Jeksenbi, 14 Shilde 2024
Alashorda 21227 1 pikir 8 Qarasha, 2015 saghat 10:14

XIII. QARAQÚM QÚRYLTAYY

 1710 jyly Aral tenizining soltýstigindegi Qaraqúmda Qarakesek qúryltayy ótti. Ony tarihta Qaraqúm qúryltayy dep te, Qarakesek qúryltayy dep te tanbalay beredi. Óitkeni búl jiyn ótken Qaraqúm alqabyn negizinen Qarakesek ru-taypalary mekendeytin. Osy halyq qúryltayyna shartaraptan jinalghan júrtshylyq ókilderi (tóreler, biyler, rubasylar, ózge de týrli shonjarlar, aqsaqaldar, batyrlar, sarbazdar) ózderinen kýshi basym qaharly jaugha júdyryqsha júmylyp, býkil el-júrt bolyp birigu jolymen qarsy túramyz dep bir auyzdan sheshken. Sheshim asa kýrdeli, qayghyly-zarly jan kýizelisi búrqaghan auyr ahlaqtyq ahualda qabyldandy. Qúryltayda әuelde kýizelisti elding ýmitin ýze týsken kýnirenis ornap túrdy.

Aqylman aqsaqaldyng biri mәseleni terennen qozghap tolghanghan-dy. Qasym han zamanynan beri biz salt etken ústanym qanday edi dep ah úrghan... Auyzdan auyzgha berilip keledi – sonau úly әmirshi bizdi dala tólimiz degen. Bizde qymbat mýlik joqtyghyn aitqan. Bizding bar baylyghymyz – jylqy, sol kezde de, qazir de biz ýshin jylqynyng eti men terisi as әri kiyim, sýti susyn. Áli kýngi kónil kóterer ornymyz – mal jayylymy, jylqy ýiirleri. Qashannan at kórinisine sýisinetinbiz. Býgingi jau bizdi atam zamannan ústap kele jatqan osy saltymyzdan aiyrdy. Atamekenimizden tyqsyruda. Jer-suymyzdy basyp aluda... júrt bosyp ketti. Qaytip jan saqtaymyz? Eldigimiz qayda qalmaq? Dúshpan atynyng túyaghy astynda taptalyp qala beremiz be? Op-onay jan bere salamyz ba? Álde bir aqtyq serpilisimizdi kórsetemiz be? Babalar jolyna salsaq, kýresken jón. Qasyq qanymyz qalghansha soghysu lәzim. Elimizdi, jerimizdi, ata-ana, әiel, qyz-kelinshek, bala-shaghamyzdy, bir-birimizdi, oshaghymyzdy bir jennen qol, bir jaghadan bas shygharyp qorghaghan dúrys bolmaq. Biraq qaytip? Ne isteu kerek bizge qazirgi asa auyr jaghdayda? Jan-jaqtan at sabyltyp Qaraqúm qúryltayyna kelgen aghayyn, osy jayynda keleli kenes qúrayyq degendi aitty. Jiyn barysynda týrli dauys shyqty, toryqqan pikir estildi. «Toz-tozy shyqqan el-júrtty saqtau ýshin, tym qarsylasa bermey, qalmaq qontayshynyng meyirimine ýmit artayyq, – dedi әldebir bas adam qoyanjýrek qorqaqtyq kórsetip, – sonda qalghan mal-janymyzdy aman alyp qalarmyz, búdan arghy ómirimiz qauipsizdirek bolar». Tap sonday kónil-kýidegi ekinshi bireui: «Qoy, keteyik búl jaqtan, Edil asayyq, shalghaygha qonys audarayyq, pәleden sóitip qashyp qútylayyq», – dep, ýrey ýstine ýrey qosyp jatty. Ony ýshinshisi: «Alysqa ýdere kóship nemiz bar, jan-jaqqa, sekseuil arasyna qoyansha bytyray shashylyp ketsek te bolmay ma, toptalyp qarsylyq kórsetpesek bizdi jau izdey de, ala da qoymas», – dep tolyqtyra týzetip jatty.

