Jeksenbi, 14 Shilde 2024
Alashorda 38100 0 pikir 14 Qarasha, 2015 saghat 07:46

AQTABAN ShÚBYRYNDY, ALQAKÓL SÚLAMA...

  XV. AQTABAN ShÚBYRYNDY, ALQAKÓL SÚLAMA...

Jonghar handyghynyn  әmirshisi Sevan Rabdan siyn-qytay armiyasyna qarsy túru sharalaryn jasaumen qatar qazaq eline jana shapqynshylyq jasau josparyn da oilastyryp otyrghan shaqtaghy, yaghny qayghy-qasireti úshan-teniz әigili apat qarsanyndaghy qazaq elining basqarylu qúrylymyn shola keteyik.

Keyingi jyldarghy bedeldi zertteushilerding ghylymy ainalymgha qosqan sony mәlimetterine qaraghanda, Úly jýzdi 1720 jyldan bastap Abdolla hannyng úly Jolbarys han basqaryp túrghan. Onyng ordasy, әkesining múrageri retinde, Tashkentte boldy. Jazghy kóshpeli ordasy Shyrshyq, Arys ózenderi angharlarynda kóship-qonatyn jayylymdarynda, sonday-aq Tashkent pen Týrkistannyng arasynda tigilip jýrgen. Tәuke han 1715 jyly dýnie salyp, Qayyp han agha han mәrtebesine kóterilgennen keyin, shamamen «Aqtaban shúbyryndy...» bastalghan jylgha deyin, Orta jýz aumaghynda Tәukeúly Bolat han,  odan onyng inisi Sәmeke han biylik jasady (kópten qalyptasqan úghym boyynsha Bolat han Anyraqay shayqasy kezinde, yaghny 1729–1730 jyldardyng birinde ómirden ótti, Tәuke hannan keyingi úly han sol bolghan delinedi. Alayda ghalymdardyng qily derekkózderdi zerttey kelip qorytqan búltartpas tújyrymdaryna qaraghanda, Bolat han jongharlardyng 1723 jylghy shabuyly shaghynda, yaky sodan kóp úzamay dýnie salghan. Ári Tәuke hannan keyin saylau ótkizilgen joq. On shaqty jyldan beri Orta jýzde әmirshi bop kele jatqan Qayyp Áz Tәukeni jerleu rәsimi kezinde agha han retinde moyyndalghan. Tәukening balasy Bolat úly han bolghan emes, ol әkesining ordasynda túra bergen, biraq Orta jýzdi basqarghan. Biylikti belgili bir kezende inisi Sәmekemen bólisken. Bolat han ómirden ótkennen keyin, 1724 jyldan Orta jýz hany Sәmeke boldy). Degenmen múnday ahualgha súltandardyng bәri birdey kelise qoymaghan da, ishki yryn-jyryng órshy bergen. Sonyn  saldarynan  baqtalastary, aqyry, 1718 jyly Qayyp handy óltiredi. Barlyq kishi handar men súltandar 1719 jyly Týrkistanda taghy da bas qosady. Oilasa kele, batyrlyghymen, qolbasshylyghymen kópke tanylghan, barshasynan han taghynda otyrghan merzimi de úzaq, jasy da ýlken, el basqarudaghy tәjiriybesi de mol, 1710 jyldan Kishi jýz ben ishinara Orta jýzding bir bóligining hany bolyp kele jatqan Ábilqayyr bahadýrge agha han tizginin bergendi qosh kóredi.

