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Tarih 8422 0 pikir 27 Tamyz, 2015 saghat 16:23

MANSURDAN VAKKASQA DEYINGI MANGhYT JÚRTY

Gazy men Vakkas kezindegi Manghyt júrtynyng sayasy tarihy mәselesi tarihy әdebiyetterde osal qarastyrylghan.

Abdal Gaffar Kyrymnyng mәlimetine say, Gazy men Nauruz aghalary Mansurdyng óliminen keyin Barakpen soghysqan. Sonymen qatar olar taqqa Kuchuk Múhammedti otyrghyzghan. Osydan keyin Gazy men Kuchuk Múhammed Sarayshyqtyng darugha qyzmetin әldebir Ayiasqa syilaghan [20, 95]. V.V.Trepavlovtyng pikirinshe, Mansúr Hadjiy-Múhammedting nemese kelesi núsqa boyynsha Giyas ad-Dinnin, Kuchuk-Muhammedting jәne Baraqtyng túsynda, Nauruz Úlyq Múhammedting jәne Kuchuk-Múhammedting túsynda, Key-Kavad Puladtyng túsynda, Gazy Kuchuk Múhammedting jәne Djumaduktyng túsynda beklerbek bolghan.

Múnda derektegi birinshi qayshylyqqa toqtalugha bolady. Qadyghraly Jalairiyding jazghany: Edigening óliminen keyin onyng úly Mansúr Hadjiy-Múhammedti han etip jariyalady (Safargaliyev, 1960, S. 202). Sol kezde Abdal Gaffar Kyrymy jazdy: «әkesining óliminen keyin Mansúr orys júrtynda  jasyryndy. Sosyn  Volgagha  oralyp, Giyas ad-din ben Shәdibekting túsynda by boldy. Ol eki jyldan song qaytys bolyp, Mansur taqqa Kuchuk-Muhammed ben Temir ben Temir-Qútlyqty kóterdi. Alayda kóp keshikpey ózining qamqorlyghyndaghy jas adamgha suyp, shyghys hany Baraqty qoldaudy sheshti [20, 94].

Bizding pikirimizshe, eki derekting әrqaysysy dúrys, olardyng arasynda qayshylyq joq. Edigening óliminen keyin Mansúr taqqa Hadjiy-Múhammedti kóterip, bir jyldan song ony Baraq qúlatady, yaghny taqtan týsiredi. Bәlkim, osynda Hadjiy-Múhammed óltirilgen boluy kerek. Mansúr bolsa orys júrtyna qashady. Osydan keyin ol Bulgargha oralyp, osy kezde Bulgarda tiyn soqqan Giyas ad-Dindi taqqa kóteredi. A.G.Muhammadiyevting pikirinshe, Giyas ad-Dinning tiyndary Bulgarda 1422-1425 jyldary soghyldy [11. 127]. Bәlkim, onyng biylik etken uaqytyn, Mansúr «orys júrtynan» oralghandaghy, 1423-1425 jyldargha shegergen dúrys shyghar. Giyas ad-Dinning Qyrymdaghy biylik etken uaqyty eki jyldy qúrady, sóitip Mansúr 1425 jyly hansyz qaldy dep boljaugha bolady. Bizding pikirimizshe, ol kezde Mansúr Kuchuk-Múhammedti taqqa әli kótergen joq, múny tek әli oilandy. Áriyne, Kuchuk-Múhammed Mansúrdyng tuysy, sebebi onyng anasy Edigening úly ne Nuraddiyning (Natanziyding tegerandyq audarmasy boyynsha) [20, 58] qyzy, ne Edigening óz qyzy (AOTMJ alynghan Natanziyding audarmasyna say) [4, 263] boldy degen IY.L.Izmailovpen  kelisuge bolady.

Sonymen, Rusiqa qashqannan jәne Giyas ad-Dinning biyliginen keyin Mansúr (anasy jaghynan nemere aghasy) tuysy bolatyn Baraqpen tatulasudy sheshti. Búl tuystastyq Edigening jәne Baraq tuystarynyng tyghyz baylanysynyng nәtiyjesi bolghan kórinedi. Baraqtyng ýsh nemere aghasy (Orystyng úly Toqtaqiyanyng balalary) Buguchak, Tengriy-Berdi jәne Aniyke-Pulad Edigening 1408 jylghy Moskvagha joryghyna qatysty [18, 37]. Búl jerde Muizz al Ansab pen Tavarihy Guzidayy Nusrat-namede shatastyru bolghanyn atap ótu kerek. Muizz al Ansabtaghy Aniykege júrnaq bolghan Aniyke-Puladqa [4, 112] qatysty, al Tavarihy Guzidayy Nusrat-namede Yagudjak-aneke, Pulad aitylghan. Onyng ýstine Yagudjak onyng balalaryn tizip aitqanda Aniyke júrnaghynsyz qoldanylady [4, 438]. Bәlkim, múnda Muizz al Ansab dúrys, al Tavarihy Guzidayy Nusrat-namede ýshinshi esimning basy ekinshi esimning sonyn alghan qate jiberilgen. Muizz al Ansabta geometriyalyq figurlardaghy esimder dúrys bólingen.

