Seysenbi, 18 Qantar 2022
Alashorda 13070 1 pikir 28 Qarasha, 2014 saghat 00:58

OTARLAU OIRANY: BASTALUY, ShARYQTAU ShEGI, AYaQTALUY…

 

Qazaq handarynyng Resey bodandyghyna resmy týrde kelisim bergenge deyin-aq orys imperalizmi úly dala territoriyasyna ónmendep enip qoyghan edi. Kele — kele «aq bilekting kýshimen, aq nayzanyng úshymen» saqtalyp, amanatqa qalyp otyrghan baytaq mekenning tórt qiyryndaghy babalar beyiti – shegendelgen shekara belgisi boludan qala bastady.

Osy kezennen bastap qazaq dalasyn jaulaudyng tarihy jazyla bastady. Negizinde, bizge Tәuelsizdik shejiresin týzu qanshalyqty maqtanysh bolsa, otarlau sayasatynyng shyndyghyn jariyalau sonshalyqty jauapty boluy tiyis.

Úly Dalany orystardyng otarlauyn erikti otarlaushylardyng boluy jәne olardyng izin ala kelgen ýkimettik drujinalardyng qozghalysy arqyly aiyrugha bolady. Orys ghalymdarynyng ózi «Erikti otarlaushylar» dep júmysker sharualardy, sektanttardy, basqa da әrtýrli tobyrdy tanydy. Búlar Reseyden XVI – XVII ghasyrlarda qashyp ketken bolatyn. Otarlauda qamaldar salyp, poselkeler men qalalar túrghyzghan әskery otryadtar sheshushi roli atqarady. Olar Ertis pen Gorika jelisi atanghan bekinisterdi jasady.

Patsha ókimeti 1868 jyly «Dalalyq oblystar turaly uaqytsha erejeni» bekitti. Osy zamangha sәikes Qazaqstannyng territoriyasy ýshke bólinedi. Atap aitqanda, әkimshilik basqaryluy jaghynan Syrdariya men Jetisu oblysy – Týrkistan, Oral men Torghay – Orynbor, Aqmola men Semey – Batys Sibir general gubernatorlyghyna baghynyshty boldy. Sóitip, Resey otarshylary ejelgi basqynshylardyng «Bólip al da, biyley ber!» degen jauyzdyq úranyn patsha jarlyghymen zangha sәikestendirip aldy.1868 jylghy «Uaqytsha erejege» sәikes, san ghasyrlar boyy qazaq halqynyng atamekeni – Atyraudan Almatygha deyin keng baytaq jer memleket menshigi dep jariyalandy. Búl úqsastyghy az bolghanday patsha ýkimeti 1889 jyly orys sharualaryn Qazaqstangha qonystandyru jónindegi taghy bir zang shyghardy. Arnayy qonys audaru basqarmasy qúryldy. Mine, naq osy basqarmanyng aralasu nәtiyjesinde alty alashtyng eng shyrayly jerleri tartyp alyndy. Sóitip, HIH ghasyrdyng ayaghy men HH ghasyrdyng basynda saharagha kem degende 1,5 million reseylik qonys audaryp, Qazaqstannyng eng shúrayly degen 45 million taqta jerin tartyp aldy. Búl rette әsirese Oral, Jetisu Sibir qazaqtary qit etse nayzasyn shoshandatyp, qylyshyn jalandatyp, momyn halyqqa kýn kórsetpegeni óz aldyna bir bólek әngime.

Eli de tútas, jeri de tútas qazaq halqyn Resey otarshyldary úzaq jyldar boyy tәlkek etip kelse «óz biyligindi ózine beremin» degen Kenes ýkimeti de alashtyng jerin, elin biriktiruge kelgende neshe týrli qúityrqygha basty. Eng әueli bolishevikter qazaq últynyng birligin, tәuelsizdigin, enseli hәm egemendi memlekettigining tuyn kótergen Alash Orda ókimetin joydy, onyng sýt betinde qaymaghy bolghan ayauly azamattarynyng kózin qúrtty. Sodan keyin baryp Reseyding ashsa alaqanynan, júmsa júdyryghynan shygha almaytyn qazaq avtonomiyasyn qúrugha kelisim berdi. Sonyng ózinde Býkilodaqtyq atqaru komiyteti tóralqasynyng 1919 jylghy 27 tamyzdaghy qaulysymen Torghay oblysynyng Qostanay uezi Chelyabi guberniyasyna berilip ketti.

