Senbi, 19 Mausym 2021
Ekonomika 9233 0 pikir 16 Shilde, 2015 saghat 17:51

QAZAQSTANGhA ZERGERLIK ÓNDIRIS QAJET PE?

Gemmolog Ospan Beyseev Qazaqstandaghy gemmologiya ghylymy men zergerlik isi turaly zerttep jýrgen otandyq ghalymdardyng biri. Onyng pikirinshe, Qazaqstanda әshekey búiymdar shygharatyn zauyt ashylyp, jýieli júmys istese ekonomikanyng bir býiiri qampayyp qalatyn edi. «Búl taqyrypty jalyqpay aityp, maqalalar jazyp jýrgenime kóp boldy. Biraq, nәtiyje joq» dep qamyghady ghalym.

          Enbek jolynyng on jyldan astam uaqytyn asyl tastardy zertteuge arnaghan ol әlem boyynsha zergerlik óndiris arqyly ekonomikalyq әleuetin túraqtandyrghan 40-tan astam el bar ekenin aitady. Onyng qatarynda Izraili, Ýndistan, Shveysariya, Polisha, AQSh, Japoniya, Shry Lanka, Qytay jәne taghy basqa elder túr. Gemmolog ghalymnyng zertteuine qaraghanda, Ýndistan asyl tastardy tabu, zergerlik búiymdar óndiru, óndeu arqyly ózining ekonomikasyn XVIII ghasyrda-aq anaghúrlym joghary dәrejege kótergen. Sol kezde-aq olardyng shygharghan әshekey búiymdary әlemdik naryqty jaulaghan.  Ghalymnyng aituynsha, shiykizat qory joq bola túra, zergerlik óndiris arqyly óz ekonomikasyn әldeqayda biyik dәrejege jetkizgen el – Izraili bolyp sanalady. Onyng zergerlik óndirisi 1947 jyldan bastap qarqyndy damyp keledi. Qazirgi kezde onda 350 zergerlik sheberhanalar men fabrikalar bar.  Al Reseyde 500 zergerlik kәsiporyn bolsa, Avstraliyada tek qana qara tastar (opal) boyynsha júmys isteytin 70 kәsiporyn әshekey búiymdardy istep naryqqa úsynady. Bizding elde de Úlytauda qara opal bar, radovsit degen tas.

Ospan Beyseev Qazaqstan jerinde asyl tastar men týsti miyneraldardyng 595 bilinimderi anyqtalghanyn aitady. Onyng ishinde osy kýnge deyin  zergerlik óner óndirisi damyghan elderding tәjiriybesinde qoldanylmaghan dәstýrli emes tastar da kezdesedi. Mәselen, sarghysh qonyr týsti aksiniyt, kógildir, jasyl týsti alibiyt-kvelelandiyt, móldir kalisiyt, aq, qara jyltyr tastar, kýreng shúbar rendi amfiboliyt, altyn týstes kәriptastar, ametrinder men kók-jasyl dumotieriyt, qonyrqay turmalinder siyaqty baghaly tastar kóptep kezdesedi. Qazaqstan TMD elderining arasynda miyneraldy-shiykizat bazasy men zergerlik búiymdy bezendiretin tastardyng myqty ken oryndaryna ie az ghana memleketterding biri. Tek Almaty oblysynyng aumaghynda zergerlik búiymdarda kóbirek qoldanylatyn aqyq, kókshil tas (ametist), jyltyr tastar (opal) siyaqty әshekey tastar bar. Sonymen birge gemmolog: «Asyl tastardy óndep, әshekey búiymdargha paydalanu ejelgi saqtar, ghúndar men massagetterden qalghan ata kәsip. Oghan dәlel Otyrardan tabylghan әshekey búiymda 27 týrli asyl tasty paydalanghan. Onyng ishinde aqyq, jyltyr tas, kәriptas, qong qyzghylt halisedon, iyir oiyqty nefriyt, lazuriyt, amfiboliyt, Úlytauda, Jetisuda kóptegen ken oryndary bar. Onda kvars, oksiniyt, qalyptas atty asyl tastar kezdesedi. Sonday-aq, Shyghys Qazaqstanda (Delbegeteyde) zýbәrjat tasy bar» dep atap ótti gemmolog.

