Seysenbi, 24 Qarasha 2020
COVID-19 QAZAQSTANDA. Júqtyrghandar — 126182. Jazylghandar — 112806. Qaytys bolghandar — 1945
Alashorda 5816 52 pikir 9 Mamyr, 2020 saghat 13:51

Resey gerbindegi tazqaranyng shyn iyesi kimder?

Qytay imperiyasy jýndi halqyn ydyratqan b.d.d. III ghasyrda Shynjanda otyrghan yuechjiylerdi honyr (huni) halqynan shyqqan top basyp alghan. Óitkeni, qytay jazbasynda Usun knyazdigin hunimo biylegeni, hunimo әieldi tek huni (honyr) halqynan ghana alghandyghy jәne taq múragerligi tek huni qyzynan tughan adamgha tiyesili bolghany turaly bayandalghan (1). Demek, Shynjanda otyrghan yuechjiylerdi honyr (huni) halqy ókilderi biyledi, memleketi qytay jazbasynda Usun dep kórsetiledi (Ýisýn).

Usun knyazdigin biylegen honyr (huni) halqy adamdary ózderin «honyrmyn» dep ataghan («honyr halqy adamymyn» degen maghynada). Honyr halqyn «huni» dep ataghan «r» dybysy joq qytay, «honyrmyn» deytin Ýisýn biyleushilerin de «hunimo» dep jazbalaryna engizgen. Al qytay derekterindegi «Usun» atauy әuelde «y-sun» bolyp jazylghan degen jón. Qytay derekteri yuechjy taypasynyng b.d.d. V ghasyrda bolghanyn aighaqtasa, «usun» atauy tek b.d.d. II ghasyrda payda boldy. Qytaylar húndardy (huni) «sun» dep te ataghan (maghynasy – jabayy, taghy). Fransuz tarihshysy Marseli Grane qytay derekterindegi «y-sun» atauynyng maghynasy «biyleushi sun» («sun patsha») ekenin jazghan. Usun knyazdigin biylegender – huni (honyr) halqynyng ókilderi, yaghny patsha «sun» halqy adamy. Osy sebepten qytaylar «sun-patsha» biylegen knyazdikti «iy-sun» dep ataghan («Sun patsha knyazdigi» degen maghynada). Al yuechjiyler men húndar ol ataudy «Ýisýn» dep qabyldaghan, sondyqtan qytay jazbalary da keyin «y-sun» sózin «Usun» dep jazady.

Qytay derekteri yuechjiyler men uysunder bir ghasyrda bir jerde otyrghanyn dәleldeydi. Búl jayt ghalymdardy tyghyryqqa tireytinin Lev Gumiylev atap ótedi. Resey imperiyasynyng oqymystylary «ngechjiyler parsy tildi, al uysunder týrki tildi, olar – ózara tuystyghy joq derbes eki halyq» degen tújyrym jasaydy. Al qytay jazbalary Ýisýn knyazdigimen baylanysty oqighalarda olardy keyde «yechjiy», keyde «uysun» dep ataghan. Osy derekter eki ataudyng da bir taypa-halyqqa tiyesili ekenin dәleldeydi. Alayda Resey imperiyasy ataqty Toharstan men Kushan patshalyqtaryn ornatqan yuechjiylerding týrkitildiler ekenin moyyndaghysy kelmedi. Olar qol astyndaghy týrki tildi últtardyng danqty tarihy ashylghanyn qalamady. Resey sol sebepten Lev Gumiylevting «eki taypa ol aimaqty kezek-kezek iyelengen bolar» degen boljamyn naqty tújyrym etti (2).

Qytay imperiyasynyng Orta Aziyamen jәne Tayau Shyghyspen sauda qatynasyn jasauyna ortada ornalasqan Ýisýn knyazdigi kedergi bolyp keldi. Sebebi, Ýisýn knyazdigin biylegender qytaydyng basty jauy húng (honyr-huni) halqynan shyqqandar bolatyn. Naqtyraq aitsaq, Ýisýn knyazdigi Húng imperiyasy yqpalynda edi. Qytay imperiyasy qalayda Ýisýn knyazdigin Húng (huni) imperiyasy yqpalynan shygharudy maqsat etken. Sondyqtan b.d.d. II ghasyrdyng basynda Ýisýn memleketine arnayy elshi jibergen. Qytay jazbasy ol elshini «yechjy elimen odaqtasu ýshin jiberilgen» dep kórsetedi. Alayda, onyng Ýisýn knyazdigimen jaqsy qarym-qatynas ornatqanyn angharamyz. Osy derekting ózi «ýisýn» men «iechji» degen bir elding eki týrli atauy ekenin naqty dәleldeydi. Demek, Shynjandaghy Ýisýn knyazdigining halqy yuechjy taypasy bolghan. Yaghni, yuechjy taypasynyng memleketi Ýisýn dep atalghan.