Ábilqayyr ýlken ordasyn Aral tenizi aimaghynan jalpyqazaq astanasy Týrkistan shaharyna kóshiredi, otbasy men jaqyndaryn (eki әieli, tórt úly men eki qyzy, eresek inileri jәne ózge de jaqyn aghayyndaryn) sonda ornyqtyrady, han qazynasyna Týrkistan men Tashkent jәne olargha qarasty qalashyqtar men auyldardan belgili dәrejede tabystar týsirip túrady. Búl kezde qazaq-oyrat shekarasy, úsaq qaqtyghystardy eseptemegende, birshama tynysh bolatyn. Óitkeni jongharlar ekinshi oirat-sin soghysyna kiyligip, sol shaqta qytay әskerining shabuyldarynan qorghanu mәselesimen  bas qatyryp jýrgen. Sol sebepti Ábilqayyr han búl jaqqa asa alandamay, elding teristik-batysyna nazar audardy, sebebi ol jaq  mazasyz bolatyn. Sondyqtan ol 1720 jyly  atqa qonyp, aldynghy tarauda aitylghanday, orys patshalyghymen shekarada joryqtaryn jalghastyrghan. Jenisti sheruimen Qazan guberniyasyna terendep, taza orys ýiezderine jetti. Tútqyndar alyp, soghys oljalaryn óz eline qaray asyrdy. Al ontýstik pen shyghys aimaqtardyng qauipsizdigin qamtamasyz etu Úly jýz ben Orta jýz biyleushilerining qúzyrynda qala berdi. Alayda ontýstik pen ontýstik-shyghysqa shoghyrlanghan tóre túqymdarynyng el tútastyghynyng sharty haqyndaghy týsinigi ala-qúla, tiyisinshe auyzbirligi kem boldy. Olar ózara baqtalastyqpen jýrip, elding qorghanys qabiletin arttyru sharalaryn oilastyra qoymady.

Tap osy jәit jonghar qontayshysy Sevan Rabdangha 1640 jylghy «Dala erejesi» orayyndaghy úly jospardy oryndaugha qolayly kórinetin. Ol ordasyna Reseyden Unkovskiy elshiligi kelgen kezde tuystarynyng sonau Edil boyyndaghy handyghy ornalasqan aumaqqa deyingi óz eli irgesinen bastalatyn alyp aralyqty qúzyryna qaratyp alu jayyn payymgha salyp otyrghan. Qazaq elin baghyndyru arqyly kóshpendiler imperiyasyn janghyrtu, sonday jolmen shyghysy men ontýstigindegi siyn-qytay, teristigindegi orys memleketterine erkin tótep beru dәrejesine jetu – oirattardyng ózine deyingi basshylary sekildi, múnyng da kózdegeni edi. Jauyngerlik qabileti zor jasaqtaryna sengendikten de, Sevan Rabdan quatty Qytaymen jana әskery qaqtyghystargha baryp, ýnemi soghys jaghdayynda boludan tayynbaghan. Biraq әiteuir ebin tauyp, mýldem jenilip qaludan aman jýrgen. Sonday jaghdayda teristiginen taghy bir qaterli de kýshti orys syndy kórshi boy kórsetkende, sayasatynda jaghdaygha oray amal qoldanugha mәjbýr bolghan edi. 1721 jylghy qyrkýiekte I Petrge elshi jibergen. Elshisi arqyly joldaghan hatynda qontayshy óz handyghyn qaharly qytay shabuylynan qorghaudy orys patshasynan ótingen edi. Eger Petr patsha Jonghariyany óz qorghauyna әm qamqorlyghyna alsa, ol Qalmaqiya әmirshisi Aike han tәrizdi  Reseyding senimdi bodany bolyp  túrugha uәde beretinin habarlaghan. Reseylikterge óz handyghy aumaghynan altyn, kýmis kenderin izdeuine rúqsat etetinin aitqan. Tiyisinshe, jonghar qontayshysynyng osy ótinishine oray mәseleni pysyqtau ýshin, orys imperatory oghan arnayy elshi jiberetinin bildirgen. Mine sol uәdege say jasaqtalghan  I Petr  elshiligi Ivan Unkovskiyding basshylyghymen  1722 jylghy 20 qarashada qontayshy ordasyna jetti. Sonda qystady.