Búl rette bolishevikter, bizdinshe, myna jayttardy angharghan joq. Birinshiden, Chelyabi guberniyasymen shektesse de, Qostanay uezi iysi qazaq balasynyng jýregining tórinen oryn alghan Saryarqanyng kindigi ispetti edi. Sondyqtan da, Qostanay uezining Reseyding qanjyghasyna baylanuy qazaqtardyng jýregine qanjar silteumen para-par bolyp shyqty.

Ekinshiden, búl uezdi Chelyabi guberniyasyna qosarda múndaghy qazaqtardyng úzyn-sany býkil halyqtyng esebi alynbaghany, soghan oray 42 payyzdyq kórsetkishting shovinisterding oidan shygharghan dalbasasy ekendigi eskerilmeydi. Ýshinshiden, Qostanay uezi Reseyding qaramaghyna ótkennen keyin qazaqtardyng túrmys-salt erekshelikteri de kózge ilinbedi. Alashtyng qazaqtary patsha ókimetining túsynda da múnday qysastyq kórmegen-di. Sondyqtan halyq qatty ashyndy. Jer-jerge aryzdar, ótinishter, talap-tilekter qarday jaudy. Edil-Kaspiy ónirindegi uezderding de Qazaqstangha qosyluy onay bolghan joq. Qazan tónkerisinen keyin Astrahani, Krasnoyar jәne Yanatevskiy uezderining jergilikti túrghyndary Edil-Kaspiy Qazaqiyasy әkimshilik basqarugha qosyla almay әure-sarsangha týsti.

Qazaqstannyng qúramyna Orynbordyng enui manyzdy mәselelerding biri boldy. 1919 jyly 19 qyrkýiekte Qazaq әskery revkomy Orynbordy Qazaqstangha qosu jóninde sheshim qabyldap, 1920 jyldyng 7-shildesinen Orynbor Qazaqstangha qarady. Býkilodaqtyq Ortalyq Atqaru Komiyteti men RSFSR Halyq Komissarlary Sovetining «Qyrghyz (Qazaq) Avtonomiyaly Kenestik Sosialistik Respublikasyn qúru turaly» Dekretine 1920 jylghy tamyzdyng 26-ynda qol qoyyldy. Osynau derekti jýzege asyru maqsatymen jana qúrylghan respublikanyng Qúryltay sezi sol jylghy qazan aiynda Orynbor qalasynda ótti. Qúryltayda respublikanyng shekarasy belgilenedi. Alayda Sibir revolusiyalyq komiyteti ony-múny syltauratyp Semey jәne Aqmola oblystarynyng baytaghyn qaytarudy keyinge qaldyra berdi…

Sibirlikter әueli Aqmola men Semey oblystary Qazaqstangha berilgen jaghdayda jergilikti halyqtan basqa últ ókilderining qúqyna núqsan keledi-mis degen syltaudy algha tartty. Sodan keyin týrli kәsiporyndardy biz saldyq, onyng qúral-jabdyqtaryn alyp ketuge tiyistimiz, múnda óz kadrymyzdy da qaldyrmaymyz dep qoqandady. Álbette, múnyng bәri basty syltau emes-ti. Basty syltau – qaytkende qazaq jerining sýbeli túsyn qarpyp qalu-tyn. Sondyqtan Sibir revkomy asyghys týrde janadan Búqtarma uezin qúryp, ony Semey oblysyna qosqan. Jana uezge Zmeinogorskiy, Altay, Zaysan uezining birqatar bolystary engen. Onyng esesine Pavlodar, Ertis uezderi Omby oblysyna qaratylghan. Yaky Sibir revkomy ózderi mýddeli emes bolystardy Qazaqstangha bergen de, sharuashylyq jaghynan paydaly ónirdi ózderine qaldyrugha tyrysqan.1920 jyldan 1922 jylgha deyin Qazaqstannyng Sibirmen arasyndaghy shekara mәselesi partiyanyng Ortalyq Komiytetinde V.IY.Leninning qatysuymen birneshe ret qaralghan bolatyn. Múnday talqylau RK(b) P Ortalyq Komiytetinde 1920 jylghy aqpanda jәne 1922 jylghy aqpan men mamyrda, BOAK-te 1922 jylghy qantar men aqpanda bolyp ótti. 1920 jyly 9-10 tamyzda Leninning tóraghalyq etuimen BOAK-tyng prezidiumynda barlyq mýddeli jaqtyng qatysuymen qazaq ólkesin basqaru, onyng shekaralary, Resey Federasiyasymen qarym-qatynastarynyng mәseleleri qaraldy. Sibirlikter әueli Aqmola men Semey oblystary Qazaqstangha berilgen jaghdayda jergilikti halyqty basqa úl ókilderining qúqyna núqsan keledi-mis degen syltaudy taghy-da algha tartty. V.Lenin edәuir alauyzdyq jaghdayynda birden-bir dúrys jol tabugha tyrysty. Búl rette ol dauly jer mәselesin, shekara belgileudi qúrylghaly túrghan Qazaq Respublikasynyng paydasyna sheshuding qajettiligin dәleldep berdi. Tamyzdyng on jetisi men jiyrma tórtinde býkil talqylau ayaqtalghan song Omby uezining jeri qaq bólinip, bir bóligi Sibirge, ekinshi bóligi Qazaqstangha qarady. Mәselen, Esil uezining shyghys jaghyndaghy bes bolys Aqmola oblysynyng Petropavl uezine berildi. Keyinirek, dәlirek aitqanda, 1921 jyly qarashanyng 10-da Omby uezining 15 bolysy shalqar uezine berilip, Aqmola guberniyasyna qosyldy.

