebiyetshilermen aralasa jýrip, olarmen dostyq qarym-qatynas ornyqtyrdy. Ol Geografiyalyq qoghamnyng viyse-preziydenti P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiymen әrdayym dostyq qatynasta bolyp, qyzmet babymen aralasyp túrdy. Kóp rettegi onymen bolghan әngimeleri Shoqannyng ghylymy kókjiyegin keneytuge yqpal etti jәne onyng júmysyn aitarlyqtay Qazaqstan men Orta Aziyany zertteu salasyna baghyttady.

Sh. Uәlihanov kadet korpusynda oqyp jýrgenning ózinde, uniyversiytettik bilim turaly armandaytyn. «Shoqan Potaninmen әngimelese jýrip, - dep jazady akademik V. A. Obruchev, - sayahatqa dayyn bolu ýshin, olar Peterborgha baryp, uniyversiytetke týsu kerektigi jóninde jii aitatyn»,*112. Sh. Uәlihanov Peterborda túrghan kezinde búl armany oryndalugha jaqyn edi. Ol uniyversiytetke jii kelip, әrdayym P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiymen dәrister turaly pikir bólisetin. «Jana qalyptasa bastaghan eng jas, talantty әri jandary taza jergilikti qayratkerler bilim ansaghan G. N. Potanin men Sh. Uәlihanov siyaqtylar Peterbor uniyversiytetin bitirip, joghary bilim alugha úmtyldy»*113, - dep jazdy P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy.

Peterborgha kelmesten búryn Sh. Uәlihanov shyghys fakulitetinde leksiya tyndamaqshy bolyp jýrdi. Biraq ol jerde Sh. Uәlihanovty bәrinen búryn kóp qyzyqtyrghan tariyh, filosofiya jәne qoghamdyq damu tarihy kurstary oqytylmady. Sondyqtan ol uniyversiytetting tarih jәne filologiya fakulitetining dәristerine qatysyp*114, shet tilderdi oqyp-ýirenuin jal-ghastyra berdi.

Sonymen qatar, Sh. Uәlihanov ózining enbekterin Geografiyalyq qoghamnyng basylymdarynda jariyalau ýshin dayyndaydy. Oghan múnda da P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy ýlken jәrdem kórsetti. «Men Gasfortqa onyng general gubernatordyng qol astyndaghy qyzmette qala jýrip, qazaq dalasy jónindegi jinaqtap qoyghan tamasha etnografiyalyq jәne tarihy materialdaryn óndeu ýshin Peterborgha úzaq uaqytqa keluine mýmkindik beruin ótindim. Sonymen qatar, Sh. Uәlihanovqa Geografiyalyq qogham ýlken qamqorlyq istep, jәrdem kórsetedi dep uәde ettim», - dep jazdy Sh. Uәlihanov turaly orys ghalymy memuarlarynda*115.

Shoqan orystyng shyghystanushy-ghalymdary-men, bәrinen búryn «Orys geografiyalyq qoghamy jazbalarynyn» redaktory, professor A. N. Beketovpen tyghyz qarym-qatynas ornatty. Aziya departamentinde ol E. P. Kovalevskiy, F. R. Osten-Saken, Peterbor uniyversiytetining professory, Qúljadaghy búrynghy elshi I. I. Zaharovpen aralasty. Ol I. I. Zaharovpen birge Aziya departamenti janyndaghy ghylymy júmystargha arnalghan joghary mektepte júmys istep, sol arada Orta Aziyagha baratyn adamdargha týrki tilderinen sabaq berdi. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng pәterinde shyghystanushy V. V. Grigoriev, V. P. Vasiliev, V. V. Veliyaminov-Zernov jәne t. b. jii bolyp túrdy. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng Peterbordaghy ómirining jarqyn shaqtarynyng birin onyng orys jazushylarymen dostyq qarym-qatynasy qúraydy. Ádette ol F. M. Dostoevskiyding ýiinde jii bolyp, onyng ýi-ishimen, bauyry M. M. Dostoevskiymen, sonymen birge, aqyn A. N. Maykov pen Ya. P. Polonskiymen, synshy Strahovpen jәne t. b tanysty. Onyng N. G. Chernyshevskiymen niyettes aghayyndy Kurochkindermen dostyghynyng manyzy zor boldy. V. G. Baskakovtyng zertteulerine qaraghanda «N. S. Kurochkin 1861 jyly kýzde Chernyshevskiymen tyghyz baylanys jasap, sol uaqyttan bastap, pәterinde jii bolghan. Ekeui de Dobrolubovty jerleuge qatysty, shahmat klubynda kezdesip túrdy»*116.

V. S. Kurochkin «Chernyshevskiyding pәterinde bolyp, onymen shahmat klubynda birneshe ret kezdesip «Zemlya y volya» qúpiya qoghamnyng júmysyna qatysty. Ol tyiym salynghan maqalalarynyng birqatarynda N. G. Chernyshevskiy bastaghan úly is jolynda ayanbay kýresuge shaqyrdy»*117.

Vasiliy Stepanov Kurochkin (býrkenshik attary  - Znamenskiy, Temnyi) 60-shy jyldardaghy belgili aqyndardyng biri boldy. Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng dostarynyng biri - V. S. Kurochkinning bauyry Nikolay Stepanovich onymen dýniyeden ótkenshe baylanysyn ýzbedi. Ol aqyn jәne jurnalist bolghan (Skorpionov, Preobrajenskiy degen laqap atpen jazdy). 1861 jyldan bastap aghayyndy Kurochkinder «Zemlya y volya» qoghamynyng mýshesi boldy.1862 jyldan bastap «London nasihatshylarymen baylanystary ýshin aiyptalghan adamdar jónindegi», yaghni, A. I. Gersen men N. P. Ogarevpen baylanysy ýshin qozghalghan isting saldarynan patsha kýzetining baqylauynda boldy. Aleksandr II-ge jasalghan qastandyq әreketten keyin aghayyndy Kurochkinder tútqyngha alynyp, biraz uaqyt Petropavl bekinisinde qamauda otyrdy.

