Beysenbi, 29 Qyrkýiek 2022
Alashorda 2232 1 pikir 7 Mausym, 2022 saghat 11:56

Jalghan sosialistik «júmaq» pen oghan qarsy aqiqat qúdireti

Zapastaghy pokovniyk, Isatay audanynyng Qúrmetti azamaty Gh.Sabyraliyevke qúrmet. 2003 jyl

Oqyrman nazaryna berilip otyrghan tarihy qújattyng avtory, tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory, professor, Qazaqstan Respublikasy Últtyq Ghylym Akademiyasynyng korrespondent mýshesi H.M.Ábjanov. Ghalymnyng Qazaqstan Respublikasy Ortalyq memlekettik arhiyvi qorynan tapqan búl  qújattyng manyzy erekshe. Elu jylday shang basqan arhiv qorynda saqtalghan ólke tarihyna tikeley qatysty qújatty ghylymy ainalymgha engizip, orysshadan qazaqsha audarghan ghalym aghamyzgha alghysymyz sheksiz. Qújat «Aqiqatty aitqan azamattyng haty» taqyrybynda  (Qazaqstan: tarih pen taghdyr. Maqalalar. –Almaty: «Kitap baspasy» JShS. 2003. – 296 b.) jariyalanghan.

Hat  1950 jyldyng 21 nauryzynda Kolhozdar isi boyynsha KSRO Ýkimeti janyndaghy kenes tóraghasy A.A.Andreevke jazylghan. Hattyng avtory, jerlesimiz, qarapayym qazaq azamaty Ghabdolmәjit Sabraliyev.  Soghys zardabyn kózimen kórip, basynan keshken azamat basyn qauip-qaterge tigip, azamattyq ómirlik ústanymyn berik ústanyp, joghary ýkimet organyna jazghan hatynda  soghystan keyingi qazaq auylynyng qasiretin jan-jaqty ashyp kórsetti. Sol uaqytta hatta kórsetilgendey auyr-zardapty basynan ótkirip jatqan qansha qazaq auyldary bar edi. Gh.Sabraliyevtyng jazghan haty negizinde kolhozdar isi boyynsha KSRO Ýkimeti janyndaghy kenes tóralqasy mәjilisi shaqyryldy. Oghan Qazaq KSR Ministrler Kenesining tóraghasy N.Ondasynov qatynasty.Osy mәjilisting nәtiyjesinde KSR Ministrler Kenesi aldyna Guriev oblysy memleketke beretin mal sharuashylyghy ónimderin qysqartu mәselesi qoyyldy. Tarihshy-ghalym Hangeldi Mahmúdúlynsha aitqanda «jalghan sosialistik «júmaq» pen oghan qarsy aqiqat qúdireti osylaysha betpe-bet keldi». Sonymen hattyng tolyq mәtinin kózi qaraqty oqyrman nazaryna úsynamyz.

Anyqtama: Novobogat (qazirgi Isatay) audany shóleyt aimaqta ornalasqan. Mal jaylymynyn, mal azyghy kózining az boluy újymsharlar men kensharalargha qiynshylyqtar tughyzdy. Qúm ónirinde shaghyn újymsharlar bolghan kezende jerding qadirin ketirmey, kýtip paydalandy. Jerdi qoryp, shabyndyqqa mal mal ayaghyn bastyrmay, qarauyldady. Al kensharlar payda boluymen búl jaghynan úqyptylyq pen sharuaqorlyq azaydy. Sol kezende әsirese, jaylymy shýigin qúm ónirin ondy-soldy paydalanugha jol berildi.

Audan azamattary ónirding qiyndyqtary men  búrmalaushylyqtar jóninde joghary organdar aldyna mәsele qoida, biyik minberlerde elding mún-múqajdaryn aituda eshteneden qaymyghyp kórmedi. Onyng jarqyn mysaly audannyng týlegi, ofiyser Gh.Sabyraliyevtyng hatynan keyin arnayy komissiya shygharylyp, kóterilgen mәselening mәn-jayy tekserildi. Sharuashylyqty tiyimdi jýrgizu, josparlaudy jetildiru, adamdargha qamqorlyq jasau baghytynda ýlkn sharalar alyndy. Elding ensesi qayta kóterildi.