Petropavl uezining jalpy alghanda, Aqmola oblysynyng territoriyasyn qaytaryp alu naq sol jyldardaghy azyq-týlik salyghy sayasatyna narazylyq bildirgen ereuilderding saldarynan da edәuir keshikti. Degenmen, «eshten kesh jaqsy», Sibir revkomynyng sergeldeni qazaq halqynyng tәuelsiz, egemendi el bolu jolyndaghy talpynysyna tosqauyl bola almady.

1921 jyly 19 kókekte Qazaqstan Ortalyq Atqaru komiytetining dekreti boyynsha Jayyq pen Ertis ónirinde búryn kazaqtargha tartyp әperilgen on shaqyrymdyq shep qúrghan jerler qazaq halqyna qaytaryldy. Búl jekelegen orys jauapty qyzmetkerlerining yzaly qarsylyghyn tughyzdy. Respublikanyng qúramynan jekelegen uezderdi, tipti guberniyalardy bólip әketuge әreketter jasaldy. Mysaly, 1921 jyly mausymda Oral gubkomy Kazaqtardyng qúqyghyn qorghau degen jeleumen Jayyqtyng sol jaq jaghalauynda qazaqtargha qaytarylghan on shaqyrymdyq shep qúraytyn jerdi bermeu turaly sheshim qabyldap, ortalyqqa Oral guberniyasynyng Qazaq ASSR-inen bólinetindigi turaly habarlady. Alayda, partiyanyng Ortalyq komiyteti múnday ótinishti qabyldamay tastady. Al RK (b) P Qazaq obkomynyng prezidiumy gubkomnyng pozisiyasyn sayasy qajettilik retinde aiyptady. Sóitip, gubkomnyng qúramyna ózgerister engizdi.

Qostanay guberniyasynyng keybir basshy qyzmetkerlerining tarapynan da shovinistik әreketter kórindi. Últ sayasatynyng mәnisin týsinbegen olar Qostanay uezin Qazaq ASSR-nyng qúramynan bólip Chelyabi guberniyasyna qosu turaly talap qoydy. Alayda, S. Mendeshev, S. Seyfulliyn, Á.Dosov basqarghan arnayy komissiya Qostanay gubkomynyng júmysyn zerttep, basshy qyzmetkerler tobynyng shovinistik kózqarasyn aiyptady. Sóitip, gubkomnyng hatshysy Shafret bastaghan búl topty qyzmetten bosatty.

Býkilodaqtyq Ortalyq Atqaru Komiytetining Qazaq avtonomiyaly respublikasyn qúru jónindegi dekrette jana qúrylghan memleketke Týrkistangha qarasty Jetisu men Syrdariya oblystaryn Qazaqstangha beru prosesi de birneshe jylgha sozyldy. Áriyne, osynday keshiguding ózindik sebepteri joq emes-ti. Búl jerde, sóz joq eng basty qiynshylyq últtyq shekarany aiqyndau prosesinen tuyndady.