Úly Petrding búl kóshpendiler imperiyasyna degen yqylasty meyiri, osynau jauynger júrtty zamanauy ozyq qaru-jaraqpen qamtamasyz etu joly, sóitip osynau jaujýrek jongharlardy proteksiyasyna qabyldau sharty jayynda elshi lauazymyndaghy artilleriya kapitany Unkovskiy men qontayshy arasynda úzaqqa sozylghan mәmilegerlik jәne iskerlik әngimeler bastaldy. Jonghar әskerining soghysu qabiletin arttyrugha baghyttalghan  naqty ister qyzu jýrip jatqan shaqta,  ózara kelisimder jasap otyrghan eki tarapqa da kórshi jәne ekeui ýshin de qauipti Qytaydyng úzaq jyldarghy basshysy imperator Kansy (boghdyhan Suani E) dýnie saldy. Ol kýlli Qytaydy biylegen manchjurlyq Sin әuletining tórtinshi ókili. Alty jasynan taqqa otyryp, eldi alpys bir jyl biylegen. Qytay tarihynda eng kóp uaqyt imperator bolghan. Sol merzim ishinde  lauazymyna oray alghan esimine («Kansiy» – maghynasy: «Gýldenip kele jatqan jәne jyly shúghyla shashqan») say halqyn jaqsylyqqa bólep, sәttilik simvolyna ainalghan әmirshi. Osy imperator Kansiyding kezinde  Qytaydyng quaty óte artqan. Odan qanshama jasqanbay shayqasyp jýrgenmen, eki aradaghy soghystar týbi Jonghar handyghyna eleuli qater tóndirip túrghany aiqyndalyp kele jatqan. Sondyqtan da, jonghar qontayshysy orys patshasyna ýmit arta qaraghan. Biraq Sevan Rabdan orys qamytyna moynyn tyghyp ýlgergen joq – Unkovskiyding missiyasy kelgeli bir ay bolghanda, 1722 jylghy  20 jeltoqsanda imperator Kansy qaytys boldy. Búl oqigha qontayshygha birshama tynshu әkeldi.  Óitkeni Qytay taghyna Kansiyding 64 әielining birinen tughan 44 jasar úly knyazi Yun otyrghan.  Úly  knyazi Yun boghdyhan Kansiyding amanatyna qúpiya ózgertu engizu jolymen, biylikke zansyz kelgen dep sanaldy. Solay oilaghan kóptegen tuysqandarymen teketires jaghdaygha týsken jana imperator ishki kýresti qaytkende óz paydasyna sheshuge tiyis edi. Sondyqtan ol oirattarmen sozylmaly jaghdayda túrghan soghysty toqtata túrugha mәjbýr boldy. Qontayshy Sevan Rabdan men imperator Ini Chjeni (Yunchjen) ekeui bitim jasasyp, dostyq jaghdayda qarym-qatynas jasap túru jayynda kelisimge keldi. Osy jәit onyng Qytaydan qorghanu maqsatynda jasaqtap jatqan әskerining baghytyn qazaq eline búrugha jәne Reseymen qúrmaq baylanysynyng mazmúnyn alghashqy sipatynan ózgertuge alyp keldi. Ol Resey bodandyghyn Ayke ýlgisinde qabyldaudan da, qytaymen shekarasyna orys qamaldaryn saldyrudan da tayqydy. Áytse de, diplomatiyalyq kelissózderin amaldap soza týsken  Unkovskiy elshiligimen Jonghariyada qystaydy, sosyn, 1723 jyldyng nauryzynan qyrkýiekting ekinshi jartysyna deyin, qontayshymen birge Ile alqabynda jәne Ystyqkólge shyghysynan qúyatyn tau ózenderi angharynda kóship-qonyp jýredi. Ol Úly Petrding tapsyrmasyn oryndaugha janyn saldy. Qontayshyny Resey proteksiyasyna kóshuge ýgittedi. Onyng iyelikterinde orys garnizony túratyn qamaldar salugha kelisimin alugha tyrysty. Múnday qadamnyng Jonghariyany Qytaydan senimdi qorghau ýshin paydaly bolmaghyn dәleldedi. Alayda Sevan Rabdan ózining qytaylarmen jәne qazaqtarmen soghysuyna qajet әskery qaru-jaraqty orys patshasynan alugha keliskenimen, orys әskerining qanday da týrmen bolsyn eli ishine kiruine jol berudi oiyna da almaytyn. Óitkeni sol uaqytqa deyingi Reseymen tatulyq onayshylyqpen kelmegen edi (orystardyng Ertis alqaby men Altaydy mysyqtabandap, «aqyryn basyp otarlauy»  saldarynan jonghar memleketi óz aumaghynyng besten birinen airylghan). Sol ahualgha kóngendikten ghana olarmen beybit qatar ómir sýru mýmkin bolyp túrdy. Unkovskiy jýrgizgen kelissóz kezinde qontayshy dauly shekara men alym-salyq jayyn qozghaghan. Ázirge óz soghys óndirisi zenbirek qúndy jolgha qoyyp ýlgermegendikten,  osynau qaharly qarudy orys patshalyghynan aludy maqsat etken. Sevan Rabdannyng búl pighylyna septese túra,  Unkovskiy missiyasy negizgi maqsatyna qol jetkize almady. Aqyry, kelgen baghytymen keri qaytty. Jonghar әskerining qazaq eline 1723 jylghy erte kóktemde, aqpan aiynda jasaghan joyqyn shabuyly jәne onyng kýsh-quaty men joryghynyng jenisti nәtiyjeleri jayyndaghy naqty derekterdi Reseyge ala keldi... 