Ýisýn knyazdigin biylegen honyrdy (huni)  jazbasyna «hunimo» dep engizgen sol qytay elshisi. Osydan song qytay jazbalary Ýisýn knyazdigin biylegenderdi hunimo dep kórsetudi әdetke ainaldyrghan. Qytay imperiyasy sol elshining artynsha Ýisýn biyligine óz qyzdaryn úzatu arqyly tuystyq baylanys ornatqanyn, al b.d.d. I ghasyrda qytaylyq әielding yqpalyna týsken Ýisýn biyleushisi Húng (huni) imperiyasymen qarym-qatynasyn birjolata ýzgenin qytay jazbalary aighaqtaydy.

Qytay imperiyasy b.d.d. II ghasyrda qazirgi Shynjandaghy Ýisýn knyazdigimen baylanys ornatty. Al sol ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynda Shynjannan shyqqan yuechjiyler Orta Aziyany basyp alyp (4), óz patshalyghyn qúrdy (ol tarihta Kushan patshalyghy dep atalghan). Osy eki tarihy oqigha ózara tyghyz baylanysty, yaghni, Shynjandaghy shaghyn Ýisýn knyazdigi Qytay imperiyasy kómegimen Orta Aziyany basyp aldy. Osylaysha shaghyn knyazdik alyp, Ýisýn imperiyasyna ainaldy.

Parfiya patshalyghyn biylegen Arynsaq (aranshah) dinastiyasy men Shynjannan kelgen yuechjiyler arasynda b.d.d. II ghasyrda bolghan soghys grek jazbalarynda bayandalady. Sol soghystar nәtiyjesinde Parfiya patshalyghy Orta Aziyadan airylyp, tek Iran men Zakavkaziede óz biyligin saqtap qaldy. Osylaysha jýndi halqynyng eki taypasy ornatqan eki imperiya Orta Aziyada kórshi bolyp ornyqty. Ýisýn-iechjy eli Qytaydyng әskery kómegin qoldanghan tәrizdi, qalay bolghanda da Úly Jibek Jolynyng payda boluy sol oqighalarmen tyghyz baylanysty (3).

Osylaysha Qytaydyng jibekpen sauda jasauyna jol ashylyp, sol ghasyrda Úly Jibek Joly dәuiri bastaldy. Ghalymdar Orta Aziyada Parfiya patshalyghynan bólek, taghy bir imperiya bolghanyn tek XIX ghasyrda aita bastady. Ol patshalyqty ornatqan Shynjannan kelgen yuechjiyler ekeni anyq. Bir biyleushisining Kushan Gerey degen esiminen bolar, Resey ol imperiyany Kushan patshalyghy dep tariyhqa engizdi (5). Dúrysynda ony ornatqan Shynjandaghy Ýisýn knyazdigi biyleushileri edi, sondyqtan imperiyanyng óz atauy Ýisýn patshalyghy bolu kerek.

Qytay jazbalary Ýisýn memleketi batys, shyghys jәne ortalyq degen ýsh aimaqtan túratynyn bayandaydy (6). Osy derekting ózi taudaghy shaghyn Ýisýn knyazdigi ýsh aimaqtan qúralghan alyp imperiyagha ainalghanyn dәleldeydi. Jogharydaghy derekterge sýiensek, ýisýnderding tanbasy «qargha» beynesinde bolghan. Úqsastyqtaryn paydalanyp, «tazqara» atauyn «qargha» dep búrmalaghan keyingi qytay jazbalary tәrizdi nemese shyndyqty jasyru niyetimen «tazqara» atauyndaghy «qara» sózin «qargha» dep audartyp tariyhqa engizgen Resey sayasaty boluy mýmkin. Óitkeni, kóringen jerde tezek shúqyghan sansyz qarghany memleket tanbasy etu aqylgha syiymsyz. Grek derekteri Toharstan knyazdigin ornatqan yuechjiylerde grifongha (tazqara) syiynu dәstýri bolghanyn rastaydy. Al yuechjy men ýisýn bir taypa-elding eki týrli atauy ekenin eskersek, Ýisýn imperiyasy tanbasy tazqara (grifon) bolghany anyq.

