Sәrsenbi, 10 Tamyz 2022
Aymaq 10497 22 pikir 27 Nauryz, 2020 saghat 12:31

Shynjang taghdyrynyng shyrghalangha týsui

Býgingi kýnderi Shynjang atalyp ketken Qytaydyng soltýstik-batys aumaghynyng Altay, Tarbaghatay, Ile aimaqtary ejilgi qalmaq qonysy bolghanymen, keyinnen qalmaq eli qytaydan jenilip, ayausyz qyrghyn tapqan song búl aimaqtargha birtindep qazaqtar qonys tepti. Sonau 1757-1758 jyldary osy aty atalghan aimaqtarmen qosa qazirgi qytay elindegi Jarkent, Qashghar qalalaryn Sin imperiyasy basyp aldy. Sonday-aq 1760 jyly búl orasan zor aimaqqa «Sini-Szyan» (jana ólke) degen atau berip, ózderining territoriyasy retinde iyelene bastady.

Degenmen, qytaylar qalalyq el bolghandyqtan búl ónirlerge birden kele qoymady. Ormanday qalyn qalmaqtyng kóneden ataqonysy bolyp kelgen Jonghar Alatauynyng úlan-baytaq arghy jәne bergi aumaghy (suly da nuly Jetisu óniri, Ile ózenining atyraby, qyrghyz elining kóp bóligi, Tarbaghatay, Zaysan jәne Gýrshim (Kýrshim) manayy) biraz jyldargha iyen qaldy. 

Osynau shúrayly aimaqtardyng bos qalghanyn angharghan qazaq jaghy Abylay hannyng kóregen sayasatynyng arqasynda, Sin dinastiyasymen kelissózder jýrgizip, jylyna 1000-day arghymaq beru arqyly jaz jaylauyna paydalanugha kelisti. Kele-kele osy aty atalghan qúnarly ónirler qazaqtyng atamekenine ainaldy. 

Al tәuelsizdik jolynda ýzdiksiz últ-azattyq kýresin jýrgizgen úighyr halqy XVIII-XX ghasyrlarda tәuelsizdik ýshin Qytaygha qarsy 400-den asa kóterilis jasady. Ásirese, XIX ghasyrdyng óne boyynda ýzdiksiz úighyr qojalary basqarghan kóterilister kólemi men sayasy maqsaty jóninen joyqyn boldy. Biraq 1851 jylghy Resey men Qytay arasyndaghy Qúlja kelesiminen keyin ózara qarym-qatynasyn jaqsartqan eki imperiya onsyz da basy qosylmay jatqan Úighyr handyqtary men súltandyqtaryn eki jaqtan talay bastady. Al 1864 jyldyng 7 qazanyndaghy Resey men Sin imperiyasy arasyndaghy Shәueshek kelisimi býtin otyrghan qazaq júrtyn túnghysh ret bóliske saldy. Mine, osy kezden bastap «Resey qazaqtary» jәne «Qytay qazaqtary» degen atau payda boldy. 1871 jyly Resey imperiyasynyng әskerleri Ile súltandyghyn basyp alghanymen, 1879 jylghy Livady kelisimi boyynsha ol aimaqty Qytaygha qaytaryp berdi. 1884 jyly Sin imperiyasy úighyriyagha qaytadan «Siniszyan» degen atau berdi.

Resey patshasynyng 1916 jylghy atyshuly jarlyghy nәtiyjesinde Qazaqstan men Orta Aziyada bolghan últ-azattyq kóterlisterden keyin, patsha ókimetining jazalaushy әskerlerinen qashqan qazaqtar men basqa da týrki halyqtar Shynjangha ótip, ol jerdegi orys emigranttarynyng ýlken shoghyryn qúrady. Mine, osy kezennen bastap RK (b) POK Sayasy burosy Shynjan mәselesin erekshe nazarda ústady. Shynjandaghy Qytay biyligi de kenestik Reseymen jaqsy qarym-qatynas jasaugha mýddeli boldy. Sebebi Shynjan ekonomikasynda basty ról atqaratyn syrtqy sauda- sattyqta Resey negizgi basymdyqqa ie bolatyn. 