1861-1862 jyldary N. S. Kurochkin «Illustrasiya» jurnalynyng redaktory bolyp, Sh. Uәlihanov әkelip bergen, qazaq túrmysyn beyneleytin birneshe suretti basyp shyghardy.

Kórnekti orys jazushylarymen jәne ghalymdarymen kýndelikti aralasa jýrip, Shoqan olardyng Orta Aziya men Qazaqstangha qyzyghushylyghyn oyatyp, shet aimaq halyqtaryna degen olardyng dostyq sezimderining qalyptasuyna mýmkindik jasady. Ol keybir aqyndargha shyghys ómirinen taqyryptar berdi. Sh. Uәlihanovpen bolghan әngimelerding әserinen aqyn A. N. Maykov «V stepyah», «Alipiyskie lednikiy», «Emshan» atty ólender jazdy.

Onyng materialdary men kenesterin kóp avtorlar paydalandy, mysaly, Ystyqkól, Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan turaly jazghan Bas shtabtyng ofiyserleri A. F. Golubev pen D. I. Romanovskiy, Sh. Uәlihanov materialdaryn P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy, M. I. Venukov, F. R. Osten-Saken, E. P. Kovalevskiy men A. A. Tatarinov, P. I. Lerh jәne basqa da kóptegen ghalymdar paydalandy.

Shoqan әzildegendi, qorshaghan ortasyndaghy kemshilikterdi әjualaghandy jaqsy kóretin. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng tapqyrlyghy, sheshendigi ony jaqsy biletin dostary - ghalymdar men әdebiyetshilerdi sýisindiretin.

 

* * *

1861 jyldyng kókteminde auyr nauqas Shoqan Uәlihanovty Peterbordan ketuge mәjbýr etedi. Dәrigerlerding kenesi boyynsha ol nasharlaghan densaulyghyn týzetu ýmitimen tughan dalasyna oraldy.

Peterborda Uәlihanov bir jarym jyl boldy. Astanada, dostarynyng arasynda ótkizgen ómir sanasyna tereng úyalap, iz qaldyrdy. Ol Peterbordan iydeyalyq túrghydan bayyp qaytty.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng elge qaytyp oraluy tuystary ýshin quanyshty habar boldy. Onymen birge dostary - Mәskeu uniyversiytetining studenti (aty-jóni belgisiz), tatardyng ghalym-aghartushysy Húsayyn Fayzhan, Shoqannyng jaqyn dosy I. I. Ibragimov jәne basqalar ere keledi.

Olardyng kelu qarsanynda Uәlihanovtar auyly jaylaugha kóship, jana Býrlik jayylymyna qonystanghan edi. Búl jerde Shoqannyng ziyan kelgen densaulyghyn jaqsartugha, demaluyna barlyq jaghday bar bolatyn. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng ókpe auruynan jazyluyna birden-bir em dep eseptegen taza aua, qymyz, qoy eti bar bolatyn *118.

Jergilikti Kókshetau oblysy qazaqtarynyng estelikteri boyynsha, Shoqan ýiining manayy ylghy abyr-sabyr, adamdargha toly bolghan. Kórshi auyldyng adamdary jas ghalymnyng qolyn alyp, sәlem beruge aghylyp kelip jatty. Kóbi әrtýrli mәseleler boyynsha aqyl-kenes alugha keletin.

Auylda Shoqan әrdayym halyq aqyndarynyn, anyz-ertegi aitatyndardyn, muzykanttardyng (qobyzghyshy, sybyzghyshy dombyrashy), әnshilerdin, ótkir tildi әzilkeshter men quaqy adamdardyng arasynda boldy. Olar ózderining әn-jyrlarymen, oiyndarymen, kórinisterimen onyng kónilin kóterip qana qoymay, sonymen qatar, oghan bay ghylymy material berdi. Múnday oiyn-sauyqtar keyde týnning bir uaghyna deyin jalghasatyn. I. I. Ibragimov: «keshki uaqyttarda Shoqan qyrghyzdardyng әnderi men әngimelerin tyndap úzaq otyratyn», - dep eske alady*119.

Shoqan, әsirese, qobyzshy Qúrymbay Qanghojanindi, әnshi Kóke Áljanovty, Shәkendi, jyrshy Kәrkeni, akrobat Ábe Toghjanovtardy qatty únatty. Ataqty qobyzshy, Shoqannyng atasy, halyq kýileri men lirikalyq әuen-derdi sybyzghy men dombyrada sheber oryndaytyn Qanghojanyng óneri ony jan rahatyna bóledi. Shoqannyn: «Baqyt - meniki, óner - Qanghojaniki», - degen naqyl sózi әli kýnge deyin saqtalghan. Shoqan Qanghojagha «Balbyrauyn», «Targhyl búqa» kýilerin ýnemi tartqyzyp otyrghan.

Shoqan Syrymbetke tayau Túranghúl kólining manynda túrghan ataqty Tulaq qobyzshynyng balasy Tólepbergenning de ónerine tәnti boldy. Ol halyq әuenderin qobyz ben sybyzghyda kelistire oryndaytyn daryndy jas boldy. Olar turaly әkeli-balaly kýishiler Túranghúlda kýy tartqanda, qobyz ben sybyzghynyng dauysy Syrymbet tauyna jetip jatady degen anyz bar.

Aqyndar men jyrshylardan Shóje men Toghjan, Orynbay men Arystanbay, aqyn Ajar qyz, әigili Shal aqynnyng úrpaghy Soqyr jyrau Shoqangha jii kelip túrghan. Shoqan auylda bolghanda, Shynghys әrqashan eng ýzdik әnshilerdi olardyng әnderin balasy jazyp alu ýshin shaqyratyn bolghan.

