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Abay múrasy 8863 0 pikir 22 Mamyr, 2020 saghat 12:19

Abaydyng audarmalary

Abay jasaghan audarmalardy týpnúsqamen salystyra qarap otyrsaq, Abaydyng orys tilin óte tereng mengergenin bayqaymyz. Sonda Abay orys tilin qaydan, qalay ýirengen?

Kóptegen adamdargha Abaygha orys tilin ýiretken demokrat-revolusioner Mihaels sekildi bolyp kórinedi. Búghan Abaydyn: «Ómirge kózimdi ashqan Mihaels»,-degen sózi sebep bolghan sekildi.

Mihaels Abaygha ghylymdy óz salalary boyynsha jiktep, neni oqudy, qalay oqudy aituy mýmkin, al orys tilin ýiretti degen pikirge óz basym kýmәnmen qaraymyn. Onyng ýstine, jigit aghasy jasyna jetken shaghynda Mihaelspen kezdesken Abaydyn, onymen sóilesui ýshin  de oryssha bilui kerek emes pe? Sebebi, Mihaels qazaqsha bilipti degen derek esh jerde joq.

Ghylym ýshin úsaq-týiek nәrse joq,-degen qaghidany eske alsaq, Abaydyng orys tilin qaydan, qalay ýirengenin bilu úsaq-týiek nәrse emes. Sonda Abay orys tilin qaydan ýirengen?

Búl orayda bizding aitarymyz mynau: 

Birinshiden, Abaydyng әkesi Qúnanbay agha súltan, tobyqty ruynyng starshyny bolyp el basqarghanda, sol kezdegi qazaqtan shyghyp el basqarghan bolys-súltandardyng kóbi sekildi sauatsyz әri orys tilin bilmegendikten, el basqarudaghy is-qaghazdardy orys tilinde jýrgizip otyratyn hatshylary, tilmashtary bolghan. Abay óz auylyndaghy osy audarmashy-hatshylar arqyly bala kezinen auylda orys tilin estip ósken. Búl Abaydyng orys tiline degen qyzyghushylyghyn erte oyatuy ghajap emes. Lingvist-ghalymdardyng pikirinshe tildi ýirenu ýshin oghan qúlaqty erte kezden jattyqtyryp, sol tildegi sózderdi týsinbese de estip jýruding manyzy zor.

Ekinshiden, Abay ýsh ay «prihodskaya shkolada» oqyghan. Abaydyng balasy Túraghúldyng esteliginde aitylghanday, tabighat Abaygha ómirde siyrek kezdesetin qaytalanbas ghajayyp jady (pamyati) syilaghan. Sondyqtan da Abay  ýsh ay orys oquynda, til ýirenude júrttyng 1-2 jylda jetetin jetistigine birden jetui bek mýmkin.

Ýshinshiden, Abaydyng toqal sheshesi Ayghyzdan tughan Haliolla degen bauyry oryssha oqyghan. Tarihiy-múraghattyq qújattarda rastalghanday, ol 1863- 1869 jyldary Ombydaghy Shoqan Uәlihanov oqyghan Kadet korpusyna týsip, ony bitirip, "kornet" ataghyn alyp, ofiyser bolyp shyghady. Búdan son, Haliolla Moskvadaghy Pavlovskiy kovalerskiy shkoldy bitiredi.

Orystyng ataqty oqymysty-ghalymy G.N.Potanin Haliolla turaly mynanday mәlimet keltiredi: «Maghan Omskiy-Kadetskiy korpusyn bitirgen, keyin Semeyding qasyndaghy tughan jeri-qyrda túrghan, qyrghyzdyng bir súltany (osy kýnde qaytys bolghan Óskenbaev) turaly bireu әngime aitty. Ol keshke jaqyn ózining jerlesterine orys romandary men povesterining mazmúnyn týsindirushi edi, al qyrghyzdar ony sondaylyq yntamen elty tyndap, odan aitqandaryn jazyp berudi súraytyn, sonyng nәtiyjesinde Turgenev, Lermontov, Tolstoy, taghy basqalardyng shygharmasyn oisha audarghan dәpterler payda bolghan. Key uaqyttarda múnday әdebiyet keshterinde kiygiz ýiding ishinde ózara talastar tuatyn, sol mezgilde deydi kórgen adam Óskenbaev orys bedeline sýienetin de: "Tyndanyzdar, búl jóninde orystyng bedeldi synshysy Belinskiy ne deydi eken",- ne bolmasa  "búl jóninde orystyng synshysy Dobrolubov bylay degen",- dep týsinik berip otyrady eken.