Ontýstik Qazaqstan geologiya jәne jer qoynauyn paydalanu óniraralyq departamentining mәlimetinshe, Shalqydysu eldi mekeninen soltýstik shyghysqa qaray 20-30 kilometr qashyqtyqta, Ketmen jotasynyng eteginde aqyq, jyltyr tas (opal), kókshil tas (ametist) bilinimderi bayqalghan. «Salystyrmaly jenil óndeletin taskeskish búiymgha úsaq-týiek material retinde Kerbúlaq alunit kenornyndaghy agalimatolitter men farfor tasyn óndiretin Qúlantóbe kenoryndary úsynylady. Joghary sapaly agalimatolitter qúramy boyynsha monakaolinitti, kvarssyz, sluda men temir gidrototyqtarynyng shamaly qospasynan túrady. Agalimatolitting qory eseptelmegen, biraq geologiyalyq derekter boyynsha olar óndeu júmystary ýshin jetkilikti. Tastýsti shiykizattyng jelilik ashylymdary jaqsy jinaqtyq material bolyp tabylatyn tau hrustali men fluorit kristaldarynyng jaqsy qyrlanghan druzalary kezdesetin pegmatit kendi Ile audanynda belgili boldy. Ashylymdar әli tolyq zerttelmegen jәne qolaysyz tauly jerde ornalasqan», - deydi basqarma mamandary.  Alayda, búl baylyqtyng bәri jekelegen adamdardyng nemese jekelegen firmalardyng mýddesine qyzmet etip jatqanyn aitady olar. Ony gemmolog ghalym da rastap otyr. «Bizding elde birde-bir әshekey búiymdar shygharatyn zamanauy zauyt joq jәne Qazaqtandaghy oqu oryndarynyng eshqaysysy gemmolog mamandardy dayarlamaydy», - deydi Ospan Beyseev.

Basqarma mamandary da osynsha qazynanyng ústaghannyng qolynda, tistegenning auzynda túrghanyn aityp, dabyl qaghyp otyr. «Áshekey tasty shiykizatty qoldanu tez arada sheshiluge tiyis mәselelerding biri. Óitkeni, qazirgi kezde olardy zansyz óndiru etek jayyp keledi jәne salyq tólemey-aq kәsip qylyp jýrgender kóp», - deydi basqarma mamandary.

Ózin ekonomispin dep tanystyrghan Qayrat Bodauhan Qazaqstan Ýkimetining atalmysh iydeyany jýzege asyrugha qauqary bar dep sanaydy. «Zergerlik óndiristi Qazaqstan preziydenti N.Á.Nazarbaevtyng údayy aitatyn «Innovasiyalyq baghdarlamasy» arqyly jýzege asyryp, damytugha bolady. Tek әlemdik naryqqa say, bәsekege qabiletti, sapaly ónim shyghara aluymyz kerek» deydi ol. Zergerlik búiymdargha Qazaqstanda súranys bolatynyna senedi ekonomist. Biraq, ony әshekey búiymdardy birynghay baghaly etip emes, qoghamnyng barlyq ókilining qaltasy kóteretindey etip isteu kerek degen pikirde Qayrat Bodauhan.  Al 1991 jyldan beri zergerlik ónerdi kәsip qylghan Iliyas Sýleymenov «әshekey búiym shygharyp, payda tabugha Qazaqstannyng mýmkindigi joq» dep oilaydy. Onyng aituynsha, búl bәsekede Qazaqstan Reseymen iyq tirese almaydy. «Óitkeni, Reseyding әlmisaqtan zergerlik óndirisi damyghan jәne bizding naryqty olardyng әshekey búiymdary әldeqashan jaulap alghan. Baghaly búiym naryghyn ózimizge qaytaru ýshin Qazaqstan ekonomikasynyng әueli basqa salalaryn damytu kerek» deydi Iliyas Sýleymenov. Sonymen birge, zerger songhy jarty jylda zergerlik búiymdargha halyq súranysynyng kýrt tómendegenin aityp, onyng sebebin Qazaqstan halqynyng jappay Reseyden avtokólik әkelip jatqanymen baylanystyrdy. «Halyqtyng aqshasynyng bәri kólik alugha ketip jatyr» deydi zerger.