Ghalymdar Shynjandaghy Ýisýn knyazdigi halqy jýndi halqyna jatatynyn moyyndaydy. B.d.d. II ghasyrda ýisýnder jýndiler tәrizdi kók kózdi, qyzyl shashty bolghany mәlim. Alayda, ormansyz Orta Aziyadaghy keyingi myng jyldyqta olardyng kók kózi men qyzyl shashy ózgergen (b.d.d. II ghasyr men b.z. VIII ghasyr aralyghy). Qytay jazbalary Ýisýnder otyryqshy jәne kóshpeli eki toptan túratynyn, olardyng tas pen kirpishten qalalar salatyn otyryqshylary bolghanyn jәne húng (huni) halqy tәrizdi kóshpendileri de kezdesetinin bayandaydy. Ýisýn imperiyasynda qalalardyng óte kóptiginen «bir qalanyng әteshterining shaqyruyn ekinshi qala túrghyndary estiytinin de» kórsetken sol qytay jazbalary. Osy derekter ýisýn-iejchiylerding taularda tas qorghandar salghan jýndi halqyna jatatynyn aighaqtaydy. Basty keyipkerining biri samúryq qúsy bolghan Er Tóstik ertegisi tazqara qúsyna (samrúh) syiynghan jýndi halqyna tiyesili dep baylam jasaugha da bolady.

Ýisýn imperiyasyn biylegen honyr (hunimo) toby ekige bólinip ózara jaulasqany, biri Húng (huni) imperiyasymen baylanysyn ýzbey Qytaygha jau kýiinde qalghany, al ekinshisi qytay әskeri kómegimen biyligin saqtap, Qytay imperiyasynyng odaqtasyna ainalghany jazylghan tarihy qújattar bar. Olardyng biylikten airylghan toby yuechjiylerding ózderine baghynyshty bóligin ertip, Teniz kóli (qazirgi Kaspiy tenizi) jaghalauyna ketken (Orta Aziya týgeldey Ýisýn imperiyasy aimaghy bolghandyqtan, onda syimaghan). Qytay jazbalary kórsetken osy oqighalardy reseylikter «ýisýnder men yuechjiyler qaqtyghysy» dep týsindirip keldi.

 iyechjy atauynyng shejiresi

ngechjiy atauy «oshaq» degen sózding qytaysha dybystaluy bolyp tabylady. Sóz basynda kelgen «o» әrpi qytaysha «ye» dep dybystalady, sondyqtan  «oshaq» atauy qytaysha «yechjaky» dep aityluy tiyis. Qytaylar bóten ataulardy qysqartyp aitatyn halyq, mәselen oshaq taypasyn «yechjaky» deuding ornyna, «ngechjiy» dey salghan. Qytay jazbalary yuechjiyler b.d.d. V ghasyrda ómir sýrgenin dәleldeydi. Yaghni, oshaq taypasy osydan 2 600 jyl búryn bar bolghan. Esik qorghanynan tabylghan Altyn adamnyng saq hanzadasy ekeni jәne onymen birge eski týrkilik jazuy bar tostaq tabylghany belgili. Sol tostaqtaghy jazudyng «Agha saghan oshaq» degen sóz ekenin ghalymdar dәleldedi. Altyn adamnyng b.d.d. V ghasyrda ómir sýrgeni anyqtalghan, yaghny oshaq (yechji) taypasynyng ómir sýrgen zamany. Sonda tostaqty Altyn adamgha oshaq eli biyleushisi syilaghanyn, ondaghy «agha saghan oshaq» sózi arqyly ol óz dәrejesining joghary ekenin eskertkenin kóremiz.

Qazirgi oshaqty taypasy tasjýrek, atalyq, qonyr jәne bayly degen tórt rudan túrady. Oshaqtynyng tórt ruy da yuechji-ýisýnder jayly derekterde kezdesedi:

*Grek jazbalaryna sensek, yuechjiylerde Ata ruy bolghan, osy ataugha «lyq» jalghauyn qossaq, «atalyq» bolyp shyghady. Almaty túrghynyn «almatylyq» degendey, Ata ruy adamdaryn «atalyq» deumen oshaqtynyng atalyq ruy qalyptasqan (Ata ruy oshaq-ngechjiylerdi honyr (huni) tobyna deyin biylegen tәrizdi).

*Al oshaqtynyng qonyr ruy yuechji-oshaq elin nemese Ýisýn memleketin biylegen honyrlardan (huni), yaghny «hunimo» (honyrmyn) tobynan qalyptasqan.

*Oshaqty taypasynyng basym bóligin tasjýrek ruy qúraydy, onyng taz degen jeke tarmaghy bar. Qazirgi Tәjikstan aumaghyn basyp alghan yuechjiyler grifongha (tazqara) syiynatyndyqtan shashtaryn taqyrlap qyryp tastaytynyn, osy sebepten olar ornatqan knyazdik tariyhqa Toharstan bolyp engenin grek jazbalary aighaqtaydy. Ol memleketti ornatqan әri biylegen oshaq-iyechjiyler bolghanymen, halqy parsy tildi boldy jәne sol memlekette tәjik últy qalyptasty.