Eger osy boljamnan shyqsaq, onda Edigening Baraqtyng qaryndasy Kuyurchuktyng qyzyna ýilenu faktisin týsindiruge bolady. Búl Kuyurchuk óliminen keyin, Orys-hannyng úrpaghy biylik ýshin Edigemen kýresuding ornyna (olardyng resurstary teng emes-tin), baghynudy sheshken song bolghan kórinedi. Atalghan sheshim Edigening jәne Kuyurchuk qyzynyng nekelik odaghymen bekitildi. Búl әrketter XIV ghasyrdyng 90-shy jyldary bolghan bolar.

Samarkandiyde Baraqtyng Múhammed ordasyn basyp alghany jayynda eki ret jazylghan: Hijranyng 826 jyly (15.12.1422-04.12.1423) Baraqtyng Múhammed-han ordasyn basyp alghany turaly Shahmalikten Shahruhqa habar keldi, al osydan bir jyl búryn Múhammed-hannan Shahruhqa elshiler kelgen bolatyn. Tómende hijranyng 830 jylghy habarlamasynda 828 jyly Baraq Múhammed ordasyn basyp alghany, al 829 jyly Syghnaqqa kelgeni jazylghan [4, 374]. Jylnamashy múnda 826 jylghy oqighany aitqan bolar, alayda merziminen qatelesken. Nikon jylnamasynda Baraq 1422 jyly aitylghan, endeshe 1422 jyldyng ekinshi jartysynda Baraq Hadjiy-Múhammedti qúlatqan, tipti óltirgen dep payymdaugha bolady. 1422 jyldyng qyrkýieginde Baraq Úlyq Múhammed pen Davletberdining nemereles aghasy Qúdaydat-handy [5, 205]  jendi

1424 jydy Hudaydat Odoy knyazining jerine basyp kirip, úly knyazi Vasiliy Moskovskiy ony talqandaydy. M.G.Safargaliyevting pikirinshe, ol búghan deyin Úlyq-Múhammedti quyp jiberip jәne sóitip Úlyq-Múhammed Vitov iyeligine payda boldy [17, 199]. Alayda, búl jerde qarsylyq tanytugha bolady, Hudaydat Úlyq-Múhammedting nemereles aghasy: Endeshe Úlyq-Múhammed ózining nemereles inisine bәsekeles boluy ekitalay. Ol onyng seriktesi bolghan shyghar jәne Hudoydattyng Moskva knyazdyghynan jenilui onyng Vitovta payda boluyna sebep boldy. Osydan keyin Hudoydat mәlim emes, al Úlyq-Múhammed Vitov hattarynda han retinde (alghash ret 1424 jyly 22 mausymdaghy hatta) aitylady.

Múnda Shәdibekting úly Giyas ad-Dinning biyligi turaly da aitqan jón. Qyrymiyding mәlimetine say, ol eki jyl biylep, sosyn qaytys bolghan. Al Numizmatikalyq materialdyng mәlimetine say ol 1430-shy jyldary biylegen [11, 134]. A.G.Muhamadiyevting núsqasy boyynsha, Giyas ad-din eki ret biylegen jәne onyng biyligi arasynda Úlyq Múhammed biylegen. Búl núsqany A.G.Gaev numizmatikalyq material analiyzining negizinde joqqa shyghardy [2, 35].

1430 - shy jyldary Giyas ad-Din tiri biyleushi retinde aitylmaghandyqtan, atalghan faktilerding jazba derekterde dәleli joq. Odan basqa, 1429 jylghy Bulgargha joryqty Mahmud-hodja jәne Aliy-bey (Aliy-baba) basqardy, al eshqanday Giyas ad-Din orys jylnamalarynda tirkelmegen, eger ol sonshalyqty úzaq uaqyt biylegen bolsa, ol tirkelgen bolar edi. Sonymen, Giyas ad-din Mansúrdyng kómegimen nebary eki jyl 1423-1425 jyldary biyledi dep boljaymyz. Týrkilerding Shejiresinde Giyas ad –Din Baraqtyng jәne Temir-hannyng úly (Kuchuk-Múhammed) Múhammedting arasyndaghy han retinde aitylghan [4, 400]. Búl Giyas ad-Dinning Baraqpen qatar Kuchuk-Múhammedke deyin biylegeni turaly núsqany janama dәleldeydi.

Odan әri 1426 jyly Baraq pen 1425 jyly onyng jaghyna shyqqan jana odaqtasy Mansúr Úlyq Múhammedten talqandalyp, Shyghysqa jyljyghany turaly T.IY.Súltanovtyng pikirimen kelisuge bolady [5, 207].