Qazaq eline tútqiyldan shabuyl jasaghan jonghar әskerine Sevan Rabdannyng úldary Galdan Seren men Lauzan Shono jetekshilik etken bolatyn. Joryqqa әskery jabdyqtary jaqsy, zenbirek, oq-dәrili myltyq syndy qaru-jaraqtary mol, jauynger attary jeldey esken qalyng qosyndar qatysqan edi. Jeti tústan synalay kirgen jýz myng jauyngeri bar bes qaruy say armiya kýrsildetip zenbirek atyp, myltyqtan oq jaudyryp, Shu jәne Talas ózenderi angharynan bir-aq shyqty. Tasqyn seldey tasyp aghylghan basqynshynyng atty әskerine qarsy dәstýrli qylysh-nayzasymen batyl kóterilgen qazaq jasaqtary tosqauyl bola almady. Tosyn da joyqyn soqqydan qatty shyghyngha úshyrady. Halyqqa qorghan bola almay qaldy.  Qorqynyshty qatygezdikpen astasqan shabuyldan el esin jinay almay, beti aughan jaqqa ýdere kóshuge, tipti ýi-jayyn, dýniye-mýlkin, maldaryn tastay qashugha mәjbýr boldy. Jongharlar tez arada Tashkent, Sayram, Týrkistan, Sozaq, Qúmkent, Saudakent sekildi qazaq shaharlaryn, úzyn sany 25 qalany basyp aldy. (Anyzdarda basqynshylardyng talay rulardy tútasymen qyryp jibergeni aitylady. Qazaq halqynyng taghdyryndaghy osynau asa qasiretti kezen  tarihta «Aqtaban shúbyryndy, Alqakól súlama» degen atpen tanbalandy. El auzynda saqtalghan mynanday:  «Qarataudyng basynan kósh keledi, Kóshken sayyn bir taylaq bos keledi. Qaryndastan aiyrylghan qiyn eken, Qara kózden móldirep jas keledi. Myna zaman qay zaman, qysqan zaman, Basymyzdan baq-dәulet úshqan zaman. Shúbyrghanda izinnen shang boraydy, Qantardaghy qar jaughan qystan jaman. Myna zaman qay zaman, baghy zaman, Bayaghyday bola ma taghy zaman. Qaryndas pen qara oryn qalghannan son, Kózding jasyn kól qylyp aghyzamyn», – dep keletin  sheksiz qayghygha túnghan sózderi bar «Elim-ay» atty rekviyem-әnmen bederlendi). Basqynshylyq soghys qazaqtardyng toz-tozyn shyghardy. El tonaldy. Jayylym men egistik taptalyp, bosap qaldy, qolónershiler qanaldy, sauda toqyrady, mal basy kýrt kemidi. Júrt bas saughalap bosyp ketti. Qos úly su Ámu men Syr arasyndaghy otyryqshylar da aityp-jetkizgisiz kýizeliske úshyrady. Ashtyqtyng jaylaghany sonday, shejirelerde saqtalghan habarlargha qaraghanda, adamdar ólikterdi jerlemey, jeuge mәjbýr bolghan.  Bayyrghy Búhara, Hiua, Ferghana, Samarqan bosap qalghan. Áskerining soghys qimyldaryn sәtti jýrgizip jatqany haqynda  habar tiyisimen Sevan Rabdan Edil boyyndaghy oirat tuysqandaryna – Qalmaq handyghyna jaushy attandyrady. Ózining әskery joryghynyng nәtiyjesinde qazaqtardy birjola jenip, aldaghy uaqytta Jayyq pen Edilde Ayke hanmen birge jaylaugha shyghudan dәmelenetininen habardar etedi...

Redaksiyadan: Jogharydaghy taraular jazushy, tarihshy, kósemsózshi Beybit Qoyshybaevtyn "Qazaq memleketi tarihyna kózqaras" atty enbeginen jalghasty týrde alynyp otyrghyn eskertemiz. Basy myna siltemelerde: http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4553;  http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4554;  http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4579; http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5256;http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5335; http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5370; http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5371 

(Jalghasy bar)

Beybit Qoyshybaev

Abai.kz

 

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