Auylda ómir sýre jýrip ghalym-aghartushy artta qalghan mesheulikting múndy kórinisine, eki jaqtan ezgide qalghan halyqtyng qasiretimen taghy da betpe-bet keldi. Ol otarlaushy sheneunikterding jýgensiz ozbyrlyghy men qazaq feodaldarynyng әdiletsizdigin kórdi. Ol múnday zorlyqqa tóze almady. Halyqtyng qúqyghyn qorghap, zorlyq-zombylyqqa qarsy túrady. Biraq ol utopiyalyq iydeyalargha berilip, «halyq baqytyn» jogharydan, «ókimet biyligimen» ornatugha bolady degen qate pikirde boldy. Ony Atbasar epizodynan (1862 j.), Uәlihanov óz kandidaturasyn Atbasardyng agha súltany bolugha saylauda úsynuynan kóruge bolady. «Men súltan bolyp óz otandastaryma payda keltirip, olardy sheneunikter men qazaq baylarynyng ozbyrlyghynan qorghayyn dep oiladym, - dedi Shoqan ózining F. M. Dostoevskiyge jazghan hatynda*120.

- Sondaghy bar oilaghanym - ózimning ýlgim arqy-ly jerlesterime bilimdi súltan - basqarushynyng olar ýshin paydaly ekenin kórsetkim keldi».

Shoqan, әriyne, súltan bolyp halyqtyng jaghdayyn jenildetip, olardy jýgensizdik pen zansyzdyqtan qorghaymyn dep tekke ýmittendi.

Degenmen de Sh. Uәlihanov ezushilerge qarsy kýresinde sol kezdegi qúqyqsyz qazaq halqynyng mýddesi men múqtajyn bildirdi. Sh. Uәlihanov mesheu kózqarastarmen jigerli kýresip, feodaldyq-patriarhtyq qúrylys tudyryp, qoldap otyrghan eski nanymdar men  әdetterge qarsy shyqty.

A. N. Maykovqa jazghan hatynda Shoqan: «Mening tuystarym... kóptegen últtyq ta, taptyq ta eskilik shyrmauynda. Ásirese, birbetkeylik, danqqúmarlyq birden kózge shalynady. Osydan-aq olardyng ózderi turaly ózderining aqyldylyghy turaly jәne basqalar basqalar turaly joghary pikirde bolatyny týsinikti. Ár týrli aqyl-kenester nemese dau-damay olardyng menmendigin tek titirkendiredi jәne qasarushylyqtaryn nyghaytady.

Kóppen jalghyz alysugha shama kelmesine kózim jetti, shyndyq qansha núrly bolghanymen, adasqan aqylgha sәule týsire almaydy eken, uaqyttyng ózi soghan sebepker bolsa amal bar ma?»*121 - dep jazdy.

Aghayyn-tuystarymen kelise almaghan song Shoqan Ombygha ketip qaldy. Múnda ol oblystyq basqarmanyng zang komissiyasynyng júmysyna aralasyp, qazaqtyng sot reformasy mәselelerimen ainalysty.

1864 jyldyng kókteminde Sh. Uәlihanov Ontýstik Qazaqstandy Reseyge qosu mindeti qoyylghan general M. G. Chernyaevtyng әskery ekspedisiyasyna shaqyryldy. Ol Áulieata bekinisin alu jolyndaghy әskery qimyldargha qatysty. Sh. Uәlihanov Ontýstik Qazaqstan men Orta Aziyanyng Reseyge qosyluy qan tógissiz, beybit jolmen bolu kerek dep sanady. Solay bolady dep ýmittenedi. General Chernyaevke joryqqa shygharda «beybit úsynystardan bas tartpay, jergilikti halyqpen aldyn ala kelissóz jýrgizu» úsynyldy. Osynday kelissózderge qatysu ýshin «orys pen tatar tilderin óte jaqsy biletin bilimdi aziyalyq, shtabs-rotmistr Uәlihanov» arnayy jiberildi*122. Biraq patshalyq otarshyl sayasattyng jaqtaushysy bolghan general M. G. Chernyaev Shoqannyng ghana emes, Reseydin, sol uaqyttaghy býkil aldynghy qatarly adamdarynyng narazylyghyn tudyrghan qatygez de aiuandyq әreketterge bardy.

Áriyne, Shoqan Uәlihanov múnday qatygez adamnyng qol astynda qyzmetin jalghastyra almady. 1864 jyldyng shilde aiynda ol M. G. Chernyaevtyng әreketterine narazy bir top ofiyserlermen birge Vernyy qalasyna qaytty.

Múraghat qújattary búl kezde Sibir kazak әskerlerining arasynda sayasy narazylyq, patsha ókimetining әreketterine qarsylyq kýsheye týskenin kórsetedi. Sibir kazak әskerleri ofiyserlerining sayasy senimdiligin tekseru ýshin Peterbordan Ombygha erekshe komissiya jiberildi. Onyng mindetterine qatang jazalau sharalaryn qoldanudan basqa, ofiyserlerden ant alu kirdi.

Qalyptasqan auyr jaghdaygha baylanysty Shoqan Ombygha barudyng qajettiligi joq dep sheshedi. Ol Vernyidan ketip, alban ruynyng agha súltany Tezek tórening auylyna bardy. Sonda túryp, onyng qaryndasyna ýilendi.

Auylda túryp Shoqan Úly jýz qazaqtarynyng tarihy anyzdaryn zerttep, Batys Qytaydaghy dúnghan kóterilisi jayly súrastyryp, Peterbor jәne Batys Sibir әkimshiligimen baylanysyp otyrdy.

Ol ómirining sonyna deyin Bas shtab pen Aziya departamentining qyzmetkeri retinde qyzmette tirkelip túrdy*123.

Shoqan Uәlihanov ózining mendey týsken nauqasynan aiygha almady. 1865 jyldyng sәuir aiynda Tezek tórening auylynda, Altyn Emel jotasyna jaqyn Kóshen-toghan degen jerde qaytys bolady*124.

Dýniyeden qaytardan biraz búryn Sh. Uәlihanov әkesine songhy hatyn joldady. Búl hatynda ol ózining tuysqandaryn, tanystaryn saghynghanyn jazyp, oryndalmay qalghan armandaryn aityp, ókinedi. «Qajydym, kýshim bitti, - deydi Shoqan, - qan-sólim ketip, qúr sýiegim ghana qaldy, keshikpey jaryq dýniyeden ketermin. Mening ayauly tuystarym men dostarymmen kórisudi taghdyr jazbay túr. Búl mening eng songhy hatym. Qosh bolynyzdar, barshanyzdy qúshaghyma aldym». Arada biraz uaqyt ótkennen keyin Syrymbetke Shoqannyng dýniyeden ótkeni jayly Tezekten hat keldi.