Aqqaly Ahmet,

tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory, professor


                                  Qymbatty Andrey Andreevich!

Asa manyzdy memlekettik istermen ainalysyp otyrghan Sizdi osynau hatymmen mazalamastan búryn ózim jayly qysqasha aita ketsem dep edim.

Men, Sabraliyev Ghabdolmәjiyt, Qazaq KSR-ining Guriev oblysy Novobogat audanynyng týlegimin, tughan jylym – 1926, VKP /b/ mýshesimin, shyqqan tegim – malshy sharuadan, últym – qazaq, 1944 jyldan Kenes әskeri qataryndamyn, býginde Jitomir oblysy Novgorod-Volynskiy qalasyndaghy 11019 әskery bólimshede ofiyserlik qyzmet atqaryp jýrmin.

Guriev oblysyndaghy Novobogat audanynyng kolhozdary tabighy jaghdaygha baylanysty tek mal sharuashylyghymen ainalysady. Jer ynghayy qysy-jazy avtokólik jәne tipti arba ótkizbeytin jal-jal qúmdar әri tútasqan tómpeshikter bolghandyqtan tek atpen jýruge mýmkindik bar. Jazda mal jaylauda baghylady, qysqy shóp osy jaylauda qol shalghymen shabylady, óitkeni jer ynghayy oily-shúnqyrly әri qúmdauyt bolghandyqtan shóp dayyndaudyng mehanikalyq әdisterin qoldanu mýmkin emes.

Dayyndalghan shóp qystaugha tenmen jetkiziledi, búl – tasymaldaudyng eng mýmkin tәsili. Sondyqtan júmys maly – týieler qajet, al olar kóptegen kolhozda joqqa tәn.

Audan ortalyghyna tek arbamen, atpen qatynasady, múndaghy jaqyn kolhoz 50, alysy 200 shaqyrymgha ornalasqan. Kolhozdarda orta eseppen 60-70 ýiden bar. Kolhozshylar úzyn-yrghasy 10-15 myngha jetetin maldy jyl-on eki ay baghumen kýn keshedi. Osynyng ózi songhy jyldary qiyngha soghyp túr. Múnyng syrtynda malshylar men sauynshylardyng jazda shóp shabylugha jegiletini taghy bar. Ózderi eshtene ekpeytin kolhozshylardy nanmen jәne basqa da azyq-týlik týrlerimen qamtamasyz etu meylinshe jartymsyz. Mynaday mysal keltire ketu qyzghylyqty bolar: keybir kolhozshylardyng balalary «nan» degen úghymnyng ne ekenin bilmeydi. Kolhozshylardyng iship-jeytini jazdyng kýni, onyng ózinde mal bolsa – sýt, al ol az nemese mýlde joq bolghandyqtan qysta qorek qylatyndary, eger kolhozshyda bola qalsa – et, joqtary kolhozdyng jaramsyz dep tanylghan malynyng etin jeydi, qysqasy, ashqúrsaq ghúmyr keshedi.

Ayaq kiyimmen jәne kiyimmen qamtamasyz etu de mýlde nashar, óitkeni kolhozshylar enbekkýnge aqsha almaydy, bәri jyl boyy alghan azyq-týligining esebinen kolhozgha ketedi. Al may, jýn, teri tәrizdi mal ónimderi enbekkýnge beru túrmaq memleketke ótkizuge jetpey qalady. Songhy 2-3 jyl ayasynda audan kolhozdary mal sharuashylyghyn damytudyng memlekettik josparyn zorgha oryndauda, osydan kelip kolhozshylardyng enbekaqysy joqqa tәn.

1947-48 jyldary Novobogat audany kolhozdaryndaghy osynau ahual mal basynyng ósuimen, jayylymdardyng tozuymen kýrt asqynyp ketti. Qysta ghana emes, jaz jaylauda da qarny toya shóp jemeytindikten maldyng qondylyghy tómendep, ónimdiligi búrynghydan azaydy. Tabighy jayylymdar mal basy sanynyng kóptigine layyqty bolmaghandyqtan әri songhy jyldary qardyng az týsuinen jayylym sapasy tipti qúldyrady, al jasandy jayylym atymen joq.