Qyrghyz tarihshylary Toharstandy yuechjiylerding Taz degen ruy (jigi) ornatqan dep tújyrymdaydy jәne qyrghyzdaghy Tazly ruy solardan taraydy dep sanaydy. Toharstan knyazdigin ornatqan oshaq-yechjiylerding Taz ruy oshaqtynyng tasjýrek ruy qúramynda saqtalghan (arghynda da taz ruy boluy arghyn men oshaqtynyng arghy tegi jýndi halqynan ekenin bayqatady). Grek derekterindegi oshaq-yechjiylerding tazqara qúsyna syiynghanyn eskersek, onda oshaq-iechjiylerding negizgi bóligi ózin «tazjýrek» dep ataghan degen tújyrym jasaghanymyz dúrys («tazqara qúsynday jýrektimiz», yaghny «batylmyz» degen maghynada). Oshaq-yechjiylerding basym bóligi bolghan sol tazjýrek ruy – qazirgi oshaqty taypasynyng basym bóligin qúraytyn tasjýrek ruynyng tap ózi.

*Qytay jazbasynda jýndilerding jeti taypalyq odaghy «baydy» dep kórsetilgen. Solardyng oshaq-ngechjiylerge kelip qosylghandarynan oshaqty taypasynyng bayly ruy qalyptasqan. Jýndilik jeti taypa odaghynan bolghandyqtan, olardyng oshaq-ngechjiylerden dәrejesi joghary bolmasa, kem emes. Osy sebepten bolar, bayly ruy «oshaqtynyng joly ýlkeni» sanalady.

Osylaysha ýisýn-iechjiyler qúramyndaghy ata, honyrmyn (hunimo), taz jәne baydy toptary men ýisýndik oshaqty taypasynyng atalyq, qonyr, tasjýrek jәne bayly rulary ózara baylanysty ekenin anyq kóremiz. Demek, qytaylar «yechjiy» degen taypa-elding óz atauy – oshaq. Sun (huni) toby biylegendikten qytay ol eldi «y-sun» («sun patsha eli») dep ataghan, osy qytaylyq atau yqpalymen oshaq-yechjy taypasy óz memleketin Ýisýn dep ketken. Toharstan men Ýisýn (Kushan) patshalyqtaryn ornatqan sol yuechji-oshaq taypasy, qazaq halqynyng oshaqty taypasy solardyng tikeley jalghasy bolyp tabylady.

«Oshaqty men shapyrashty enshiles»

Ýisýn imperiyasy bizding dәuirding IV ghasyryna deyin ómir sýrdi, yaghny 500 jyl alyp aimaqty biylegen imperiya boldy. Sondyqtan Qytay jazbalarynda ol ónir «Ejelgi ýisýn aimaghy» dep kórsetiledi. Ýisýn imperiyasy (Kushan patshalyghy) qúramyna qazirgi Ózbekstan men Shynjan, Aughanstannyng key audandary men Qazaqstannyng ontýstik ónirleri kirdi. Ýisýnder otyryqshy jәne kóshpeli eki toptan túratynyn jәne ru-taypa kósemderin «bek» dep ataytynyn Qytay derekteri jazady.

Ýisýn imperiyasyn III ghasyrdyng sonynda jýrjan toby jaulap aldy, Qytay búl ghasyrda óz ishinde ekige ydyrap әlsiregendikten, odaqtasy Ýisýn imperiyasyna kómektesuge qauqarsyz edi. Jogharyda Ýisýn memleketindegi qúng tobynyng bir bóligi biylikten quylyp, qaramaghyndaghy rulardy ertip Teniz (Kaspiy) jaghasyna ketkenin aittyq. Qytay jazbasynda sol Teniz kóli (Kaspiy) jaghasynda uiy-bey-go eli ornalasqany (7) turaly aitylady. Osy qytaylyq «uiy-bey-go» atauy dúrysynda «ýy bóri-gun» boluy mýmkin. Ol biylikten airylghan ýisýndik huni tobynyng senimdi әskeri bolghan hunidyq súrbóri taypasy dep topshylaugha bolady (gunnder zamanyna deyin olardyng Europada ornyqqandary «burgundiy» degen ataumen belgili).