Shoqan әkesine joldaghan eng songhy hatynda: «Jetisugha kelip, beyshara Aysarany (әieli) elge alyp qaytynyz, ony qarausyz qaldyrmanyz», - dep jazghan edi. Shoqannyng osy aqyrghy tilegin oryndau ýshin 1865 jyldyng jazynda Kókshetaudan Altyn Emelge keruen jiberildi.

Keruenmen kelgender Sh. Uәlihanov ziratynyng basyna kýidirgen kirpishten kýmbez ornatty. Búl zirattyng fotosureti*125 men G. N. Po-taninning qaryndashpen salghan sureti saqtalghan*126. Keruen Shoqannyng әielin alyp keyin qaytty.

Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng beynesin onyng dostary men joldastary G. N. Potaniyn, N. M. Yadrinsev, G. A. Kolpakovskiy, I. I. Ibragimov, N. F. Usov jәne basqalar mәngi esterinde saqtady. Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng ghylym salasyna sinirgen enbegin este qaldyru ýshin general K. P. Kaufmannyng tapsyrmasy boyynsha jәne sәuletshi P. Zenkovtyng kómegimen XIX ghasyrdyng 70-shi  jyldary Sh. Uәlihanovtyng kesenesine qazaq jәne orys tilderinde jazylghan mәrmәr taqta ornatyldy. Búl jazbanyng sózderin K. P. Kaufmannyn*127 ózi jazyp, qazaq tiline I. I. Ibragimov (1891 j. Hidjazda reseylik konsul qyzmetinde qaytys boldy) audardy. K. P. Kaufmannyng tapsyrmasynda: «... jazudyng sózderin múqiyat jәne qatesiz ornalastyryp, isker sheberdi izdestiru kerek» delingen*128. Mәrmәr taqtany Ekaterinburgten aldyrtyp, Altyn Emelge Omby men Semey arqyly jetkizip, Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng ziratyna ornatty. Taqtadaghy jazuda: «Búl jerde 1865 jyly dýniyeden ótken shtabs-rotmistr Shoqan Shynghysúly Uәlihanovtyng sýiegi jatyr. Búl eskertkishti Uәlihanovtyng ghylymdaghy enbegi eskerilip, Týrkistan general-gubernatory Kaufman I-ng tilegi boyynsha general-leytenant Kolpakovskiy 1881 jyly ornatty» delingen*129.

Jazudyng alghashqy núsqasynda búdan әri «Búl qúlpytas bәrimizge sýiikti jәne qúrmetti marqúm Shoqan Uәlihanovqa qoyyldy», - degen jazu bolghan*130, keyin búl sózder alynyp tastalghan.

Sodan beri jýz jyldan astam uaqyt ótti, Sh. Uәlihanovqa ornatylghan eskertkish әldeqashan qirap, býlindi. Biraq qazaq halqynyng tamasha asyl perzentin býgingi úrpaq úmytqan joq. 1958 jyly Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng ziratyna zәulim eskertkish ornatyldy. Onyng 150 jyldyq mereytoyynyng qarsanynda, Shoqan atyndaghy kolhoz janynda memorialdy keshen salyndy (muzey, eskertkish, obelisk).

 

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Qazaqtyng asa kórnekti ghalymy әri aghartushysy Sh. Uәlihanov ózinen keyin mol әdeby múra qaldyrdy. Ózining qysqa ómirinde ol Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan halyqtarynyng tarihyna, geografiyasy men etnografiyasyna arnalghan birsypyra enbekter, sonday-aq edәuir kólemde qoghamdyq-sayasy taqyryptargha arnalghan enbekter jazyp ýlgerdi. Ol tereng ensiklopediyalyq bilimi bar, óz zamanyndaghy ghylymda birqatar mәselelerdi janasha kótere bilgen kemeldi iri ghalym edi. Derekti materialdardyng keng qamtyluy, qaralatyn mәselelerding kendigi, kóptegen sheshimderding negizdiligi qazirgi zertteushilerdi derekkózderding birkelkiligi retinde onyng enbekterine kónil bólude erekshe jigerlendirdi. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng shygharmalarynan naqty qorytyndy jәne ózi jýrgizgen zertteulerdi de, ertede ótken, halyq zerdesinde saqtalghan mәlimetterdi taba alamyz. Halyqtyq dәstýrler men anyz-әngimelerdi, kóptegen derekti materialdardy bilu oghan Qazaqstan tarihynyng eng qasiretti kezende keng kólemde jәne tereng zertteuge mýmkindik berdi*131.

Ózining ghylymy qyzmetin Sh. Uәlihanov kadet korpusynda oqyp jýrgen kezde-aq bastaghan bolatyn. Shyghystanushy I. N. Berezinning enbekterine qyzyghushylyq bildirip, Sh. Uәlihanov onymen hat jazysyp jәne onyng tapsyruymen qazaq tili salasy boyynsha biraz izdenis jasady. Sh. Uәlihanov sonymen birge, I. N. Berezinning «Han jarlyqtary» enbegine syn-pikir jazdy, ol onyng túnghysh ghylymy enbegi boldy. Qadyrghaly Jalayyrdyng «Djami'at-tauarihynan» kóp nәrseler alyp, alghash ret onyng negizgi taraularyn orys tiline audaryp, týsinikter berip, audarmagha qosymsha shyghys terminderining sózdigin jasady. Ol «Sheybaniy-name» men «Shejire-iy-týrktin» (I. N. Berezin basylymy) kóptegen jerlerin jazyp alyp, solardyng negizinde teoriyalyq jaghynan manyzdy «Qyrghyzdyng shejiresi» atty enbegin jazdy.

«Djami'at-tauarihty» Uәlihanov siyrek úshyrasatyn tarihy shygharma, XV, XVI ghasyrlardaghy qazaqtyng tarihy anyzdar jinaghy retinde baghalady. «Qyrghyzdyng shyghu tegi turaly anyzdar, - dep jazdy ol, - Úly jýzding jalayyr ruynan shyqqan qyrghyz jazghan «Djami' at-tauariyh» pen «Sheybaniy-namede» aitylghan jaylarmen dәleldenedi».