Eki derekting qarama-qayshy analiyzine negizdep, Mansúr Edige óliminen keyin Baraqtan jenilis tauyp, sosyn qaytys bolghan Hadjiy-Múhammedti taqqa kótergeni turaly boljaugha bolady. Mansúr Rusi territoriyasyna qashty, odan Bulgar vilayetine oralyp, shamamen 1425 jyly qaytys bolghan Giyas ad-Dindi handyqqa úsyndy. Osydan keyin onyng aldyna ekining birin tandau, yaghny diylemma tuyndady, ne Kuchuk Múhammedti han kóteru, nemese Baraqtyng beklerbegi bolu. Ol ekinshisin tandady da, Kuchuk-Múhammed ol joly han bolghan joq. Mansúrdyng óliminen keyin, onyng aghalary Súltan-Mahmud, Gazy jәne Nauruz Baraqqa qarsy shyghyp, jәne onyng óliminen keyin Mogholstanmen shekarada taqqa Kuchuk-Múhammedti kóterdi.

Búryn Baraqqa qarsy shayqasqa Mahmud-hodja, Nauruz jәne Kazy qatysty dep oilaghamyz. Sonymen, Mahmud-hodja  aghaly-inili Qazidyng jәne Nuruzdyng hany boldy [13, 169].Atalghan pikirmen D.N.Maslujenko kelisti[6, 98]. Sonday-aq, múnda biz Gaziymen jәne Nauruzben shayqasta Baraqtyng qarsylasyna qatysty óz kózqarasymyzdyng ózgergenin kórsetudi jón kórdik. Q.Z.Óskenbaydyng pikiri boyynsha, Súltan-Mahmúdtyng Baraqty jengeni turaly Samarkandiydegi mәlimet, ne Súltan-Mahmudtyn, ne Úlyghbekting jalghan aqparaty [21, 25]. Jalghan aqparat ýshin eshqanday sebep bolghan joq, sondyqtan biz atalghan pikirmen kelispeymiz. Múnday jalghan aqparattyng eshqanday sayasy diviydendi bolghan joq. Búl jerde Súltan-Mahmúd Samarkandiyde Djalal ad-Din qaryndasynyng jәne Edigening úly retinde aitylghan [4, 368-369], Baraqqa qarsy kýresken Súltan-Mahmud Edigening úly bolghanyn jәne aghalary Qaziymen jәne Nauruzben birge aghasyn óltirgenge qarsy kýreskenin biz tolyghymen boljay alamyz. Sonday-aq, Abdal Gaffar Kirimy derek retinde [21, 25] senimge túrarlyq degen Q.Z.Óskenbaydyng dәieksózimen jartylay kelisuge bolady, biraq ta Qazidyng jәne Nauruzdyng hany Úlyq –Múhammed boldy degen Q.Z.Óskenbaydyng dәieksózimen kelise almaymyz. Bizding pikirimizshe, aghaly-inili Qazi, Nauruz jәne Súltan-Mahmúd Baraqqa qarsy (Abdal Gaffar Kyrymiyding mәlimetine say) búl kezde әli kәmelet jasqa tolmaghan jәne aghaly-inili Qazi, Nauruz jәne Súltan-Mahmud ýshin qolayly Kuchuk Múhammedti úsynghan [16, 101]. Baraqtyng óliminen keyin Kuchuk Muúammed han etip jariyalandy. Búl shayqas bolyp ótken Mogholstanmen shekarada bolghan bolar.

Sonymen Gazy túsynda kim han bolghanyn jәne Súltan-Mahmúdpen ne bolghanyn taldau ýshin derekterding eki tobyn qarastyrugha bolady:

1. Abdal Gaffar Kyrymy Gazy men Nauruz Mansúr óliminen keyin Kuchuk Múhammedti han kótergen tarihty mәlimdeydi. Abdal Gaffar Kyrymy meylinshe songhy derek, degenmen Shirin ruynan shyqqan jәne Qyrymda ómir sýrgen avtordyng Mansúrlar arasynda kýndilikti aitylghan anyzdy jazyp aluy tolyghymen mýmkin. Mansúrlar beklerbek Mansúrdyng úrpaghy ekenine kýmәndanbaugha bolady, endeshe búl shygharmanyng tiyimdi dәni bar.

2.Ortaaziyalyq derekter:

2.1. Fasih jinaghynyng mәlimdeuinshe, hijranyng 832 jyly (1428-1429 jyl) «Burak oglandy Mahmúd Súltannyn  Mogol[istan]da óltirgeni turaly habar keldi... Mahmúd Súltandy Mogol[istan]da Múhammed Gaziyding jazalauy»[1] [22, 202-203]. Baraqtyng ólimi turaly habar 3 djumad al-avvalide (1429 jyldyng 8 aqpany) tirkelgen habargha deyin aitylghan. Al Mahmúd Súltandy jazalau turaly habar 17 shavvalda (1429 jyldyng 20 shildede) tirkelgen habardan keyin aitylghan. Endeshe, búl eki oqigha arasynda jarty jyl ýzilisten keyin bolghan.