1920 jyly Shynjang ókimeti Pekinning kelisimi boyynsha Qúljagha kenestik sauda-diplomatiyalyq missiyasyn kelissózderge shaqyrdy. Sonyng nәtiyjesinde, 1920 jyly 27 mamyrda Qúlja qalasynda Shynjang men kenestik Resey arasyndaghy saudany rettep otyratyn kenestik agenttikti ashu jónindegi Ile kelisimi jasaldy. Kelisim boyynsha ekijaqty sauda Qorghas arqyly ótetin jalghyz jolmen jasalatyn boldy. Mine, osy kezden bastap, ShÚAR biyligi Kenestik Reseyding aitqanyn istep, Shynjangha shoghyrlanghan aqgvardiyashylardyng negizgi oshaghyn jonggha kómektesti. Olardyng A.IY.Dutov, B.V.Anenkov, N.A.Denisov siyaqty basshylarynyng kózi joyyldy. Eki el arasynda asa ýlken manyzgha ie bolghan keruen saudasy ornady. Kenes memleketinen Shynjangha qant, sirinke, múnay ónimderi, matalar, jipter, temir men shoyynnan jasalghan búiymdar, ydys-ayaq jәne t.b. shygharylsa, ol jaqtan bylghary, teri, jýn, óndelmegen jibek, maqta, shay, temeki, jylqy, iri qaramal, kepken jemis-jiydekter tasymaldandy. 1926 jyly ekijaqty sauda 1913 jylghy dengeyge jetse, 1929 jyly ol dengeyden 63,2 payyzgha asyp ketti.

Kenes Odaghy basshylyghynyng XX ghasyrdyng 30-jyldarynda Shynjangha qatysty qabyldaghan sheshimderine qarap, Shynjynnyng tolyqtay QSRO dotasiyasyna kóshkenin kóruge bolady. Ásirese, 1933 jyly aqgvardiyashylardyng kómegimen Shynjang biyligine kelgen Shyn Shisaydyng kezinde Kenes - ShÚAR qarym-qatynasy erekshe qarqynmen damydy, 1933 jyldyng tamyzy kýni ótken BK (b) POK Sayasy burosynyng mәjilisinde Shynjang ekonomikasyn damytu jónindegi sharalar turaly qauly qabyldandy. Sayasy buro Shynjangha 4 payyz jyldyq ósimmen 5 mln altyn rubli qaryz berip, ony altyn, qalayy, teri, jýn jәne t.b. tauarlar arqyly qaytarudy mindettedi. 

Shynjang biyligining jetekshisi Shyn Shisaydyng IY.V.Stalinge jazghan hattarynda, onyng sheksiz jaghympazdyghy men «kópshik» bola bilerlik qabiletining keremettigine tәnti bolasyz. Onyng hattary «Mening eng senimdi jolbasshylarym Staliyn, Molotov, Voroshilov...» dep bastalyp, «Marksizm-leninizmge jәne Stalinge berilgen jәne Sizding núsqaularynyzdy jýzege asyrushy Shyn Shisay» dep ayaqtalady eken. Ekinshi jaghynan, Sayasy buro Shynjandaghy antiykenestik elementterding kózin jong kezinde osy Shyn Shisaydyng kómegine jýgindi. Jergilikti músylman halyqtarynyng últ-azattyq qozghalysyn basuda asqan qatigezdigi jәne ayarlyghymen kózge týsken Shyn Shisay QSRO basshylyghynyng qoltyghyna kire otyryp, ózining Shynjandaghy sayasy biyligin nyghaytty. QSRO otyzynshy jyldardyng ekinshi jartysynda Shynjannyng ekonomikasyn tolyq monopoliyalap, tipti jergilikti valutanyng kursyna әser ete bastady. Sonau 1933 jyldyng jazynda Sәbit Damolla jәne Múhammed Emin Búghra basshylyghymen qúrylghan Shyghys Týrkistan Islam Respublikasynyng ózi aqgvardiyalyq әskerlerding kiyimin kiygen OGPU-dyng 13-shi Almaty polky men 10-shy Tashkent polky әskery qyzmetkerlerining kýshimen talqandaldy.

Osynday jaghdayda, jergilikti qytaylyq biylik ókilderining ózi Shynjannyng QSRO-gha qosyluy turaly mәseleni birneshe ret kóteredi. XX ghasyrdyng 30 jyldarynyng óne boyynda IY.V.Stalinning qoltyghyna kirip, kenestik sayasattyng qoljaulyghyna ainalghan Shynjang dubany Shyn Shisay 1942-43 jyldary ashyq antiykenestik baghyt ústap, imperator Chan Kayshy biyligin qolday bastaydy. Shyn Shisaydyng osynday sayasatynan keyin, Kenes Odaghy búghan arnayy sheshim qabyldaugha mәjbir bolady. L.P.Beriya, S.Kruglov, V.Abakumovtyng Stalinge joldaghan bayanhatynda, osy sheshimdi oryndau ýshin Shynjang ólkesine jasyryn týrde arnayy adamdar jiberilip, qytaylargha qarsy kóterilis úiymdastyru júmysynyng qarqyndy jýrip jatqandyghy aitylady.