Osydan búryn aitylyp ótkendey, Sh. Uәlihanov birneshe shyghystyq jәne europalyq tilderdi jaqsy bildi. Sonyng arqasynda ol kóne derekkózderdi týpnúsqada oqugha mýmkindik aldy. Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan halyqtarynyng geografiyasyna, tarihyna qatysty materialdardyng orys tilindegisinen basqa, barlyq europalyq jәne shyghystyq derekkózdermen de qinalmay tanysa aldy. Ol úzaq ta múqiyat qarastyrghan parsy, arab, týrik tilderindegi derekkózder oghan jaqsy tanys boldy. Keyinnen Sh. Uәlihanov óz enbekterinde paydalanghan belgili «Babyrnama», «Tarih y Rashidiy», «Tazkira y Hodjaghan» (Qojalar tarihy) derekterin zerttedi.

1854 jyly K. K. Gutkovskiyding ekspedisiyasyna qatysqan Sh. Uәlihanov Qapal bekinisine kelip, osy arada Úly jýz qazaqtarynyng anyz-әngimelerin jazyp aldy. Odan búryn ol Ortalyq Qazaqstandaghy Botaghay (Núra ózeninde), Júban ana, Aytbolat (Sarysu ózeninde) sәulet eskertkishterin zerttegen bolatyn.

Ghylymy salada Sh. Uәlihanov ýshin 1856-1858 jyldar asa jemisti boldy. Jetisu ólkesinde ol kóne Almaty, Qoylyq, Almalyq qalashyqtaryn zerttep, kóne tiyn aqshalar kolleksiyasyn jinady, Tanbaly tas (Ile ózeninde), Sholaqtaudaghy jәne Jonghar qaqpasy manyndaghy tasqa qashalghan suretterdi, Ystyqkólding soltýstik jaghasy men Ayagóz ózenindegi balbal tastardyng týr-keskinin qaghazgha týsiredi.

Onyng Ystyqkól, Qúlja, Qashghar saparlarynda jazghan tamasha kýndelikteri, «Kóketay hannyng ólimi», «Ontýstik Sibir taypalary-nyng tarihy turaly eskertpeler» (№1 jazba) osy kezenge jatady.

Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng ghylymy enbekterining ishinde Jetisu, Ystyqkól, Tyani-Shani, Shyghys Týrkistangha arnalghan tarihiy-geografiyalyq sholu týrindegi - «Jonghar ocherkteri», «Qyrghyzdar turaly jazbalar», «Altyshar  nemese Qytaydyng Nan-Lu provinsiyasynyng hal-jayy turaly», (Kishi Búhara ) enbekteri ýlken qyzyghushylyq tughyzdy.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng qazaq halqynyng tarihy men etnografiyasy turaly zertteuleri, sonday-aq qazaq dalasyndaghy әleumettik-sayasy qarym-qatynastargha baylanysty maqalalarynyng ghylymy manyzy zor. Búlar - «Abylay», «Qyrghyzdardyng shejiresi», «Kóne dәuirdegi qazaqtardyng qaru-jaraghy men әskery jabdyqtary», «Shona batyr», «Sot reformasy turaly jazba», «Qyrdaghy músylmandyq turaly», «Qyrghyzdardaghy shamandyq qaldyqtary», «Qyrghyzdardyng kóshi-qony turaly» jәne t. b.

Keybir enbekterde Shoqan tarihshy, etnograf qana emes, әdebiyetshi, publisist, tamasha sóz zergeri ekenin de tanytady. Qazaq halyq poeziyasynyng teoriyasy men qyrghyz eposy «Manas» turaly ayaqtalmaghan zertteuleri de erekshe nazar audartady.

Qazaq әdebiyetining tarihy ýshin Sh. Uәlihanovtyng epistolyarlyq múrasy, orystyng kórnekti jazushylary men ghalymdarymen hat almasuy - erekshe manyzdy. Búl hattarda kýndelikterindegidey Uәlihanovtyng publistikalyq daryny aiqyn angharylady. «Eger Shoqannyng enbekterin qazaq halqynyng arasynda oqy alatyn ortasy bolghanda, - dep jazdy G. N. Potaniyn, - ol óz halqynyng kemengeri bolyp, ózimen pikirlesterding әdebiyet jaghynan jandanularyna negiz salghan bolar edi».

Sh. Uәlihanov kýndelikteri kórkem ocherk mәnerinde jazylghan, keyde lirikalyq sheginister jasap otyrady («Qúlja saparynyng kýndeligi», «Qashghar saparynyng kýndeligi»). Búl kýndelikterde tabighatty halyq ómirin tereng bilu arqyly jandy, tartymdy etip beyneleu bar. Qúlja kýndeliginde Shynjan halyqtarynyng eleuli tarihy kezenderi, túrmysy men mәdeniyeti, olardyng kóne dәuirden XIX ghasyrgha deyingi mәdeny baylanystary aitylghan. Onda Tyani-Shani men shekaralyq Jonghariya halyqtarynyng túrmysyn jandy qabyldau men qyzygha baqylau bar.