Jayylymdar jaqsy jәne mal basy az 1944 jyldan 1947 jylgha deyin Novobogat audany Memlekettik Qorghanys Komiytetinin, KSRO Ministrler Kenesining auyspaly Qyzyl tuyn ústap túrghan edi.

Sol jyldarghy memlekettik mindettemeler túsynda kolhozshylar enbekkýnge aqsha, azyq-týlik alatyn jәne mal baghugha býgingiden góri jaqsy dayarlyghy bolatyn. Mal basynyng ósui, jayylymdardyng tozuy mal sharuashylyghyn odan әri damytu mýmkinshiligin taryltty, mal shyghyny úlghaydy, tiyisti ónim alynbay, mal basyn kóbeytuding memlekettik jospary oryndalmaytyn boldy jәne kolhozshylardyng túrmys-jaghdayy auyrlady.

Respublika auyl sharuashylyghy ministrligining jәne jergilikti          (oblystyq, audandyq) partiya jәne Kenes organdarynyng kóptegen basshylary osynau qúldyraudyng sebepterin tek nashar basshylyqtan, enbekti úiymdastyrudaghy kemistikten, kolhozshylardy jetkilikti júmyldyrmaudan, búrynghy tabystargha toqmeyilsuden izdeude. Alayda, mening bayqauymsha, basty sebep múnda emes, naqtyraq kelsek, olar jayylym sapasynyng mal basyn kóbeytuding memlekettik josparyn oryndau ýshin audan basqa audandardan mal satyp alatynyn 1949 jyly ózim bayqadym, osynau júmsalghan aqshany az da bolsa, kolhozshylargha enbekkýnge bólip beruge bolady ghoy. Biraq QazSSR Auyl sharuashylyghy ministrligining tikeley núsqauymen osynday bassyzdyqqa jol berilgen. Mәselen, Novobogat audany Batys Qazaqstan oblysynyng Jәnibek audanynan kóptegen búzau  jәne laq satyp aldy. Teniz audanyna qarasty kolhoz ókilderi Novobogat audany túrghyndarynan jylqy satyp aldy, t.b.

Joghary organdardyng júmys stiylin aitpay-aq qoyayyq, al audandyq jәne oblystyq buyndaghy partiya jәne sovet basshylary tek mәlimet jinaumen shekteledi, jaghdaydy baghalauda jәne sheshim qabyldauda jalang sifrlar men jalpylama mәlimetterdi qanaghat tútady, jer-jerlerge barmaydy, bara qalsa da siyrek, onyng ózinde jaghdaymen atýsti tanysady, anyghyna kóz jýgirtpeydi. Eger jergilikti jerlerdegi jaghdaydyng shynayy jay-kýiin bile qalsa, der kezinde qorytyndy shygharmaydy, әri býkpesiz bayandamaydy, ózderi óndep alar degen esepke salady, keybireuleri qyzmetimnen aiyrylyp qalam dep qoryqsa, endi bireuleri basshylyq jasauda jibergen qateligin osylaysha jasyrghansidy. Mysaly: qysqy mal shóbin qolda bar jayylymdardan dayarlau mýmkin emestigi 1949 jyldyng jazynda-aq belgili boldy, biraq qolayly qysqa ýmittense kerek, eshqanday shara qoldanbady, nәtiyjesinde 1949-50 jyldyng qysynda jappay mal shyghyny oryn aldy. Memleketke mol shyghyngha týsken әreket – ash maldy qútqaru ýshin Batys Qazaqstan oblysy audandarynan temir jolmen shóp tasu aitarlyqtay nәtiyje bermedi. Qondylyghy tómen bolghandyqtan maldyng kóbining qysyr qalghany 1949 jyldyng kýzinde kózge týsti. Múny jergilikti jәne respublikalyq partiya, Sovet basshylarynyng iske partiyalyq kelui deuge bola ma? Olar malgha jem-shópting jetkiliksizdigin, yaghny qondylyghynyn, tiyesili ónimdiliginin, tólining bolmaytyndyghyn, aurugha shaldyghu jәne shyghyngha úshyrau mýmkindigi óskenin dúrys baghalamady nemese baghalaghysy kelmedi. Qysta mal baghugha qajetti túrmystyq jaghday kolhozshylargha jasalmaghan, yaghny maldy dúrys baqpau – yqtimaldyghy joghary degen sóz.