Cankt-Peterburgtegi memlekettik múraghattan Álkey Marghúlan tapqan derekterge qaraghanda Haliolla Óskenbaev jastyghyna qaramay ýlken oqymysty bolghan sekildi. Ol professor IY.N.Berezinge jәne Shoqannyng ústazy N.F.Kostyleskiyge qazaq halyq auyz әdebiyetining Jiyrenshe sheshen, Qozy Kórpesh-Bayan súlu, Enlik-Kebek sekildi núsqalaryn jazyp berip, olarmen tyghyz ghylymy qarym-qatynasta bolghan.

Al, Potaninning jazuyna qaraghanda Haliolla Óskenbaev sol kezdegi orystyng aqyl-oy alyptary Belinskiy, Dobrolubovtarmen qatar, orys klassik jazushylary Tolstoy, Turgenev, Lermontovtardy jaqsy bilgen.

Bilim qúmar Abay, orys oquyn bitirgen, oqymysty ofiyser inisi Haliolla arqyly orys klassikterimen erte kezden tanys boluy әbden mýmkin ghoy.                                                                                      

Onyng ýstine Abay әkesi Qúnanbay arqyly el basqaru isine erte kirisip, orys úlyqtarymen de erte aralasqanyn este tútyp, jogharyda keltirgen dәiekterge sýiene otyryp aitarymyz: Abay orys tilin biz oilap jýrgendey otyzdan asqanda emes, odan kóp erte bilgen deuimizge tolyq negiz bar sekildi.

Mihaels arqyly ghylymdy sala-sala boyynsha keyinirek mengergen Abaydyn: «Qolymdy mezgilinen kesh sermedim»,- degen sózin perde etip, Abay orys tilin kesh ýirenip, orys klassiyk-jazushylarymen kesh tanysqan degen pikir qalyptasyp ketken. Abaydyng búl jerde "qolymdy mezgilinen kesh sermedim"- dep ókinui, orys tilin biluge baylanysty emes, jalpy ghylymdy mengerip iygerude keshiktim, uaqytty bosqa ótkizip, kesh bastadym,- dep ókinui ekenin dúrys týsingenimiz maqúl. Qalay desek te, Abay orys tilin óte jaqsy bilip, tereng mengerdi. Oghan dәlel Abaydyng audarmalary. Abay ózining audarmagha arnalghan shygharmashylyq jyldarynda ýlkendi-kishili 50-den astam shygharmany orys tilinen qazaqshagha audarypty. A.S.Pushkinning "Evgeniy Onegiyn" romanynan 7 ýzindi, M.iy.Lermontovtan 27 ólen, I.A.Krylovtan 12 mysal jәne әr týrli avtorlardan 7 óleng audarghan.

Audarmagha qoyylatyn negizgi talap, mýmkindiginshe týpnúsqanyn, sol shygharmanyng mazmún-mәnin, kórkemdik qasiyetin tolyq saqtap, basqa tildi oqyrmangha tókpey-shashpay jetkizu.

Al, Abay týpnúsqany bar qalpynda jetkizudi maqsat etpegen. Audarghan shygharmalarynyng kóbin, Abay óz kónil-kýiine ýilestire qysylmay, qymtyrylmay erkin әngimeleydi. Aqynnyng keybir audarma ólenderi týpnúsqamen jolma-jol birdey kelse, al keybir ólenderi týpnúsqagha meylinshe jaqyn kelip ýndes shyghyp jatady.