Manghystaudaghy «Altyn qazghan» degen jerden jaqynda tabylghan asyl dýniyeler III-IV ghasyrlardaghy Attila zamanyna tiyesili deydi Resey ghalymdary. Olar Manghystauda qúng (huni) biyleushilerining ortalyghy bolghan degen boljamdar jasauda. Sol zamanda Kaspiy tenizi Jurjan dep ataldy, Zakavkazieni jaulap alghandar da keyin jurjan degen últ bolyp qalyptasqanyn arabtyq Ál Masudy jazbasy aighaqtaydy. Qytayda «r» dybysy joqtyghynan, jurjan atauy tariyhqa jujan bolyp endi. Búl «jýrelegen, tizerlegen adam» degen maghyna beredi (8). Shamasy, sol Kaspiy tenizi manyna ornyqqandarda jýrelep otyru әdeti bolghan. Sol sebepten ol jaqtaghy jergilikti halyq (sak halqynyng manghy taypasy) olardy «jýrjan» dep atap ketken bolu kerek. Sonda barghan oshaqty-yechjiylerding taz ruy keyin qazirgi Kishi jýzdegi taz  taypasy bolyp qalyptasty. Olar men jergilikti aday ruy arasyndaghy qúdalasu dәstýrinen keyin «taz ben aday enshiles» degen úghym payda boldy.

Ýisýn memleketining biyliginen airylghan sol top Manghystauda otyryp es jiyp, kýsheyip, keyin III ghasyrdyng sonynda syibóri men manghy taypalary (qúramynda aday ruy basym bolghan) kýshimen Ýisýn imperiyasyn jaulap aldy (9). Osylaysha olar ejelde ózderine de tiyesili bolghan biylikti tartyp aldy, Ýisýn imperiyasynyng tazqara qústy tanbasy olardyng da enshisinde edi. Sondyqtan olar Ýisýn imperiyasyn biylegen oshaq taypasynyng tanbasyn tómen qúldilaghan tazqara kýiinde beyneledi. Al ózderining tanbasyn joghary samghaghan tazqara beynesinde qaldyrdy (10).

Jýrjan (jujan) imperiyasyn ornatqan biyleushi toptyng súrbóri-as  dep te atalghany bar (súrbóri – qytay jazbasy «suybuy» dep kórsetken hunidardyng tandauly taypasynyng biri, al «as» - Asylúya dinastiyasynan degendi kórsetedi). Óitkeni, jujandar Zakavkaziede ornatqan memleket Savir dep ataldy jәne «Sibir» atauy da osy savir taypasymen baylanysty ekenin ghalymdar maqúldaydy. Súrbóras ruy Jýrjan (jujan) qaghanatyn biyledi, keyin olardan biylikti Tórgi Asúyang ruy tartyp aldy (Tuge asyani –  Turky ashina). Keyingi VI ghasyrdaghy Tórgi asúyang (Turky ashiyn) dinastiyasy jaulyghy súrbóras atauyn shiybórash dep ózgertti. Islam dini kelgen zamanda jaghymsyz estiletin shiybórash atauy shapyrash bolyp ózgerip ketti. Shapyrashty taypasynyng tarihy osylay órbiydi.

Islam dinin qabyldaghan qazaq taypalary týgeldey óz tanbalaryn jansyz beynelerge auystyrugha mәjbýr boldy. Sebebi, Islam dinining talaby solay edi. Oshaq men shapyrash taypalary tazqara beyneli tanbalaryn túmar beynesine almastyrdy. Resey gerbindegi eki basty tazqara beynesi oshaqty pen shapyrashty taypalarynyng tól tanbalary bolatyn (Rurik әuleti anyghynda «Bórik» dep atalady, olar – Jujan qaghanatyn biylegen Súrbórias-Savir dinastiyasynyng Qyrymda qalghan bóligi). Reseylik gerbti syrttay qorshap shyqsa, ýsh búryshty túmar beynesi shygha keledi. Ýisýn imperiyasyn jaulap alghan súrbóras (shiybórash-shapyrash) toby biylikten airylghan oshaq taypasy tanbasyn tómen qúldilaghan tazqara beynesine, al ózderining tanbasyn joghary samghaghan tazqara beynesinde qaldyrghan dedik. Osy sebepten tanbalar túmargha auysqanda oshaqty tanbasy bir úshy joghary qaraghan túmar, al shapyrashty tanbasy kerisinshe «eki úshy joghary qaraghan túmar  bolyp shyqty (10). Osynday ortaq tarihy bolghandyqtan «oshaqty men shapyrashty enshiles» degen úghym qaldy halyq jadynda.