Túrghyndary miday aralasyp jatqan Týrkistan ólkesinde shekarany belgileu rasynda onay sheshile qoymady. Áueli halyqtar arasynda, enbekshiler ortasynda týsinik beru júmystaryn jýrgizuge tura keldi. Sonyng ózinde Tashkent manyndaghy birqatar Qazaqstandy qalasa, Shymkent manynda, Osh ónirindegi ózbekter Ózbekstan respublikasyn tandady. Múnday aitys-tartystar shekaragha jaqyn audandardyng bәrinde de óristedi. Qazaqstan men Ózbekstan arasyndaghy kóp talqylaghan mәsele – Myrzashól men Tashkent uezderining qay respublikagha qaraytyny. Óitkeni, búl eki uezde jalpy alghanda qazaqtar kóp te, ózbekter az edi. Aqyrynda búl dauly mәselege RK (b) P Ortalyq Komiyteti aralasyp, mәseleni «ayttym boldy, kestim ýzildi» prinsiypimen sheship, búl jerlerdi Ózbekstan jerleri dep tanydy. Nәtiyjesinde Tashkent uezining – 10, Myrzashól uezining – 2 bolysy Qazaqstangha qaytaryldy. Jalpy alghanda әlgindegi 12 bolys elden basqa Jetisu oblysynyng Almaty, Jarkent, Lepsi, Taldyqorghan uezderi, Syrdariya oblysynyng Qazaly, Aqmeshit, Týrkistan, Shymkent, Áulieata uezderi, sonday-aq Jizaq uezining 6 bolysy Qazaqstangha qarady. Týrkistangha qarasty – Ámudariya, Horezm respublikasyna qarasty Ójeyli oblystarynyng qaraqalpaqtary men qazaqtary óz taghdyrlaryn Qazaqstan halqymen baylanystyrghysy keldi. Qaraqalpaq avtonomiyaly respublikasy qúrylyp, Qazaqstannyng qúramyna endi. Sayyp kelgende, Týrkistan respublikasynyng 1500 adam mekendeytin 600 000 sharshy shaqyrym jeri Qazaqstan jerine ótti. Búl az ba, kóp be? Álbette, bastapqy sheshimge qaraghanda búl edәuir olqy kórsetkish. Óitkeni alghashqy qújat boyynsha, Qazaqstangha 2,5 mln. túrghyny bar 900 000 sharshy metr jer berilui tiyis edi.

1930 jyly Qaraqalpaq avtonomiyaly oblysy Mәskeuding núsqauymen Ózbekstannyng qúzyryna ketti. Keyinirek, әkimshilik basqaru túrghysynan qolayly dep Bostandyq audany da Ózbekstangha berildi. Aragha taghy biraz uaqyt salyp Maqtaral, Jetisay, Kirov, Iliich audandary Ózbekstannyng qanjyghasyna baylandy. Osynau alys-beristing birde-birine halyq yqylas bildirgen joq. Bәrin sheshushi – Mәskeu, bәrin retteushi – Kompartiya. Osynday qighashtyq saldarynan Qaraqalpaqstanda, Bostandyq audanynda Tashkent, Samarqan, Búqara, Jizaq jәne taghy basqa oblystarda qazaqtar óz respublikasynan tysqary memleketterde qalyp qoydy. Sonymen birge, Qazaqstan halqynyng sany edәuir ósti. Eger 1920 jyly túrghyndarynyng jalpy sany – 4,8 mln. adam bolsa, 1925 jyly ol kórsetkish 6,5 mln. adamgha kóbeydi. Osy kezende jergilikti últtyq ýles salmaghy da 10 payyzgha ósip, 1925 jyly respublika halqynyng 57 payyzyn qazaqtar qúraydy.

Respublikanyng geosayasy jәne ekonomikalyq-geografiyalyq jaghdayy da birshama ózgeriske úshyraydy. Búryndary Qazaqstan azghantay ghana bólikte Qytay memleketimen shektesse, endi Orta Aziya respublikalarynyng mejelenip, bólinui nәtiyjesinde onyng memlekettik shekaralyq syzyghynyng úzyndyghy 2200 shaqyrymgha deyin úzartyp, sol kezdegi odaqtyng sheteldik memlekettermen shekaralas shetkergi aumaqtarynyng birine ainaldy. Múnday ózgerister jәne qazaq halqynyng bir memleket shenberindegi tolyq jinaqtalyp qosyluy – Qazaq AKSR-ning odaqtas respublika bolyp keyinnen qayta qúryluyna sebepshi boldy. 1925 jyly respublikamyzda búdan basqa da aitarlyqtay iri ózgerister bolghan. Mәselen, Respublika astanasy sol jylghy aqpanda Orynbordan Aqmeshitke kóshiriledi, al mausym aiynda onyng aty Qyzylorda bolyp ózgertiledi. 1927 jyly mamyr aiynda respublika astanasyn Qyzylordadan Almaty qalasyna auystyru turaly sheshim qabyldap, tura eki jyldan song Qazaqstan ýkimeti Almatygha kóshiriledi.