Al, erkin audarylghan audarmalar ólenning maghynasyn bastan-ayaq dәl, tura jetkizbey, audarmashy aqyn Abaydyng sol kezdegi kónil-kýiine sәikes erkin jyrlap ketetini  bar. Biz múny Abay audarmalarynyng ózindik ereksheligi deymiz. Abay oryssha teksti kóbine-kóp dәlme-dәl audarudy aldyna maqsat etip qoymaghan sekildi. Múnyng negizgi sebebi, aqyn sol kezdegi qazaq oqyrmandarynyng bilimin, úghym-týsinigin, oilau ereksheligin eskerse, ekinshiden ózi jaqsy bilgen Shyghystyng klassikalyq poeziyasynyng "Nazira" ýlgisin paydalanghan aqyn, oqigha jelisining negizin saqtay otyryp, mysaldaghy jaghdaylardy qazaq ómirine, týsinigi men oilau ereksheligine janastyra otyryp, ózinshe beyneleuge úmtylghan. Mysal ýshin, Shyghys aqyndary jyrlaghan "Eskendir" taqyrybyn Abay "Nazira" ýlgisinde ózinshe jyrlap, "Eskendir" poemasyn jazghan. Shyghys әdeby dәstýrin jaqsy bilgen Abaygha jәne sol kezdegi qazaq oqyrmandaryna búl qalypty jaghday bolyp kóringen siyaqty. Búl aitylyp otyrghan "Nazira" ýlgisi qolyn baylaytyn, sheberligine shek qoyatyn jaghday dep emes, kerisinshe, aldynghy aqynda aitylghan oidyn, sózding oramyn ózinshe keltirip,keyingi aqynnyng tyn, jana órnek tabuyna mýmkindik beretin jaghday dep týsingen jón.

Abaydyng audarmalary turaly aitqanda, eng birinshi aitarymyz Abaydyng qazaq tilimen qatar, orys tilin óte teren, jetik bilgeni kórinip túr. Ol týpnúsqadaghy aqyn oiynyng nәzik iyirimderin meylinshe tereng týsinip, audaryp otyrghan aqynnyng aitam degen oiyn órnektey otyryp, odan әri biyiktete, qúlpyrta audarady.

Orys әdebiyetine zer salghanda Abaydyng nazary aldymen Pushkinge týsedi. Nege? Sebebi, Pushkin orys әdebiyetindegi jana dәuirdin, taqyryp-iydeyalary men kórkemdik sapasy mýlde jana klassikalyq  әdebiyetining basy boldy. Ol orys әdebiyetinde qoghamdyq oi-órisi, dýniyetanymy, estetikalyq kórkemdik – barlyq sipat qasiyetteri ózgeshe sóz ónerin qalyptastyra otyryp, orys әdebiyetinde realizm әdisin berik ornyqtyrdy. XIH ghasyrdaghy orys ómirin, sol ortada ómir sýrip jatqan keyipkerler arqyly orys qoghamyn shynayy surettegen Pushkinning "Evgeniy Onegiyn" sekildi realistik shygharmasyn, qazaq әdebiyetinde realizmning negizin salghan Abaydyng qazaqshagha audaruy zandy qúbylys sekildi. Sebebi, Batys pen Shyghysty teng mengerip, danyshpan hakim dәrejesine jetken úly Abaydyn, Evropalyq әdebiyetting ozyq ýlgisi realizm әdisi arqyly, halqyn tәrbiyege, óner-bilimge shaqyryp, "til ústartyp, óner shashudy" anyq maqsat etken shaghy edi.

Abay Pushkinning "Evgeniy Onegiyn" romanyn tolyq audarmaghan, hәm ony aldyna maqsat etip qoymaghan da siyaqty. Abaydyng "Evgeniy Oneginnen" audarghandary:

  1. "Oneginning sipaty"(Jasynan týsin biylep syr bermegen)
  2. "Tatiyananyng Oneginge jazghan haty"(Amal joq qayttym bildirmey)
  3. "Oneginning Tatiyanagha jauaby"(Tanghajayyp búl netken hat)
  4. "Onegin sózi"(Hatynnan jaqsy úghyndym sózding bәrin)
  5. "Oneginning Tatiyanagha jazghan haty"(Qúp bilemin sizge jaqpas)
  6. "Tatiyana sózi"(Tәnir qosqan jar eding sen)
  7. "Lenskiy sózinen"(Barasyng qayda, qayda bolmay nege)

"Oneginning ólerdegi sózi" - búl týpnúsqada joq, aqynnyng ózi shygharghan. Sanamalap aitqanda Abay, "Evgeniy Onegiyn" romanynan 7 ýzindi audarghan.

Pushkinning "Evgeniy Onegiyn" sekildi, orys qauymynyng sol kezdegi ómirin jan-jaqty suretteytin kýrdeli romanyn tereng týsinip oqityn mәdeniyetti oqushy qauymdy qazaq júrtshylyghynan tabu qiyn edi. Sondyqtan da Abay, jalpy halyqqa týsinikti, Onegin jәne Tatiyana arasyndaghy qarym-qatynastargha baylanysty taraulardy ghana erkin audardy, Tatiyana tilimen qazaq qyzynyng jýregin jyrlasa, Oneginning oily-syrly ókinishimen qazaqtyng sanaly jigit, jas buynyn ýlgili sezimderge tәrbiyeleydi. Osylaysha audaru óz zamanyndaghy oqushylar ýshin tәrbiyelik ýgit jaghynan qajet edi. Abay audarghan ýzindilerdi bir jýiege keltirip, eng sonynda oqushygha týsinikti bolsyn dep "Oneginning ólerdegi sózi" degen taraudy ózi qosqan. 