Oshaqty shejiresining búrmalanuy turaly bir derek

Oshaqty shejiresining Resey imperiyasy tarapynan óreskel búrmalanghanyn bayqau qiyn emes. Shejirede oshaqtylar jonghar shapqynshylyghynan Aral tenizi jaqqa auyp ketip, keyin qayta óz jerine oralghany jәne qaytyp kelgende jerine ysty-oyyqtar ornyghyp alghany aitylady. Osy jer dauynda oshaqtylar qulyq jasap, attyng bas sýiegin jasyryn bir jerge kómip tastaghany, sosyn sol bas arqyly jerding oshaqtygha tiyesili ekenin dәleldegeni jazylghan shejirede. Oshaqty men oiyq – jylqyny bes sausaghynday biletin kóshpeliler, olay bolsa attyng basy ol jerding oshaqtygha tiyesili ekenin dәleldedi deu aqylgha syimasy anyq. Oshaqtynyng jylqysy basqasha, al oiyqtyng jylqysy basqasha jaratylghan ba? Kimdi kim aqymaq kóredi, oshaqty oiyqty ma, әlde otarlaushy últ ýshin oshaqty men oiyq aqymaq kórindi me?

Arab grafikasynda «ata» men «at» sózderi birdey jazylatynyn eskersek, onda oshaqtylar attyng emes atasynyng basyn (beyitin) kórsetu arqyly jer dauyn óz paydalaryna sheshui mýmkin. Olay bolsa, Resey imperiyasynyng oqymystylary oshaqtynyng arab әripti shejiresin qayta óndegende, ondaghy  «ata» sózin «at» dep búrmalap jibergen. Oiyqtar senu ýshin ol atanyng esimi barshagha belgili jәne onyng beyiti de sol jerde erteden bar boluy shart. Ol qay atanyng beyiti boluy mýmkin?

Ýsharal auylynan ary qaray qúm jiyegine jaqyn aimaqta Atbaylar degen tóbe bar, onda «X ghasyr esteligi» degen taqta ilingen. Búl tóbe at baylaytyn jerge emes, Esik qalasyndaghy Altyn adam tabylghan tóbe-qorymdargha úqsaydy. Tóbening orta túsy búryn qazylghan, orys arheologtary sol jerdi ýngip kirip, beyitten asyl zattar izdegen tәrizdi (onday oqighalar XIX ghasyrda kóp bolghany belgili). «At baylary» men «Ata Baysary» sózderi arabsha әriptermen úqsas jazylady, olardaghy aiyrmashylyq tek «s» men «l» әripterining jazyluynda ghana. «S» әrpi ýstinde nýkteler bolady, al «l» әrpi ýstinde nýktesiz jazylady jәne «s» әrpinen sәl biyik bolady. Siyasy jayylyp ýstindegi nýkteleri әrippen qosylyp ketken kóne jazbadaghy «s» әrpi bir qaraghanda «l» bolyp kórinui әbden mýmkin. Osyny paydalanghan imperiya sayasaty, arab әripti shejiredegi «Ata Baysary» atauyn «At Baylary» dep ózgertken dep topshylaymyz.

Qazaq músylman bolghan zamannan onday biyik tóbeden beyitter túrghyzbaghan, demek búl tóbe-beyit oshaqtylar músylman bolmaghan erte zamanda túrghyzylghan. Tarihy derekter islam dini Taraz ben Tashkent qalalaryna VIII ghasyrdyng birinshi jartysynda ornyghyp qoyghanyn dәleldeydi. Islam dini negizi bolghan Qazaq handyghynyng IX ghasyrda osy bizding aimaqta payda bolghany da anyq (Qarahanidy memleketi). Olay bolsa, Ata Baysary shamamen I ghasyr men VII ghasyr aralyghyndaghy uaqyttyng birinde ómir sýrgen. Osy Ata Baysary beyitin kórsetu arqyly oshaqtylar búl jerding ejelden óz ata qonysy ekenin oiyqtargha dәleldegen desek, qisyngha keledi. Ata Baysary (At baylar) tóbesi ornalasqan aimaq Baysary ruynyng ata qonysy ekeni de sózimizge dәlel (sol aimaqtaghy Músabay manynda Baysary ruyna tiyesili eski músylman beyitteri saqtalghan).

Búl derek te Resey imperiyasynyng qazaq shejirelerin óreskel búrmalaghandyghyn aighaqtaydy.

Sonymen oshaqty taypasynyng qazaq taypalary arasynda eng kóne taypa ekenin, Ýisýn imperiyasy osy oshaqty taypasy ornatqan memleket ekenin, Úly Jibek joly oshaqty taypasynyng tikeley atsalysuymen payda bolghanyn dәleldeuge tyrystyq.