Sh. Uәlihanov sonymen qatar, Qazaqstan men Orta Aziyany mekendegen halyqtardyng auyz әdebiyetin, siyrek qoljazbalary men numizmatikalyq eskertkishterin, sfragistika, qolóner ýlgilerin qajymay-talmay jinaushy retinde de tanymal. P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy men F. R. Osten-Saken bylay dep jazdy: «Búl materialdardy jinau ýshin Uәlihanov ayanbay enbektenip, qarjysyn da júmsap, óz halqynyng anyz, jyr-dastandaryn múqiyat jazyp alyp jýrdi. Orta Aziya halyqtarynyng dialektilerin zerttey jýrip, kóne múralardy qymbatqa satyp aldy, ólimge bas tigip budda monastyrlarynan siyrek kezdesetin qoljazbalardy aldy»*132.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng Orta Aziya men Shyghys Týrkistandy zertteushi retinde ghylymgha sinirgen enbegin dýniyejýzi ghylymy tegis moyyndady. Onyng enbekteri orys, aghylshyn, nemis jәne fransuz tilderinde jariyalandy. Ghalymdar olardy layyqty baghalady, bәrinen búryn P. P. Semenov Tyani-Shaniskiy, I. V. Mushketov, M. I. Venukov, N. A. Aristov Shoqannyng búl enbekterine joghary bagha berdi. I. V. Mushketov atap ótkendey, Uәlihanovtyng Tyani-Shani men Jetisu geografiyasy jónindegi enbekteri «ghylymy manyzy zor, avtordyng bilimpazdyghy men bayqampazdyghyn tanytady». M. I. Venukov tauly Tyani-Shani elin ghylymy túrghyda zertteu, shynynda da, Uәlihanov pen Golubev enbegi dep baghalady. «Shoqan Shynghysúly Uәlihanov shyghystanu ghylymynda aqqan júldyzday jarq etti de joq boldy, - dep jazdy belgili ghalym V. I. Veselovskiy, - Orys shyghystanushylary ony ilude bir kezdesetin ghajayyp daryn iyesi dep tanydy jәne odan týrki halyqtarynyng taghdyry jóninde asa manyzdy janalyqtar ashady dep kýtken edi»*133. Reseyding iri shyghystanushy-ghalymdarynyng biri - Veselovskiyding búl qanatty sózderi Sh. Uәlihanov qyzmetin kópshilik moyyndaghan bagha bolyp tanyldy.

 

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Sh. Uәlihanovtyng sayasiy-әleumettik, filosofiyalyq kózqarastary kýrdeli tarihy kezende qalyptasty. XIX gh. 40-60 jyldary jýz jyldan astam uaqytqa sozylghan Qazaqstannyng Reseyge qosyluy prosesi ayaqtaldy. Biraq búl prosess birqalypty, tynysh ótpedi...  Sh. Uәlihanov: «qazir Shyghysqa elikteytin músylmandyq eskilik pen orys mәdeniyetine elikteytin janashyldyq arasynda birden bayqala qoymaytyn, biraq óte kýshti kýres jýrip jatyr*134», - dep kórsetti.

Sonymen qatar, Reseyding ózinde de shetki últ aimaqtarynyng ekonomikalyq jәne sayasy damuyna eleuli әser etken manyzdy oqighalar ótip jatty. XIX gh. ortasynda basybaylyq daghdarysqa baylanysty Reseyde sayasy jәne iydeologiyalyq kýres shiyelenise týsti. Halyq kýresining kýsheye týsuine baylanysty Reseyde basybaylyq jýieni joyyp, damudyng demokratiyalyq jolyna týsu mәselesi kýn tәrtibine qoyyldy.

Qazaqstandaghy, sonday-aq, Reseydegi sayasy jaghdaydyng shiyelenisui men kýrdelene týsui jalpy alghanda Sh. Uәlihanovtyng kózqarasyna әser etpey qoymady. Onyng shygharmalarynda qazaq halqynyng jandy mәseleleri kóterilip, ol halyqtyng qiyn tauqymetin jenildetuding jolyn izdedi. Ony qazaq halqynyn, Reseyding basqa halyqtarynyng taghdyry tolghandyrdy.

Jariyalanghan shygharmalar men múraghat materialdaryna jasalghan әleumettik taldau Sh. Uәlihanovtyng sayasiy-әleumettik kózqarasy Reseydegi patshalyq-basybaylyq qúrylymgha, patshalyq ýkimetting otarshyl sayasatyna qarsy aldynghy qatarly demokratiyalyq toptardyng kózqarasymen sәikes ekenin kórsetedi. Sh. Uәlihanov damudy qoldaushy, demokratiyalyq janarudyng jaqtaushysy bolyp, óz qoghamynyng keselderin jonggha úmtyldy. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng qyzmeti aghartushylyq sipatqa iye, biraq sonyng ózinde onyng enbekterinde sol kezdegi qoghamdyq qúrylysqa syny kózben qarau elementi de bar. Osynyng bәri Sh. Uәlihanovty aghartushy-demokrat, óz elining ýlken patrioty, tolyq mәnindegi gumanist dep ataugha qúqyq beredi.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng aghartushy-demokrat retindegi dýniyetanymy patsha ýkimetining qazaq dalasyna jer audarghan orys qoghamynyng bir bóligi - dekabrister men petrashevskiyshilerding yqpaly arqasynda, sonday-aq orystyng revolusioner-demokrattary N. G. Chernyshevskiy men N. A. Dobrolubovtardyng da yqpalynyng nәtiyjesinde qalyptasty. Sh. Uәlihanov dýniyetanymy qalyptasuynyng taghy bir kózi - qazaq halqynyng kóp ghasyrlyq mәdeniyeti, onyng sayasy tarihy, bostandyq pen tәuelsizdik jolyndaghy halyq kýresi boldy.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng kóptegen shygharmalaryna qazaq qoghamynyng búdan arghy tarihy damu joldary turaly oi  altyn arqau boldy. Sh. Uәlihanov jas kezi-aq tek orys halqynyng kómegi, orystyng aldynghy qatarly mәdeniyetimen baylanysta bolu arqyly ghana qazaq halqy ekonomikalyq, sayasy jәne mәdeny ilgerileu jolyna týse alady degen toqtamgha kelgen edi.

Ol ózining kóptegen shygharmalarynda óz halqynyng artta qalghandyghy turaly jany auyryp, halyq әli kýnge qoghamdyq damudyng «jasandy emes kezeni» formasynda ómir sýrip jatqanyn aitady*135. Sh. Uәlihanov Reseymen baylanysty odan әri nyghaytu qazaqtargha jan-jaqty ekonomikalyq jәne mәdeny damudyng kókjiyegin ashady dep sanady. Halyq mýddesin kózdep, ol últtyq túiyqtalu men shekteushilikke ashyqtan-ashyq qarsy boldy, halyqtar dostyghy, aldynghy qatarly eng damyghan últtardyng artta qalghan halyqtarmen baylanysta bolu iydeyalaryn qoldady.