Audarmagha qoyylar eng basty talap, audarylyp otyrghan shygharmadaghy suretteletin oqigha men negizgi oi, ózge tildi oqyrmangha týpnúsqamen birdey, esh ózgerissiz sol kýiinde jetuge tiyis. Abay óz audarmasynda týpnúsqagha kóptegen ózgerister engizgen. Sondyqtan da Abay óz tarapynan jana Onegiyn, Tatiyana obrazdaryn somdaghan, - degen keybir zertteushiler pikirine qarsy, Abay audarmalaryn úzaq jyldar zerttegen akademik Zәky Ahmetov: 

«Keybir zertteushiler Abaydyng erkin audaryp, týpnúsqadan alshaqtau ketken jerlerin syltau etip, Abay óz tarapynan jana Onegiyn, Tatiyana jasap shygharghan dep jýr. Búl – Abaydy týsinbeushilikten tughan sayaz týsinik. Birinshiden, halqyn sanaly úghym, sapaly tәrbiyege shaqyru jolynda bolghan Abay, "Evgeniy Onegindi" shyghys poeziyasyndaghy "Nazira" dәstýrimen erkin audarghan. Ekinshiden, Abay týpnúsqadaghy opasyz Onegindi, sol opasyz kýiinde surettese, opasyz Onegin kimge ýlgi bolar edi. Sýigen qyzdyng әziz jýregin týsinbeytin tәkappar da opasyz jigit qazaq jastarynyng arasynda az ba?! Olardy kimge ýlgi etemiz?  Aqynnyng týpki maqsaty halqyna ýlgi shashu emes pe edi?! Orystyng úly synshysy V.G.Belinskiy ózining Pushkin shygharmashylyghyna arnalghan zertteu enbeginde Onegin obrazyn jan-jaqty, kópshilik oilaghan ýstirt kinә, aiyptyng kóbinen Onegindi aqtap shyghady. Osy jóninde M.Áuezov: “Belinskiy Oneginning adamshylyghyn, óz ortasyndaghy tatymsyz erkekterding bәrinen biyik, artyq dep baghalaydy”,- deydi.

Birinshiden, Abay Onegindi Belinskiyshe tereng týsinip, baghalap otyr. Ekinshiden, Onegin boyyna turashyldyq, arly adamgershilik, әdil synshyldyq darytsa, sonday jas jigitten qazaq jastary ýlgi alsyn degendik. Úyatty, arly jastyng ókinishi de, kórkemdik túrghyda senimdi shyghar edi jәne jastargha ýlgisi de mol bolar edi. Osy túrghydan oilaghan Abay, «Evgeniy Oneginge» "Nazira" ýlgisinde erkin audarma jasaghan.» - dep jazady «Poeziya shyny – danalyq» atty ózining ghylymy enbeginde.

"Evgeniy Oneginnen" jasaghan Abay audarmalary bar kezde týpnúsqadan alshaq ketti deuge bolmaydy. Mysaly týpnúsqadaghy:

Kak rano mog on liysemeriti

Tayti, nadejdu revnovati,

Razuveryati, zastaviti veriti

Kazatisya mrachnym, iznyvati,- degen joldardy týpnúsqagha jolma-jol say etip:

Jasynan týsin biylep syr bermegen,

Dәmelense, kýndese bildirmegen,

Nanasyn, ne aitsa da, amalyng joq,

Týsinde bir kәdik joq "aldar" degen,- dep audarady. Osy audarma joldardy týpnúsqamen salystyra otyryp oqyghanymyzda, orys tilin óte jetik bilgen Abaydyn, Onegin minezine tәn qasiyet-sipattardy dәl beyneleuge qazaqtyng bay tilin tereng bilip, sheber audarghan talant qúdiretine bas iyesin.

Audarmadaghy Tatiyana beynesining de, oryssha týpnúsqasyndaghy basty ereksheligi saqtalyp, tamasha surettelgen. Mysaly:

Zachem Vy posetily nas?