 Samarkandiyding eki qoljazbasy:

2.2. «Mogholstanda úly shayqas bolyp jәne Súltan-Mahmúd Baraqty óltirdi... Maurennahrdan qaytadan shabarman kelip mogholdarda Mahmúd-Gaziyding Súltan-Mahmúd-oglandy óltirgenin jetkizdi» [9, 168]. Búl jerde oglan júrnaghy erkekter liniyasy boyynsha Shynghys-han úrpaghyn bildiredi, alayda, Súltan –Mahmúd týrli tizimderde oglan júrnaghymen jәne júrnaghynsyz aitylady, al jogharyda Samarkandiyde ol Edigening úly retinde aitylghanyn atap ketken jón.

2.3. «Súltan-Mahmúd (S qoljazbasyna oglan retinde qosylghan) pen Baraq-oglan arasynda Mogholistanda ýlken shayqas bolyp ótti jәne Baraqty Súltan-Mahmúd óltirdi» [4, 378].

Nәtiyjesinde, Samarkandiyding eki qoljazbasynyng derekkózi bolghan ne Fasihiyting ózi, ne Fasihting deregi, onyng ýstine Fasihtaghy oqighalar týpnúsqagha meylinshe jaqyn sipattalghan.

Shyndyghynda, aghaly-inililerding Baraqty jengennen keyin, Qazy ózining nemereles aghasy Súltan-Mahmúdty óltirui mýmkin dep biz boljay alamyz. Múny Nauruzdyng qalay Úlyq Múhammedke tap bolghany týsindire alady: ol Qazy tarapynan qudalaudan qauiptenip, Kuchuk Múhammedting qarsylasy - Úlyq Múhammed hangha qashuyna bolar edi. Qaziyding ozbyrlyqpen biylegeni turaly janama fakti Tarihy Ábilhaiyr-haniyden ýzindide aitylghan:

Deshti-Qypshaq kósemderi men әmirleri Gaziy-biyding jauyzdyghyna shydamdary tausylyp jәne onyng qanauy men zorlyghynan eniregende, olar [әmirler men kósemder] kelisip, ony óltirip, búl memleket túrghyndarynyng basynan jauyzdyqtyng betin әri qyldy. [Osydan keyin] ýmiti aqtalghan [olar] Djumaduk-hannyng sarayyna bet aldy. [Djumaduk-] han sarayyna jetip, [olar] [oghan] qyzmetke túru jәne úly әmirler men joghary mәrtebeli hannyng malaylary qatarynda beku qúrmetine ie boldy. Alayda, olardyng Djumaduk-han raqymshylyghyna jәne qúrmetine bólenu ýmiti aqtalghan joq jәne jogharyda atalghan han padishahtyq órkókirektiginen jәne joghary biyleushige tәn pighylynan ol adamdardyng jaghdayyna nazar audarghan joq[8, 141].

Búryn biz Gaziydi óltirgen atalghan әmirler kezinde Gazy beklerbek bolghan Mahmud-hodja-hannan qashty dep boljaghamyz [15, 111].

Alayda, qazirgi boljamymyz boyynsha, Gazy Kuchuk-Múhammed túsynda beklerbek bolghan eken. Al Djumaduk Temirliktermen odaqtyq baylanysta boldy, Temirlerge Baraqtyng elshisi bolyp baryp jәne Baraq pen Temirlikterding qatynasy shiyelenisken kezde, ol han bolyp jariyalandy. Sonymen, Gaziydi óltirgen әmirler, Gazy beklerbegi bolghan Kuchuk-Múhammedpen qayshylyqty qatynasta bolghan, Djumaduk hangha qashty. Biz biletindey, Gaziyding mirasqorlary bolghan manghyttar basyndaghy Vakkas jәne Abbas [20, 99]. V.V. Trepavlovtyng pikirinshe, Vakkastyng Gazy ólimine qatysy boluy mýmkin [20, 100]. Onyng ýstine, Mansurdyng úly Temir manyndaghylardyng Vakkasqa ústanghandary mýldem tuystyq sezim emes ekenin V.V. Trepavlov atap ótedi [20, 99]. Bizge búl Vakkastyng Ábilhayyr-han ýshin «Saiyn-hannyng taghyn eki ret basyp aluymen» baylanysty siyaqty kórinedi [20, 98]. Ekinshi ret Ábilhayyr-hannyng Kuchuk-Múhammedovichpen shayqasy kezinde boldy, al birinshi ret Ábilhayyr-hannyng Tómengi Edil boyyn iyelenu uaqytyn anyqtau qiyngha soghady.

Ábilhayyr-han memleketindegi Vakkas róli mәselesi óte tartymdy.

Derekterde Vakkas әreketi turaly mәlimet óte az kezdesedi.