Qazaqstannyng artta qalushylyghyn jongda Reseyding sheshushi rólin moyynday otyryp, alayda Sh. Uәlihanov osy maqsatta óz halqynyng últtyq derbestigining mýmkindigin joghaltugha jol berdi dep jansaq oy týyge bolmaydy. N. M. Yadrinsev «Shoqan óz halqyn sýiden ainyghan joq. Onyng armany - europalyq aghartushylyqty jәne halyqtyq qasiyetti saqtau», - dep jazdy*136.

Sonymen qatar, Sh. Uәlihanov qazaq dalasynda býlinshilik pen zansyzdyq ornatqan patshalyq otarshyl ókimetti batyl synady. Kóptegen shygharmalarynda, әsirese, orys dostaryna jazghan hattarynda ol qazaq halqynyng qaranghylyghyn paydalanyp ashyqtan-ashyq tonap jatqan patsha sheneunikteri turaly óte ashyna jazdy. «Ashyqtan-ashyq ayamay sorady...» *137, - dep dala әkimshiligi jayly yzamen jazdy.

Alayda, Sh. Uәlihanov qoghamdy týpkilikti qayta qúru ýshin radikaldy sharalardyng qajet ekenin týsinbedi, ol jamandyq tútas otarlyq jýiede emes, patshalyq әkimshilikting keybir ókilderinde dep qate úghyndy. Osydan kelip onyng әldeneshe ret reaksiyashyl sheneunikterdi liyberaldy kózqarastaghy adamdarmen almastyru әreketterin jasaydy.

Sh. Uәlihanov qoghamdyq ýrdisterdi týsindirude tútastay alghanda iydealistik baghyt ústandy, onyng shygharmalarynda tereng jәne taza oilar saqtalghan... Osy túrghydan alghanda, onyng «Sot reformasy jayynda» degen enbegi kóp qyzyghushylyq tudyrady. Búl enbeginde ol qalyng búqaranyng mýddesin kózdep, ýstem taptyng jýrgizip otyrghan reformalarynyng mәn-maghynasy jayly mәsele kótergen.

Qazaq dalasyndaghy әzirlenip jatqan sot reformasy jayly óz pikirin aita kelip, Sh. Uәlihanov reformalardy jýrgizgende qoghamdyq-tarihy prosesti eskerip, qoghamdyq ómirdegi әrtýrli faktorlardyng rólin saraptau kerek dep jazdy. Qoghamdyq reforma jýrgizuding manyzyn eskere kelip, Sh. Uәlihanov әleumettik is-sharalardyng negizinde jatqan týrli teoriyalargha syn kózben qarau qajet ekendigin atap kórsetti. Ol bylay dep jazdy: «...halyq reformasynan joghary túratyn manyzdy qoghamdyq reforma joq. Barlyq zang shygharushylar men reformatorlardyng qoghamgha paydany kózdep kelgeni jәne kózdeytini kýmәnsiz, biraq qogham damuyna paydaly, ziyan degen týsinik әr ghasyrda әrtýrli boldy. Qazir bizding aramyzda baghzy zamandardan beri kópshilik sanasyna sinip, búljymas aksiomagha ainalyp, kýndelikti tirlik pen daghdygha say qalyptasyp ketken kóptegen jabayy gipotezalar bar, ghylym olardyng qateligi men zamangha say kelmeytinin dәleldep otyr»*138.

Reformanyng tabighaty turaly aita kelip, Sh. Uәlihanov búl mәselening «ekonomikalyq jәne әleumettik» jaghyna basa nazar audardy, ol «halyqtyng eng manyzdy qajettilikterine qatysty» ekenin aita kelip, al «sayasy reformalar qajetti ekonomikalyq reformalardy jýrgizu qúraly ghana, sebebi әrbir jeke túlgha jәne tútas adamzat qoghamy eng basty maqsatqa - ózining materialdyq әl-auqatyn jaqsartugha úmtylady, damu degenimiz osy. Osy túrghydan alghanda, adamnyng túrmysyn jaqsartatyn reformalar ghana paydaly, al sol maqsatqa jetuge kedergi bolatyn reformalar ziyandy»*139 - dep týiindedi.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng qoghamdyq-sayasy janarudyng qozghaushy tetigi retinde ekonomikalyq jәne әleumettik faktorlargha birinshi kezekte mәn berui, qoghamnyng algha basuynyng sharty - qoghamnyng materialdyq qajettilikterin qamtamasyz etu ekenin týsingenin bayqatady. Alayda, onyng búl oilary dúrys jobalanghan әleumettik joba týrinde qalyptasa almady.

«Progress» úghymynyng mazmúnyn adamdardyng materialdyq әl-auqatyn jaqsartu retinde aiqynday kelip, Sh. Uәlihanov aghartushylyqty tek «aqiqat bilimdi» taratudy, mәdeniyetti kóteru arqyly osy qúraldardyng kómegi ghana progresske jetuge bolady dep sanady. «Halyqtyng qalypty damyp, ósui ýshin, - dep jazdy ol, - eng aldymen bostandyq pen bilim kerek. Búdan kelip shyghatyny, bәrinen búryn oqu qajet»*140.

Sh. Uәlihanov qoghamdyq qúbylystardy aghartushylyq túrghyda týsindiredi. Sol tarihy kezende múnday kózqarasta boluy onyng kóregendigin bayqatady, óitkeni aghartushylyq qaranghylyqpen kýresuge jetelep, zayyrly bilimning taraluyna yqpal etip, qazaq halqynyng týpkir-týpkirine aldynghy qatarly orys mәdeniyetining taraluyna qol jetkizdi.

Sot reformasynyng halyqqa qarsy tabighatyn anyqtay kelip, Sh. Uәlihanov baylar men kedeylerding mýddesi eki bólek ekenin aitady. Taptyq kýresting qoghamdy qozghaushy kýsh ekenin týsinbese de, Sh. Uәlihanov qazaq patriarhaldyq-feodaldyq qoghamynyng taptargha bólinuin: qoghamnyng erekshe qúqyqtargha ie taby - súltandar, biyler, baylar, qojalar bir jaqta jәne Sh. Uәlihanov aitqanday, «qyr proletarlary» kedeyler ekinshi jaqta ekenin anyq bayqay aldy. Búl taptardyng mýddeleri mýldem kerghar «...aqsýiekter men baylardyng mýddesi, tipti mәdeniyeti joghary qoghamda bolsyn, kóbinese qalyng búqara mýddesine dúshpandyq sipatta bolady»*141. Sh. Uәlihanovtyng kózdegeni - halyq mýddesine jauap beretin qazaq feodaldarnyng tobyna emes, «...súltandar men biylerding kózqarastary nazar audarugha túrarlyq emes, - dep kórsetti ol, - óitkeni býkil últtyng mýddesi qay jaghynan alyp qarasa da, jekelegen toptyng paydasynan basym túruy qajet»*142.