Zergerding aituynsha, Qazaqstan halqy әshekey búiymdardy kóbine qúdalyq, toylarda ghana alady. Biraq,

Qazaqstan naryghynda Resey, Italiya altynynyng gramy kem degende 8 myng tengege baghalanghan. Odan tómen baghada Týrkiyadan, Qyrghyzstannan әkelinetinderi bar. Shet elden әkelinetin bolghasyn tauar qúnyna kedendik baj salyghy, tabys salyghy, satu qyzmeti qúny qosylyp, tauar qymbattay týsedi. Sondyqtan, zergerlik óndiristi damytugha Qazaqstan da mýddeli bolugha tiyis. Eger, baghaly әshekey búiymdardy ózimiz istep shygharsaq, onda olardyng qúny әldeqayda tómenirek bolar edi. Bizding elde әshekey búiymdardy bezendiretin asyl tastar men miyneraldy týsti tastardyng qúny joq. Shetelderde pәlenshe myng AQSh dollaryna baghalanatyn jaqúttyn, aqyqtyn, meruerttin, gauhardyng baghasy joq. Ony әshekey búiymdar satushylar da moyyndaydy.

 «Qazaqstanda baghaly tastardyng qúny joq. Mysaly, aqyq, meruert, kókshil móldir tas (ametist), jyltyr tastardy (opal), jaqút, tipti gauhar tastyng ózin qysylghanda aqshagha aiyrbastay almaysyz. Sondyqtan da, onday baghaly tastardy tek qana әshekey búiymdardy bezendiruge ghana qoldanady. Eger gauhar kózi bar altyn saqinanyz bolsa, onyng tek altynyna ghana lombard aqsha tóleydi» deydi әshekey búiymdar satushy Elimira Sateeva.     

Áshekey búiymdardy satatyn dýken qojayyndarynyng deni tilshi súraghyna jauap beruge qúlyqty bolmady. Tek Taldyqorghandaghy «Altyn» zergerlik salonynyng qojayyny Roman Sopikov Qazaqstanda zergerlik búiymdardy jasaytyn kompaniyalardyng bar ekenin, olar Almatyda, Qaraghandyda, Taldyqorghanda ornalasqanyn aitty. Taldyqorghandaghy zergerlik kompaniyany ózi basqaratynyn aitqanymen, onyng tynys-tirshiligi turaly eshqanday aqparat bere almaytynyn da jasyrmady. Ony ol «kommersiyalyq qúpiya» dep týsindirdi. Taldyqorghan qalasyndaghy asyl tastar satatyn dýkenning satushysy Mayra Kenjebekova (aty-jóni ózgertilip alyndy - red) bolsa, dýkende kózding jauyn alatyn asyl tastardyng deni otandyq shiykizat ekenin aitady. «Qazaqstanda tek gauhar men jaqúttan basqasynyng bәri bar. Osynda (asyl tastar satatyn dýkendi aityp otyr - red) túrghan tastardyng kóbi Qazaqstannyng jer qoynauynan shyqqandar. Dәl qay jerden qalay әkelinetinin bilmeymin. Biraq, shiykizatty ózimizding zergerler óndeydi. Biz satamyz» dedi.

Qazaqstannyng negizgi baylyqtarynyng biri – onyng paydaly qazbalary.  Qazaqstan tabighy resurstarynyng qory boyynsha әlemde 6-shy orynda.  D.IY.Mendeleevting himiyalyq elementter kestesining 110 elementining ishinen Qazaqstannyng jer qoynauynda 99 element tabylghan, 70 element barlanghan, 60 element óndirilude jәne paydalanyluda. Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng miyneraldy-shiykizat bazasy 5004 ken ornynan túrady, olardyng boljamdy qúny shamamen 46 trillion AQSh dollaryn qúraydy.

 

 

Shynargýl ONAShBAY.

 Abai.kz

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