Ekinshi jahan soghysy kezinde tynshu alghan orystandyru, qazaq jerin bólshekteu prosesteri, repressiya… ótken ghasyrdyng 50-shi jyldary qayta jandandy. Ýkimet pen partiya basshylyghyna N.Hrushev kelgen jyldarda dau-damay kýsheydi. «Tyng jәne tynayghan jerlerdi iygeremiz» degen jeleumen bayaghyda sibirlikter qymqyryp qalmaq bolghan tórt-bes oblysty Reseyge beru talaby qayta qozghalghandyghy kópshilikke mәlim. Qulyghyna qúryq boylamaytyn Hrushev aldymen ýnemi tamaghyn maylap túratyn ózbekterge «Maqtaly ónirdi iygereyik» degen syltaumen Qazaqstannyng ontýstigin bermekshi boldy. 1954 jyldyng tamyz aiynda Hrushev Qazaqstannyng Bostandyq audanyn Ózbekstangha qosugha úsynys jasady. Komissiya qúryldy. Komissiyanyng basshysy bolyp Qazaq KSR-i Ministrler kenesining tóraghasy Júmabek Tәshenov taghayyndaldy. Komissiya mýsheleri Hrushevtyng úsynysyn qabyldamaydy. Búl jónindegi qarsy pikirlerin sol kezdegi Qazaqstannyng birinshi hatshysy L.Brejnev jazyp beredi. Búryn-sondy múnday qarsylyq kórmegen Hrushev tas-talqan ashulandy. Búl qarsylyqqa qaramastan 1955 jyly qarashada tizege basyp, Bostandyq audanyn Ózbekstangha qosugha búiryq berdi. Búiryq oryndaldy. Qazaqtyng 4 million gektar jeri men qalyng eli birge kózi jәudirep ózbekterge kete bardy. Búl jerding negizgisi әli kýnge deyin qaytarylghan joq. Búl tek bastamasy ghana eken. Hrushev endi Qazaqstannyng soltýstigine kózin qadap, Reseyge qosugha niyettendi. Sayasy burogha qayta-qayta úsynys jasaydy. 1961 jyldyng kýzinde Aqmolada ýlken jinalys bolady. Jinalysqa Hrushev qatysady. J. Tәshenovting tabandylyghy men tughan jerge degen sýiispenshiligi, onyng N. Hrushevting dauryqpa jәne jýgensiz jymysqy pighyldaryna ashyqtan-ashyq qarsylyq bildirui tughan jerimizdi úrpaqtargha amanat etip saqtap qalugha mýmkindik berdi.

Jalpy, Tәuelsizdik túghyrynyng myqty bolmaghy kóp jayttargha baylanysty. Sonyng biregeyi – memlekettik shekara. Memlekettik shekaranyng mәn-manyzy búrynghydan da arta týsti. 2005 jyldyng 18 qantarynda Qazaqstan – Resey arasynda memlekettik shekara turaly shartqa qol qoydy. Elimizding qúrlyqtaghy shekarasynyng jalpy úzyndyghy 15 myng shaqyrymgha juyq bolsa, sonyng jartysynan astamy, yaghny 7591 shaqyrymy kórshiles el Reseymen shektesedi eken.1998 jyly Qazaqstan men Qytay arasyndaghy Memlekettik shekara turaly kelisimshartqa qol qoyyldy. Osy jyldar aralyghynda týbimiz bir ózbek, qyrghyz, týrikmen elderimen aradaghy Memlekettik shekara turaly kelisimshartqa da dau-damaysyz qol jetkizgenimiz belgili. Biz býginderi barlyq kórshilerimizben memlekettik shekara mәselesin týpkilikti sheshken elmiz.

Tileu Kólbaev,

tarih ghalymdarynyng doktory, professor.

Abai.kz

1 pikir

Ýzdik materialdar

Manyzdy

Janaózen nege kóterildi?

Núrgeldi Ábdighaniyúly 5810
Dep jatyr

Janaózen talaby. Maminning jauaby...

Abai.kz 6882