Guriev oblysy kolhozdarynda, onyng ishinde Novobogat audanynda shyghynnyng aldyn alu ýshin osynyng bәrin odaqtas respublika, tipti Odaq kóleminde ólshep-pishu, baghalau jәne uaqytyly shara qoldanu kerek edi. Búghan audan men oblys basshylary tyryspady, auyl sharuashylyghynyn, respublikanyng jәne odaqtyng basshylary múnymen ainalyspaydy. Olar naqty jaghdaygha bagha bermesten, kónil qoysa, bәrin de tyndyrugha bolady degen pighylda, tómendegilerge jogharydan qysym jasau tәsilimen júmys jýrgizdi, al baghynyshty buyn basshylary faktilerdi dәleldeuge batpady, osynyng bәri 1949-50 jyldyng qysynda audanda jappay mal shyghynyna jәne adam ólimine әkeldi.

Ótken qystan keyin, yaghny mal basynyng azangymen, qardyng qalyng týsuimen qalghan maldy bir-eki jyl ishinde qatargha qosu mýmkin shyghar, biraq kolhozdardy nyghaytu, 3 jyldyq jospardy oryndau (audan búl jospardy orynday almaytyny qazirding ózinde belgili bolyp otyr), mal basyn ýzdiksiz ósiru men ónimdiligin arttyru, kolhozshylardyng túrmys jaghdayyn jaqsartu, auyl sharuashylyghyn, eldi damytu jospary, halyqaralyq jaghday talap etip otyrghan dәrejedey nәtiyjeli bola qoymas.

Eger atalghan territoriyagha osynshama mal basy shyghyndana beretin bolsa, kolhozdardy nyghaytu, kolhozshylardyng túrmys jaghdayyn kóteru jayly qamqorlyq búrynghysha saqtalsa, sharua jayy bir sýiem algha baspaytynyna, jappay mal shyghyny auyq-auyq qaytalana beretinine, al mal baqqan kolhozshylardyng túrmysy tómendegen ýstine tómendey týsetinine, búl azdayyn, audan kolhozdary mal sanyn ósiru, ónimdiligin arttyru boyynsha alda túrghan mindetterdi uaqytyly atqara almaytynyna men senimdimin.

Qysy – jazy mal sonynda salpaqtau, qashyqtyq, avtokólikting joqtyghy kolhozshylardyng mәdeniy-búqaralyq sharalargha barmaq týgili, aitalyq olardyng kópshiligining leksiya tyndaugha, artisterding ónerin tamashalaugha (eng bolmaghanda oqushylardyng kórkem ónerin), kino kóruge, t.b., jalpy jinalysqa baruyna mýmkindik bermeydi. Jalpy, mәdeniy-tәrbiyelik oiyn-sauyqtar bolmaydy jәne úiymdastyrugha mýmkidik te joq. Men aitar edim, múnday ómir salty, qorshaghan orta adamdardyng sanasyna qatty әser etedi, qorytyndysy – búl adamdarmen tek kózge kórinetin faktilerge sýiene ghana әngimelesip sendiruge jәne dәleldeuge bolady. Ósip kele jatqan úrpaqqa, jastargha, balalargha, oqushylargha osynau orta әser etpey túrmaydy, jogharyda aitylghan sebeptermen múnda oqudyng sapasy, oqushylardyng sabaqqa baruy – erekshe ýlken mәsele.

Úsynamyn:

1. Audan territoriyasynda úrghashy maldy ghana qaldyryp, qalghandary birden nemese jyl sayyn oblystyng basqa audandaryna, respublikagha, tipti Odaqqa berilsin, nemese audannyng Kaspiy jaghalauy boyy sulandyru jәne qúrghatu jolymen jasandy jayylymgha ainaldyrylsyn.