V gulushy zabytogo seleniya.

Ya nikogda ne znala 

Ne znala b gorikogo mucheniya,- 

degendi : 

Kelmeseng eger sen bizge,

Sau bolmas pa em, әlbette?

Bolmasam ashyna men sizge

Týspesem múnday beynetke, - dep qazaqshalaghan.

Tatiyananyng osy hatynan orys qyzynyng ashyq minezdiligi, adaldyghy, sezimtaldyghy, sengishtigi bәri de aiqyn kórinip túr.

Abay Tatiyana hatynyng tereng mazmúnyn tolyq jetkizudi kózdey otyryp, búl oiyn qazaq jastarynyng úghym týsinigine say etip jýzege asyrudy maqsat etken.

Qaymaq edi kónilimde

Bizge qaspaq boldy jem.

Eki sóz joq ómirinde,

Men de sorly baqyty kem,- dep dvoryan qyzyna "qaspaq jegizgen" Abay, Tatiyana minezindegi erkindikti, adaldyqty qazaq qyzdaryna ónege etu ýshin, Tatiyananyng sol kezdegi kónil-kýiin qazaq qyzynyng úghymyna say etip audarady:

Shesh kónilimning júmbaghyn

Álde bәri aldanysh.

Jas jýrek jayyp sausaghyn

Úmtylghan shyghar aigha alys,- degen shumaqtaghy qyz jýregining anqau da pәk tilegin aspandaghy alys aigha sausaghyn jayyp úmtylghan jas beynesinde suretteydi. Tatiyana tilegining pәktigin, onyng oryndalmas arman ekenin, Abay osynday ghajap teneu-suret arqyly, qaytalanbas súlu kórkemdik tәsilmen jetkizedi. Sózben salynghan búl jandy suret Abaydyng aqyndyq úlylyghynyng dәlelindey. 

Sen jaraly jolbarys en,

Men kiyikting laghy em,

Tiri qaldym ólmey әren

Qatty batty tyrnaghyn, - degen erkin audarma arqyly aqyn qazaq jastaryna týsinikti, "jaraly jolbarys", "kiyikting laghy" degen teneulerdi qoldana otyryp, sheber audarady.

Al, jalpy alghanda Tatiyananyng adal, biraq kisige sengishtikten arylyp, ózine senimdiligi artqan, sertine berik, alghan betinen qaytpaytyn jan etip sipattauy jaghynan Abay Pushkinmen tolyq ýndes shyqqan. "Tatiyana sózi" (Tәnir qosqan jan eding sen) Abaydyng ózi shygharghan әnimen erte kezden el arasynda aitylyp keledi. "Kuda, kuda Vy udalilisi " dep bastalatyn Lenskiyding monologyn Abay, "Lenskiy sózinen" degen atpen (Barasyng qayda, qayda bolmay maghan) audarghanda mazmún jaghynan kóp ózgertpey audarghan. Jekpe-jekke shyghar aldyndaghy Lenskiy monology bar bolghany segiz jolgha siyp túr. Abaydyng Lenskiy monologyna nazar audaruyna qaraghanda aqyn ony qazaq júrtshylyghyna Onegiyn, Tatiyanamen qatar tanystyrmaq niyette bolghan sekildi. Biraq, Lenskiy turaly jazghany osy ghana ma, joq әlde jalghasy bar ma, ol jaghyn dóp basyp aitu qiyn.

Abaydyng "Evgeniy Onegiyn" sarynymen shygharghan ólenderi, dәlme-dәl nemese erkin audarghandary bar, janynan qosqany bar – týgeldey alghanda bәri bir jelige týsirilgen, birtútas toptama shygharma deuge layyq. Sondyqtan da M.Áuezov: «Abay versiyasynda "Evgeniy Onegiyn" epistolyarlyq roman týrine ainalghan»,- deui tegin emes.

"Evgeniy Oneginnin" keybireui hat týrinde, al bir toby keyipkerler monology jәne avtordyng atynan aitylghan sipattama týrinde audarylsa da, búlardyng barlyghy birtútas shygharma dep úghyp týsinuimiz qajet. Mesheu qalghan qaranghy feodaldyq patriarhaldyq qoghamda ómir sýrgen Abaydyng sol zamanda Pushkin poeziyasynyng qyr-syryn tereng tanyp, baghalay bilui, Abay úlylyghynyng jarqyn bir kórinisi ekendigine dau joq

Núrghaly Mahan

Abai.kz

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