QOSYMShALAR:

1. «Usuni uplyvala iz hunnskih ruk. Nesmotrya na to, chto Kitay byl dalek, vliyanie ego v Usuny vozrastalo. Otchasty ono shlo cherez jenshiyn. Sudiba pervoy kitayskoy sarevny, vydannoy zamuj za usunya, okazalosi pechalinoy: ona toliko plakala y tak y zachahla ot toski. Zato vtoraya, Gyayy, knyajna, vydannaya za usuniskogo gunimo, byla osobo energichnaya, ona prisposobilasi k obychayam strany, perehodila po nasledstvu, rojala detey y vozglavila v Usuny gruppu prokitayskoy oriyentasii. Gunimo Unguymy vo vsem slushalsya svoey jeny. Ona prisposobilasi k obychayam strany, perehodila po nasledstvu, rojala detey y vozglavila v Usuny gruppu prokitayskoy oriyentasii. Ona sdelala dlya kitayskoy politiky bolishe, chem mnogotysyachnoe voyska Ly Ershinskogo. Odin iz ee synovey stal vladetelem Yarkenda, dochi byla vydana za vladetelya Kuchi. Usuny staly gospodstvovati ne toliko v svoih gorah, no y v oazisah Zapadnogo kraya. Gunimo Unguymy vo vsem slushalsya svoey jeny. Opasnosti zakluchalosi lishi v tom, chto naslednik prestola byl synom hunnskoy sarevny y hunnskaya partiya v Usuny obladala znachiytelinoy siloy. Odnako naslednik byl eshe mal, y u sarevny Gyayy poka byly razvyazany ruky dlya vmeshatelistva vo vneshnuu politiku. Yablokom razdora mejdu Usunamy y Hunnamy okazalosi knyajestvo Cheshi. S 80g, t.e. s prihoda k vlasty starohunnskoy voennoy partii, cheshissy sovmestno s hunnamy nachaly nastupati na usuney...Malo togo, ony potrebovaly ot usuney vydachy sarevny y prekrasheniya svyazy s Ktiaem. Sarevna y ee muj v 73 godu napravily posolistvo v Kitay s predlojeniyem voennogo soiyza y sovmestnogo soglasovannogo napadeniya na hunnov. Novyy imperator Suanidy s vostorgom soglasilsya, y prigotovleniya k pohodu snova vskolyhnuly Kitay. (Istoriya naroda Hunnu. Lev Gumiylev)

2. Tolchok k otkrytii novyh zemeli dala vneshnaya politika: v poiskah soiznikov dlya boriby s Hunnu kitayskoe praviytelistvo vspomnilo o yuechjah, y k nim byl poslan chinovnik Chjan Syani. Drevnaya usuniskaya zemlya, po svedeniyam kitayskogo puteshestvennika Chjan Syanya, lejala mejdu Dunihuanom m Siniyanishanem, no zdesi je razmeshalisi y «yechjiy». Siratory udivilyalsya, kak dva samoupravlyaishihsya naroda jivut smeshanno na odnoy territorii. No, vidimo, ety narody vladely ukazannoy territoriey po ocherediy... Na obratnom puty Chjan Syani byl snova zaderjan hunnami, no bejal y vernulsya v Kitay v 120 g. do n.e.». (Istoriya naroda Hunnu. L.Gumiylev)

3. Veliýkiy shyolkovyy puti— byl prolojen vo II veke do n. e., vyol iz Sianya cherez Lanichjou v Dunihuan, gde razdvaivalsya: severnaya doroga prohodila cherez Turfan, dalee peresekala Pamiyr y shla v Ferganu y kazahskiye stepi, yujnaya — mimo ozera. Kitay nachal eksportirovati shyolk, kak toliko osoznal svoi potrebnosti snachala v nefriyte y jadeiyte iz kopey Hotana y Yarkenda. Staraya Severnaya doroga voznikla vo vremena imperatora U-diy, kotoryy pod natiskom stepnogo naroda hunnu napravil svoego sanovnika Chjan Syanya na iechjey, dlya ustanovleniya s nimy soyznyh otnosheniy. V 121 godu do n. e. pervyy verblujiy karavan s shyolkom y bronzovymy zerkalamy napravilsya k Ferganskomu oazisu cherez Turfanskui vpadinu vdoli Ognennyh gor y otrogov Tyani-Shanya. Dlya transportirovky ispolizovalisi glavnym obrazom verbludy. Blagodarya intensivnoy torgovle v Tanskoy derjave sformirovalasi moda na sredneaziatskie naryady y izdeliya. (Veliýkiy shyolkovyy puti. Vikiypediya)