Sh. Uәlihanov qoghamdyq qúbylystardy týsindirude iydealistik ústanymdarda bolsa da, ol, jogharyda atalghanday, birqatar mәseleler boyynsha sol zamandaghy aqiqat qúbylystardy týsinude materialistik ústanymdargha kóterile aldy.

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng filosofiyalyq kózqarasy kónil audarugha túrarlyq, әsirese onyng adamdardyng diny senimi turaly pikirleri qyzyqty...

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng diny tanymdar mәnin týsindirui, әsirese, qazaqtardyng shamandyghy turaly aita kelip, filosofiyanyng negizgi mәselesi - materiya men sana baylanysyn materialistik túrghyda týsindirgenin kórsetedi. Aghartushy tabighat pen qorshaghan aqiqat-shyndyq adamnyng sanasynan tys (tәuelsiz) tirshilik etedi degen sheshimge keldi. Ol әlemning basyn da, ayaghyn da moyyndamaydy, әlemdi mәngilik jәne sheksiz dep sanaydy. Sonymen qatar, Sh. Uәlihanov adamdardyng diny týsinigining payda boluy tabighat kýshterining yqpalynyng aqiqat shyndyqtyng әlemdi týsinuge, onyng qúbylystaryn týsindiruge tyrysqan adamgha tiygizgen jәne adamnyng tabighat kýshteri aldynda dәrmensizdigining nәtiyjesi dep esepteydi. «Qyrghyzdardaghy shamandyq qaldyghy» maqalasynda ol: «Tabighat pen adam, ómir men ólim ýnemi tandanys tughyzatyn jәne qúpiyasy ashylmaghan erekshe qúbylys bolyp keldi. Tabighat pen adam! Adam men tabighattan asatyn tamasha әri júmbaq qúbylys tabylar ma eken? Býkil әlemdi onyng barlyq keremetimen tanugha, adamnyng ómiri men ólimi turaly qúpiyany ashugha degen talpynys shamandyqty - býkil әlemdi jәne tabighatty sýi, ólgen jandardyng aruaghyn qasterleudi tughyzdy. Osylaysha sanasy әli tolyqpaghan adam balasy kýndi, aidy, júldyzdy, taghy da sonday mәngilik әri әrtýrli biz tabighat nemese әlem dep ataytyn qúbylystargha bas iydi»*143...

Sh. Uәlihanovtyng ozyq aghartushylyq oilary onyng Orta aziyalyq handyghy turaly jazghandarynda jaqsy kórinis tapqan. Orta Aziya halyqtarynyng feodaldyq handar men bekterining ezuinen japa shegip jatqan ómirin jaqsy bilgendikten, ol ózining enbekterinde feodaldyq qúrylys pen despotizmdi synap, sol aimaqtyng artta qalghandyghyn ókinishpen: «Ejelgi Shyghystyng eng bay jәne bilimdi eli - Mәurenahrda, qazir qaranghylyq pen kedeyshilik jaylap ketken» deydi. Diny bilimnen basqa bilimdi moyyndamay, Samarqand, Tashkent, Ferghana..., Hiua, Búha-ra jәne basqa jerlerde... Samarqandtaghy observatoriya tatarlardyng ayausyz qolymen jasalghan vandalizmi men búqara inkvizisiyasynan ornyna kelmestey bolyp qirady*145. Sh. Uәlihanov Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan halyqtarynyng konservativti ómir sýru formalaryna belsendi týrde qarsy shyghyp, osy artta qalushylyq pen daghdarysty tudyratyn qoghamdyq qúrylystyng keselderin synady...

Úly qazaq ghalymy, aghartushy, Sh. Uәlihanovtyng tughan halqynyng bilim alyp, mәdeniyetining órleui, despotizm men zorlyq-zombylyqtan qútylyp, baqytty da azat ómir sýrui jayly oi-armandary ol dýniyeden ótkennen song kóp jyldardan keyin ghana jýzege asty... Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng qúrmetine Kókshetau oblysynda audan, Taldyqorghan jәne Kókshetau oblystarynda birneshe auyldar atalyp, Kókshetaudaghy pedagogikalyq institut pen Almatydaghy Tariyh, arheologiya jәne etnografiya instituty, №68 orta mektep pen kóshe aty ghalymnyng esimimen atalady. Almaty men Kókshetau qalalarynda Sh. Uәlihanovqa ornatylghan eskertkish bar. Shoqan beyitining basynda (Taldyqorghan oblysy, Altynemel asuy) obelisk jәne memorialdy keshen túrghyzylghan. Uәlihanovtyng qúrmetine qoghamdyq, geografiya ghylymdary salalarynda jetken tabystar ýshin QazSSR GhA syilyghy jәne kórkem óner men sәulet óneri salasyndaghy jetistikter ýshin Memlekettik syilyq taghayyndaldy. Ile Alatauynyng soltýstik baurayynda orta Talghar bastauynda Uәlihanovtyng qúrmetine shyng bar. Omby qalasyndaghy Shoqan oqyghan búrynghy Kadet korpusynyng ghimaratyna eskertkish taqta qoyylghan. Songhy shiyrek ghasyrda úly aghartushynyng mereytoyy jalpyhalyqtyq dengeyde eki ret (1959, 1985) atalyp ótip, onyng tandamaly shygharmalary basyldy (1961-1972, 1984-1985 jyldar). Jazushylar G. Markov, S. Múqanov Shoqan turaly roman jazsa, I. Strelkova «Jizni zamechatelinyh ludey» atty seriya boyynsha «Ch. Valihanov» atty kitap shyghardy...

 

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