Tarihy Ábilhaiyr-haniyde ol tek birneshe jaghdayda ghana aitylghan[2]:

1.Ábilhaiyr-handy taqqa kóterui (Buzanchar qiyattan jәne eki seidten song 4-shi pozisiyada aitylghan).

2.Kuchuk Múhammed úldarynyng Ahmad pen Mahmudqa joryghy jәne Orda-Bazardy basyp alu (Adad-bek býrkitten jәne Buzunchar qiyattan búryn birinshi pozisiyada aitylghan).

3. Syghnaqqa joryq (Bahtiyar-súltannan keyin, ekinshi bolyp aitylghan). Bahtiyarmen (Hyzyr-hannyng úly) jәne Mane-oglanmen (tanguttyng úrpaghy, Murat-Sufiyding úly) qatar syrdariyalyq Ýzgend qalasyn tartu retinde alghan adam retinde aitylghan.

4.Vakkastyng Mustafa-handy Ábilhayyr-hangha qarsy qoyy. Mustafa-hannyng jenilui.

5.Horezmge joryq. Masud Kuhistaniyde jazylghan:

Abu-l-Hayr-han mәjilis jәne kenes ýshin әsker kósemderin jәne jaujýrek jenimpaz әsker [qolbasshylaryn], seyiyderding qaymaghyn, Ta-Ha maqtanyshyn jәne danqty Ya-Sindi [qalayda] shaqyrtyp aldy. Kúl-Múhammad-seyidti, Kara-seyidti, Bahtiyar-súltandy, Adad-bek býrkitti, Kiybek-Hodja-biy býrkitti, Buzundjar-biy kyiatty, Múhammad-bek kongratty, Hakiym-Shayh-bahadur kushchiydi, Kungur-bay-bahadur kushchiydi, Tuliy-Hadjiy-biy kushchiydi, Daulat-Hodja-divan kushchiydi, Akcha-Urus kushchiydi. Kylych-bay-bahadur uygurgha, Sufiy-bek naymangha, Kara-Usman naymangha, Hodja-Lak kurlautqa, Bagly-Hojda kongratqa, Yahshiy-bek-tarhangha, Kutluk-Buka-tarhangha, Han-kuly naymangha jәne jenimpaz әskerding basqa  qolbasshylaryna han Horoezmdi jaulap alu maqsatyna bekigen niyetin aitty: «Men әskerdi tәrtipke, jeniske pana keltiru arqyly, Horezm hakiymimen keskilesken shayqasqa attanghym keledi» [8, 149]. Odan әri kelesidey mazmúnmen ýzindi bar:

 [Abu-l-Hayr-han] Horezmdi jaulap alugha batyl kirisip jәne әlemdi jaulaushy hakandar men memleket әmirshilerining dәstýrimen [algha] bet aldy. Erjýrek tenizining qoltyrauyny bolghan Bahtiyar-súltandy avangard basyna taghayyndady. Úly әmirler jәne әlem túrghyndary jәne qatysuymen әlemdi bezendirip, danqyn shygharghan joghary mәrtebeli Seyidter birde: Seyidter qaymaghy- danq pen baqyt kózi — Kúl-Muhammad-seyid jәne Qara-seyiyd, Vakkas-biy manghyt, Buzundjar-biy qyiat jәne barlyq әmirler men basqa vityazder jәne bahadurlar, jenimpaz әskerdi tәrtipke keltirip, Horezm jaqqa bet alyp attandy [8, 150].

Yaghni, әuel bastan Vakkas Ábilhayyr-hannyng Horezmge joryqty taldau ýshin shaqyrghandarynyng qúramynda bolghan joq. Alayda, Horezmge shygharda ol әsker qúramynda bolyp, ýshinshi pozisiyada atalady, al búl onyng joryqta manyzdylyghyn kórsetedi. Biz búl jerde onyng nege birinshi qúramda atalmay, ekinshi qúramda atalghanyna óz týsiniktememizdi úsyna alamyz. Vakkastyng Horezmge joryqtyng bastaushysy boluy tolyghymen mýmkin. Ol Ábilhayyr-hannan jenilgen son, Mustafa-hanmen Horezmde boluy mýmkin. Mustafa-handy Horezmde Yakub (Kuchuk Múhammedting úly) kungrattarmen odaqtasyp taqtan qúlatqannan keyin, Vakkas Ábilhayyr-hangha qashugha mәjbýr boldy. Endi Ábilhayyr-han elinde jýrip, Vakkas oghan Horezmge joryq jasaudy úsynuy mýmkin. Sondyqtan ol mәjiliske shaqyrylghan әmirler tiziminde aitylmaghan, ol búl kezde Ábilhayyr-han ordasynda boldy.

Tavarihy Guzidayy Nusrat-namede aitylghan, Ábilhayyr-han Kuchuk Múhammedting úldary Ahmad pen Mahmudty eki ret taqtan aiyrdy jәne ózine Bulyar men Bulgar elderin baghyndyrdy [10, 219].