2. Jergilikti jerding erekshelikterin eskere otyryp, su shygharu, mal baghu әdisteri, shóp dayarlau, tasu, t.b. jәne әr kolhozshynyng qansha mal bagha alatyny ghylymy eseppen dәl anyqtalsyn. Atalghan kolhoz, audan territoriyasynda qansha bas mal jәne qanday týlik týrlerin ústaugha bolatynyn bilgen jón.

3. Kolhozshylardyng túrmys jaghdayyn kýrt kóteru ýshin audan kolhozdary mal sharuashylyghy ónimderin memleketke ótkizu mindetinen eki jylgha bosatylsyn.

Sauda jýiesine, dayyndaugha, keng tútynymdaghy ónimderdi, әsirese azyq-týlikti: shәi, qant, nan, kiyim, ayaq kiyim, ýige qajet jaraqtardy әkeluge airyqsha nazar audarylsyn.

4. Alys kolhozdargha jol salu men telefon baylanysyn ornatu úiymdastyrylsyn.

5. Jergilikti jerdegi jaghdaygha sәikestendirilip, mәdeniy-búqaralyq jәne tәrbie sharalary úiymdastyrylsyn jәne olardyng jýieliligi belgilensin.

Sizge mynaday pikirimdi bildirudi qajet sanaymyn. Novobogat audanynda jappay mal shyghyny men kisi ólimining bolu sebebi qystyng auyrlyghynan ghana emes, audan men oblystyng jәne odan da, joghary basshylardyng bile túra osy mәseleni sheshpegendiginen, jergilikti jerlerdegi ahualgha dúrys bagha bermey, qatal qysta yqtimal shyghynnyng aldyn alatyn sharalardyng qarastyrmaghandyghynan. Búl isti kolhoz basshylary men kolhozshylar orynday almaydy, olar óz funksiyalaryna atýsti qaraghan emes.

Osy hatty jibergendegi maqsatym: jogharyda aitqandardy jyl sayyn enbek demalysymda audan kolhozdaryna barumen, kolhozshylarmen, audandyq apparat qyzmetkerlerimen auyzeki әngimeden bilgendikten kolhozdy basqaruda oryn alghan qatelikterdi Siz arqyly týzetu, osylaysha Novobogat audanyna qarasty kolhozdardaghy mal sharuashylyghy halqymyzdyn, memleketimizding iygiligi ýshin órkendese әri shynymen nyghaysa deymin.

Kommunist retinde jәne audan týlegi bolghandyqtan Novobogat audany kolhozdarynyng taghdyryna qatty alanmyn jәne tikeley óz basshylyghynyzben jergilikti jerdegi jaghdaydy teksertudi, qajetti sharalar qabyldaudy Sizden ótinemin.

Áriyne, auyzsha aitsam, búdan da tolyghyraq jetkizer edim, biraq oghan jaghday bolmaghandyqtan qajet degenning bәrin tereng taldamastan, statistikalyq mәlimettermen dәiektemey-aq, oghan mening kýshim de jetpeydi-qaghazgha týsirdim. Oblystyq nemese respublikalyq jergilikti qyzmetkerlerge jýktey salmay, ortalyq basshy organnyng ókilin jiberudi Sizden ótinudi ózimning boryshym sanaymyn. Áriyne, sizding jibergen ókilinizben birge jýrip, jergilikti basshylar jasyryp qalatyn nemese basqa túsqa aldap jibere salatyn nәrselerding bәrin ashugha qolghabysymdy berer edim, biraq búghan mýmkindigim joq.

Ótinish-habarlamamdy qaytaryp tastamauynyzdy Sizden ótinemin, búl – mening taza jýrekten shyqqan patriottyq, partiyalyq sózim. Hatymdy alysymen ózinizding pikiriniz ben niyetinizdi jәne nәtiyjesin habarlanyz.

Bolisheviktik sәlemmen,

Gvardiya leytenanty Sabraliyev.

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