Mine osy úiymdastyru jәne ýgit-nasihat júmysynyng nәtiyjesinde – Altay, Tarbaghatay jәne Ile aimaqtarynyng qazaqtary kóterilis jasap (Ospan batyr kóterilisi) Shynjandaghy qytay jasaqtaryn talqandaydy (eskerterimiz, úiymdastyrumen qatar, kóterilisti tolyqtay qaru-jaraqpen jәne oq-dәrimen Kenes Odaghy qamtamasyz etken). Sóitip, 1944 jyldyng 7 qarashasynda Qúlja qalasynda Shyghys Týrkistan respublikasy qúrylady. Degenmen, osy arada bizding taratyp aitarymyz; - Shynjanda, óz uaqytynda úighyrlardyng kýshimen 1933 jyly Shyghys Týrkistan Islam respublikasy qúrylsa jәne Stalindik biylikting qoldauymen jәne úiymdastyruymen Ospan batyr jasaghan kóterilisting arqasynda Shyghys Týrkistan respublikasy qúrylghan bolatyn. Bizding taghy bir aitarymyz, kezinde osy qytaylyq imperator Chan Kayshy ýkimetine qarsy orystar óz uaqytynda Monghol respublikasyn úiymdastyrsa, keyinnen osy Shyghys Týrkistan respublikasyn dýniyege keltiredi. Sol kezderdegi qújatty derekterge qarasan, Kenes biyligining josparynda Manichjuriyanyng ortalyghy Harbin qalasy qylyp, taghy bir derbes respublika qúru mejelengen eken. Sóitip, Chan Kayshy basqarghan eldi múhiytqa qaray iyterip tastamaq bolghan (kezinde F.E.Dzerjinskiyding memlekettik qauypsizdik kommiytetine kirgizgen, ishten shalu, talqandau teoriyasy).

Biraq, Qytaydyng komunistik partiyasynyng jetekshisi Mao Szedun bastaghan armiya Chan Kayshy ýkimetin talqandap, býkil qytaylyq biylikti óz qolyna alady. Osy orayda, 1945 jyly Mao Szedun men Stalindik biylik kelisim shartqa otyryp, ózara dostyq qarym-qatynas ornatady. Búdan әri orystargha Shyghys Týrkistan respublikasy kereksiz bolyp qalady. Kezinde ózderi úiymdastyrghan Monghol jәne Shyghys Týrkistan respublikasynyng bireuin qytaylargha jyghyp beru kerek boldy. Aqyry, keyinnen úiymdastyrylghan Shyghys Týrkistan respublikasyn talqandau ýshin qytaylargha erik beredi. Al, Monghol respublikasy Choybalsannyng (Monghol partiyasynyng jetekshisi) orystargha qayta-qayta kelip ótinish jasauynyng arqasynda saqtalynyp qaldy (Monghol basshysy Stalinge kire almay, Molotov kabiynetinde ókpesin bildirip, kózine jas alyp otyryp alghan eken). Mao Szedun búl respublikany da óz elining qúramyna kirgizuge IY.V.Stalinge talay ret ótinish jasaghan bolatyn. Sóitip, kenestik IY.V.Stalin basqarghan Sayasy buro Shynjang músylmandarynyng taghdyrymen oinap, ózderi qúrghan memleketti óz qoldarymen túnshyqtyrdy. Mine, Kenester Odaghy Sayasy burosynyng Shynjangha qatysty osynday sheshimderi óreskel sayasy qatelik boldy. 

1953 jyly IY.V.Stalinning ornyna kelgen N.S.Hrushev toby 1956 jyly ótken partiyanyng XX sezinde «jeke basqa tabynushylyqty» aiyptady. Mine, osy kezden bastap KSRO men QHR biyligi arasyna jik týsip, salqyndyq payda boldy. Osynyng barlyghy Shynjandaghy músylman túrghyndarynyng jaghdayyna orasan zor keri әserin tiygizdi. Qalay dep aitsaqta, osy ólkedegi týrki – músylman elderining sonau 1944 jyly qol jetkizgen sayasy tәuelsizdigi óz besiginde túnshyqtyryldy. Al endi, Monghol eli Stalin men Molotovtyng kónil jyqpastyghynyng arqasynda qytaygha qosyludan әzerge aman qalsa, Shyghys Týrkistan respublikasy jәne onyng týrkileri kenes biyligining qytaylargha rúqsat beruimen azattyghynan mәngilik aiyrylyp, shýrshit elining qúramyna qosyldy.

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