Ótemis-hadjiyding jazghany: Ábilhayyr-han Taht elin barlyghy ýsh ret baghyndyrdy, odan keyin onyng atyna Orda-Bazarda hutba oqyldy [19, 65].

Mәlim bolghanday, Mustafa-han jenilgen son, biz Kuchuk-Múhammedting úly Yakubpen tendestirgen, Yakub-oglan ony taqtan qúlatqangha deyin Horezmdi biyledi.

 Mustafanyng Hadjiy-tarhanda jylyn kórsetpey, tiyn soqqany mәlim [3, 29].

Sonymen, Ábilhayyr-han is jýzinde Taht eli (Hadjiy-tarhan) territoriyasyn ýsh ret basyp alghanyn boljaugha bolady: eki ret territoriyany Kuchuk Múhammedting balalarynan tartyp aldy jәne osyghan deyin atalghan territoriyany Vakkas beklerbegi bolghan Mustafa-hannan tartyp aldy.

Mahmud ben Valiyde aitylghan, Ábilhayyr-han әuel basta Kuchuk Múhammedting balasy Mahmudty jenip, ony qashugha mәjbýr etken. Odan keyin Ábilhayyr-han Horezmge joryq jasap, odan Edige úrpaghyn quyp shyqqan. Osydan keyin Ábilhayyr-han qaytadan Kuchuk Múhammed úldary Ahmad pen Mahmudqa joryq jasaydy. Kuchuk Múhammed úldary Ábilhayyr-hannan qashyp, V.V.Trepavlov aitqanday, Ábilhayyr-hannyng qalmaqtarmen soghystaghy sәtsizdikke deyin emes [19, 62], Ábilhayyr-hannyng ólimine deyin Mangyshlak territoriyasyndaghy qamaldardyng birinde jasyryndy [1, 84-85]. 1465 jyly Mahmudtyng Hadjiy-Giyreyden [19, 63] jeniliske úshyraghanyn esepke alyp, onyng ómirining búl epizody Ábilhayyr-hanmen eki shayqas aralyghynda bolghan dep boljaugha bolady.

Ábilhayyr-hannyng Ahmadpen jәne Mahmudpen birinshi qaqtyghysyn biz 1460-shy jj. basy dep belgileymiz [13, 177]. Sonymen qatar, biz Kuchuk Múhammedting qaytys bolghan uaqyty meylinshe dauly degen D.N.Maslujenkonyng pikirimen de tolyqtay kelise alamyz [7, 84].

Búl Ábilhayyr-han qarsylastarynyng arasynda Yakub esimining joqtyghymen janama dәleldenedi. Ol, bәlkim, búl kezde qaza tapqan shyghar (1460-61 jj. ol Mústafa-hannyng bәsekelesi retinde kórsetilgen) jәne onyng ornyna, sonday-aq, Ábilhayyr-hannyng qarsylasy retinde kórsetilgen, onyng balalary Djuak pen Bashiak otyrdy.

Sonda Kuchuk-Muhammedovichke qarsy shayqasta Ábilhayyr-han әskerining qatarynda Vakkas-myrzanyng payda boluy týsinikti bolady. Ol, bәlkim, Horezmde Mustafa-hannyng Yakub-oglan bastaghan Kuchuk-Muhammedovichterding taqtan qúlatqangha deyin, beklerbegi bolghan shyghar. Osydan keyin, Vakkas Mustafa-hannan airylyp, Ábilhayyr-hannyng kýshin kek alu ýshin paydalanudy sheshti de, oghan qosylyp, Kuchuk-Muhammedovichterge qarsy shyghugha  kóndiredi. Búl jenis Ábilhayyr-hannyng ekinshi ret Tómengi Edilde «Saiyn-han taghyn» basyp aludyng kózi boldy. Alayda, osydan keyin, bәlkim, Ábilhayyr-han Gaziyding úly Hodjashqa Vakkasty óltiruge jol bergen bolar. Vakkastyng balalary Ábilhayyr-hannan bólinip, Saray manynda kóship qondy [20, 100].

Maqala sonynda qorytyndy jasaudy jón kórdik. Edige óliminen keyin, Mansúr, Timurlyqtardyng kómegimen Baraq qarsy shyqqan, Hadjiy-Múhammedti taqqa kóteredi. Hadjiy-Múhammed shamamen 1422 jyly óltirildi. Mansúr orystargha qashty. Odan Bulgargha kelip jәne shamamen 1423 jyly Shәdibek-hannyng úly Giyas ad-Dindi taqqa kóteredi. 1425 jyly Giyas ad-Din ólimine baylanysty Mansúr aldynda tandau túrdy: Edige úrpaghynyng otbasynda tәrbiyelengen Kuchuk Múhammedti taqqa kóteru me, әlde jiyen aghasy Baraqtyng (anasynyng aghasy) jaghyna shyghu ma. Mansúr 1425 jyly Baraqtyng jaghyna shyghady.