4. V 124 do n. e. iechjy (kushany) vkluchilisi v voynu protiv Parfiiy, v kotoroy byl ranen, a potom umer ot ran parfyanskiy sari Artaban I. Artaban I — sari Parfiiy iz dinastiy Arshakidov. Pravil v 128—124 gg. do n. e. Vstupil na tron posle svoego plemyannika Fraata II. Pogib v voyne s toharamiy, vtorgshimisya v vostochnye oblasty Parfii. (Istoriya iechjiy)

5. Chasti Yuechjiy — kushany, prodoljavshie govoriti na dialektah yazykov yuechjiy, vtorglisi v predely Baktriiy y pod predvodiytelistvom svoego sarya Kushan Geraya osnovaly Kushanskuy imperii. Pry sare Kanishke ony prinimait gosudarstvennui religii Buddizm Po odnoy iz teoriy, Kushanskoe sarstvo bylo osnovano kochevym indoiranskim narodom toharov (kiyt. iyechjiy), priyshedshim s territorii, na kotoroy seychas nahoditsya kitayskiy avtonomnyy rayon Siniszyan. Sam fakt nalichiya ogromnoy Kushanskoy imperiy byl osoznan istorikamy ne ranee serediny XIX veka. Svedeniya, sohranivshiyesya o Kushanskoy imperiiy — epizodicheskiye, raznorodnye y protivorechivye. Hronologiya y istoriya vosstanovleny preimushestvenno po sohranivshimsya monetam, kitayskim letopisyam (v chastnosty «Hou Hani Shu» — Istoriya Pozdney dinastiy Hani) y otdelinym indiyskim y grecheskim sviydetelistvam. Po povodu iymyon sarey y hronologiy prodoljaytsya spory». (Kushanskaya Sarstva)

6. «Usuny iymely shirokie diplomaticheskie y rodstvennye svyazy s Kitaem. V I v. do n. e. ih chislennosti dostigala 630 tys. chelovek. Istochniky upominait gorod Usuni. Gosudarstvo usuney delilosi na try chasti: vostochnui, zapadnui, sentralinui. Tamga usuney izobrajala vorona. Titul glavy gosudarstva – gunimo; Plemennaya y rodovaya znati – bekiy. Osedlye usuny jily v postoyannyh jilishah, postroennyh iz syrsovogo kirpicha y kamnya, a kochevye v yurtah. Usuny razrabatyvaly mestorojdenie svinsa, mediy, olova, zolota. Iz jeleza izgotovlyaliy — serpy, nojiy, mechiy, kinjaly, nakonechniky strel. Iz svetnogo kamnya y blagorodnyh metallov delaly busy, serigiy, ukrasheniya dlya odejdy. Keramicheskui posudu izgotovlyaly v bolishem kolichestve. Yarkim pamyatnikom yuvelirnogo iskusstva usuney yavlyalasi – Kargalinskaya diadema». (Usuniy)

7. «Na kitayskih kartah Zapadnogo kraya ukazany granisy Kanguya: vostochnaya – u ozera Alakuli, yujnaya – u hrebtov Kirgizskogo Alatau, zapadnaya – u reky Sarysu, a severo-zapadnaya u ozera Tengiyz, gde Kanguy granichil s Uiy-bey-go». (Istoriya naroda Hunnu / L.Gumiylev)

8. «蠕蠕— Juani-juani. Pervoe nazvaniye, upotreblyaemoe dlya dannogo naroda. Skoree vsego iskajyonnoe slovo, prezriytelinaya klichka, dannaya kitaysami. — znachit medlenno polzti, presmykatisya. 柔然 — Joujani. V russkom yazyke zakrepilosi staroe prochtenie Jujani. (Jujanskiy Kaganat)

9. «Pomogaet istoricheskaya geografiya: na karte epohy Sango (220-280 gg.) vse Semiyrechie prinadlejit usunyam, na karte epohy Szini usuny lokalizuitsya v gorah okolo ozera Issykkuli y v verhoviyah reky Ili. Karta sostavlena do304 g., poetomu my vprave sdelati zaklucheniye, chto v konse III veka «malosilinye» hunny s Irtysha peremestilisi v Semiyrechie y okazalisi dostatochno moshnymy dlya togo, chtoby zagnati usuney v gory. Oglyanemsya na minuvshie chetyrnadsati let (303-317 gg.), y posmotrim chto proizoshlo. A proizoshlo ocheni mnogo, daje dlya samoy myatejnoy epohi. Velikiy Kitay perestal sushestvovati. Poteryav rodnye zemli, kolybeli svoey drevney kulitury, Kitay stal zauryadnym sarstvom, okrujennym s yuga y zapada voinstvennymy aboriygenami,

Bekjan Ádenúly

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