Baraq Hadjiy-Múhammedpen kýreste óz jenisin jetildirip, 1424 jyly sonday-aq, orystardan jenilip, biyliginen airylghan Hudaydatty 1422 jyly talqandaydy. Onyng nemereles aghasy Úlyq Múhammed 1424 jyly han bolady jәne Vitovtagha qashyp baryp, sonyng kómegimen ol 1426 jyly Baraq pen Mansúrdy talqandaydy. Sәl keyin Baraq Mansurdy óltiredi. Óltirilgen Mansúrdyng aghalary Súltan-Mahmúd, Qazy jәne Nauruz Baraqtan qashyp jәne oghan qarsy shyghady.

Baraqqa qarsy shayqasqa әli bala Kuchuk-Múhammedti iytermelegen Sultan-Mahmud, Gazy jәne Nauruz qatysady. Aghaly –inililerding Baraqty óltirgennen keyin, Gazy ózining nemereles aghasy Súltan-Mahmúdty óltirui mýmkin. Múny Nauruzdyng qalaysha Úlyq Múhammedke kelgeni týsindire alady. Ol Gaziyding qudalauynan qauiptenip, qashty. Keyinirek әldebir Kepek-hodja men Umar býrkit (Kepek-hodja manghyt dep atalghan, alayda bizding pikirimizshe, búl jalghan jәne ol Umar býrkitti әkesi, býrkit bolghan)  bastaghan qaskýnemder Gaziydi óltirip, Djumadukke qashty. Keyin búl býrkitter Mahmúd-hodja-hangha qosyldy. Kuchuk Múhammed bolsa shyghystan Batysqa birqalypta jyljyp otyrdy: Mogolistanmen shekarada ol han etip jariyalandy (Baraq óliminen keyin), odan keyin ol Horezmge joryq jasady jәne nәtiyjesinde onyng iyeligi Qazaqstannyng batys bóliginde ornady.

Vakkas bolsa әuel bastan Ábilhayyr-handy qoldady. Degenmen osyghan qosa, Vakkas Ábilhayyr-hannyng әskery operasiyalaryna qatysqan joq jәne avtonomdyghyn saqtap qaldy. 1440-shy jyldary Ábilhayyr-han Vakkaspen birge Syr ónirindegi qalalargha joryq jasap, olardy basyp aldy. Vakkas tek Ýzgendi aldy jәne ózin alalanghanday sezindi. Osy ýshin ol Giyas ad-Dinning úly Mustafa-handy algha shygharyp, jәne Mustafa-han atynan tiyn soghylghan Hadjiy-tarhangha deyin óz biyligin taratty. Mustafa-han Ábilhayyr-hannan jenilgennen keyin (Ábilhayyr-hannyng Taht elin birinshi ret basyp aluy), Vakkas onymen birge Horezmge qashyp, Kuchuk Múhammedting úly Yakub onda basyp kirip, kungrattarmen odaqtasyp Horezmdi basyp alghangha deyin, onyng beklerbegi bolady. Sol kezde Mústafa-han qaza bolghan kórinedi. Búl oqighagha deyin Ábilhayyr-han Kuchuk-Múhammedting úly Mahmud-handy talqandaydy jәne ekinshi ret Taht elin basyp alady. Vakkas Yakubtan jenilgen son, Ábilhayyr-hangha qashugha mәjbýr bolyp, onda Ábilhayyr-handy Horezmge joryq jasaugha shaqyrady. Onymen birigip, ol Horezmge joryq jasap jәne aghaly-inili (Ahmad pen Mahmudty) jәne Yakubtyng úldaryn (Djuak pen Bashiakty) talqandaydy. Ábiilhayyr-han ýshinshi ret Taht elin basyp aldy. Osydan keyin, kóp úzamay Vakkas, bәlkim, Ábilhayyr-hannyng ýndemey bergen kelisimi boyynsha shyghar, Hodjash qolynan qaza bolady.

Sonymen, sol kezendegi handar men olardyng beklerbekterining tizimi kelesidey:

1. Hadjiy-Muhammed jәne Mansúr (1421-1423)

2. Giyas ad-Din jәne Mansúr (1423-1425)

3. Baraq (1423-1425, 1427-1428)

4. Baraq pen Mansúr (1425-1427)

5. Kuchuk-Múhammed jәne Súltan Mahmúd (1428-1429)

6. Kuchuk-Múhammed jәne Gazy (1429)

7. Ábilhaiyr[3] (1429-1469) Buzanchar qiyat (hronologiya aiqyn emes)

8. Mustafa jәne Vakkas (hronologiya aiqyn emes)

 

Qoldanylghan әdebiyetter tizimi:

1. Alekseev A.K. Politicheskaya istoriya Tukay-Timuridov: Po materialam persidskogo istoricheskogo sochiyneniya Bahr al-asrar. Sankt-Peterburg. Izdatelistvo Sankt-Peterburgskogo uniyversiyteta. 2006. 229 s.

2. Gaev A.G. «Genealogiya y Hronologiya Djuchidov»//Drevnosty Povoljiya y drugih regionov. Vypusk 4. tom.3. Nijniy Novgorod. 2002. S. 9-55.

3. Zaysev IY.V. «Astrahanskoe hanstvo». Moskva. Vostochnaya Liyteratura. 2006. 303 s.

4. Istoriya Kazahstana v persidskih istochnikah. T.4. Almaty. Dayk-Press. 2006. 620 s.

5. Klyashtornyy S.G. Sultanov T.I. «Kazahstan: letopisi treh tysyacheletiy». Almaty. Rauan. 1992. 373 s.

6. Maslujenko D.N. «Hany Mahmud-hodja y Hadjiy-Muhammad ily ulus Shibana v pervoy chetverty XV veka»//Voprosy Istoriy y arheologiy srednevekovyh kochevnikov y Zolotoy ordy. Sbornik nauchnyh statey pamyaty V.P. Kostukova. Astrahani. Izdatelistvo: Astrahanskiy uniyversiytet  2011. S. 88-109.

7. Maslujenko D.N. Politicheskaya istoriya stanovleniya hanstva Abulhaira na yuge Zapadnoy Sibiriy//Srednevekovye turko-tatarskie gosudarstva. Vypusk 4. Kazani. 2012. S. 76-88.

8. Materialy po istoriy Kazahskih hanstv XV-XVIII vekov: (Izvlecheniya iz persidskih y turkskih sochiyneniy). Alma-Ata. Nauka. 1969. 650 s.

9. Materialy po istoriy kirgizov y Kirgizii. Vypusk I. (Romodin V.A. - redaktor). Moskva. 1973. 283 s.

10. Mustakimov I.A. «Vladeniya Shibany Abulhaiyr-hana po dannym Tavarihy guzida Nusrat-name»//Nasionalinaya istoriya tatar. Teoretiko-metodologicheskoe vvedeniye. Kazani. 2009. S.214-232.

11. Muhamadiyev A.G. Bulgaro-tatarskaya monetnaya sistema XII-XV vv. Moskva, 1983. 192 s.

12. Sabitov J.M. Vostochnyy Dasht-y Kypchak v 20-ye gody XV veka//Iran-name. № 1 (21). 2012. Almaty. S. 266-275

13. Sabitov J.M. Tarihy Abulhaiyr-hany kak istochnik po istoriy hanstva Abulhaiyr-hana// Voprosy istoriy y arheologiy Zapadnogo Kazahstana. 2009. №2. S.166-180.

14. Sabitov J.M. Hronologiya sobytiy v Vostochnom Dasht-y Kypchake v 30-50-ye gody XV veka//Ural y Sibiri v kontekste razvitiya rossiyskoy gosudarstvennosti. Materialy vserossiyskoy nauchnoy konferensiy «VI Emeliyanovskie chteniya». Kurgan. 26-28 aprelya 2012 g. S.96-97

15. Sabitov J.M. Hyzyr-han: hronologiya pravleniya// Nauchnyy Vestnik Stolisy. №4-6. 2011. S. 109-112.

16. Sabitov J.M. Chekre-han y «Muhammed-han»// Zerteushi. 2011. №3-4. S. 98-104.

17. Safargaliyev M.G. «Raspad Zolotoy Ordy». Saransk. Mordovskoe knijnoe izdatelistvo. 1960. 278 s.

18. Seleznyov Yu. V. Elita Zolotoy Ordy. — Kazani: Izdatelistvo «Fen» AN RT, 2009. 232 s.

19. Trepavlov V.V. Bolishaya Orda - Taht eli. Ocherk istorii. Tula. Grif y K 2010. 112 s.

20. Trepavlov V.V. «Istoriya Nogayskoy Ordy». Moskva.  Vostochnaya liyteratura. 2001. 752 s.

21. Uskenbay K.Z. Aralo-Kaspiy v pervoy trety XV veka: upadok Ak-Ordy y nachalo vozvysheniya mangytov// Aralo-Kaspiyskiy region v istoriy y kuliture Evrazii. Chasti II. Aktobe, 2006. S. 18-26.

22. Fasih Ahmad ibn Djalal ad-Din Muhammad al-Havafi. Fasihov svod. (per. D. Yu. Yusupovoy). Tashkent. Fan. 1980. 230 s.

 


[1] Atalghan ýzindige nazar audarghany ýshin A.Paruninge alghys bildirgimiz keledi.

[2] Búdan búryn biz Masud Kuhistaniyding hronologiyasy jansaq jәne kóptegen qate oryn alghanyna qatysty óz kózqarasymyzdy  aitqanbyz [13], sondyqtan biz B.A.Ahmedovtyng oqighalar datasyna synmen qaraymyz [14].

[3] Onyng beklerbegi kim bolghany belgisiz, onyng biyligining basym bóliginde Buzanchar qiyattyng boluy tolyghymen mýmkin.



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