Osynau jeniliske beyil toptyng aitqandary qúryltaygha ýmit arta kelgen kópshilikting oi-pikirine qobalju kirgizgendey boldy. Halyq jinalysyn shaqyrudyng bel ortasynda jýrgen Ábilqayyr bahadýr múndaydy kýtpegendikten týiilip otyr edi, bir kezde nayzaghaysha jarq etip, qamyqqan júrttyng ensesin kýrt kótergen jәit oryn aldy. Ortagha Bókenbay batyr júlqyna shyqty. Tәuke hannyng aqylymen úiysqan Jetiru birlestigining Tabyn ruyn basqaratyn, erjýrektigimen el auzyna kópten iligip jýrgen batyr, jigit aghasy.  Ol mәjilis qúrghan júrtshylyqqa ainala qarap, qatty aitys ýstinde kiyimining ónirin  aiyryp jyrtyp jiberdi. Qylyshyn qynynan suyryp alyp, keneske jiylghandar aldynda ýiire kóterdi de, ýzdige sóilep, jan aiqaygha basty: «Dúshpanymyzdan ósh aluymyz kerek! – dedi ol emosiyagha toly jarqyn da qozdyrghysh dauyspen. – Talqany shyghyp tonalghan kóshterimiz ben tútqyngha týsken úrpaghymyzdyng qor bolghanyn sharasyzdana baqylaumen shekteletin beyshara bolmayyq! Biz kek qaytarugha tiyispiz! Qolymyzdan qaruymyzdy tastamay, qylyshymyzben dúshpanymyzdy shauyp túryp  jan tapsyrayyq! Qypshaq jazyghyndaghy, ata-babamyz aunap-qunaghan osynau qazaq dalasy tósindegi sarbazdar qay kezde jýreksinip edi! Men qolymdy jau qanyna malghanda – myna saqalgha aq kirmegen edi ghoy! Endi men pútqa tabynghan jabayylardyng óktem zorlyghyn jaybaraqat qabylday bermekpin be?! Shýkir, tabyndarymyzda sәigýlikter jetkilikti, shayqasqa minetin myqty túlpar azayghan joq! Beldegi qoramsa ótkir súr jebeden ortayghan joq! Keruli sadaqtyng quatty jaghy serpimdiligin joghaltqan joq! Qylysh mayyrylghan joq! Shayqasamyz!» Bókenbay batyrdyng osynau jýrekjardy sózi jeniluge moyynsúnghandargha eltigenderding kónil-kýiin shapshang óz jaghyna búryp aldy. Jer-jerden jinalghan rular men atalyqtardyng basshylary, aqsaqaldar, biyler men súltandar birinen song biri sóilep, qazaq jer-suynan jaudy quyp shyghudy, qaytkende jeniske jetudi maqsat etken sózder aitty.

Qúryltaygha jana serpin endi. «Qúp aldym Bókenbay batyrdyng sózin!» – dep jariya etti el aghalarynyng biri. «Ant etem jaudan ósh alugha!» – dedi ekinshisi ony qostap. Osylay, saltanatty ant beru rәsimi kenetten bastalyp ketti de, jyldam úlghaya týsti. Bir jigit ortagha suyryla shyqty da, sapysyn kókke kótere jalandatty. Sodan song bilegin tilip jiberdi. Búrq etip  aqqan qandy ortada janghan alaugha tamyzyp túryp: «Ant ishem!» – degen sózdermen, bilegin otqa keptirdi. Onyng ýlgisin qoldaghandar kóbeydi. Jigitter qandy bilekterin týiistiristi. Tós qaghystyrysty. Ata jaudan qorghanu, tughan jerdi azat etu barshanyng esil-dertin aldy. Ant bermegen jan qalmady. Biri ortagha aqboz at jetektep әkeldi, tórdegi aqsaqaldan bata súrady. Bata berildi. Qúran oqyldy. Jylqy bauyzdaldy. Qúryltaygha qatysushylar arnayy soyylghan aqboz attyng etin asyp jep, qúrghan odaqtarynyng tabandy da myqty bolmaghyn aityp jatty.

Jer shalghay, Tәuke han alysta. Úly hannyng óz kelisimi bar. Ol búdan búryn aimaqtardy basqarugha óz ókilderin taghayyndaghan, keyingi jyldary jana jaghdaydy eskere otyryp, әr aimaqtyng óz  hanyn saylaudy qosh kórgen. Búdan birer jyl ilgeride, shyghys aumaqtaghy júrtty basqarugha Tәuke hannyng batasymen Qayyp han saylanghan bolatyn. Oghan Orta jýz ben sol jaqty mekendeytin Kishi jýzding bir bóligi qaraydy. Sol shamada Úly jýz Abdolla handy taqqa otyrghyzyp aldy. Endi osynau qúryltayda, osynau keneytilgen biyler kenesinde Kishi jýzding hanyn saylap alghandary oryndy bolmaq.

Han lauazymyna kýni keshe bashqúrt taghynda bolyp kelgen, joryqtarda jihangerlik jaqsy aty shyghyp jýrgen Ábilqayyr bahadýrdi saylau úsynyldy. Qúryltay mýsheleri búl úsynysty qyzu qoldady. Súltandar men biyler Ábilqayyr bahadýr súltandy aq kiyizge otyrghyzyp, júrtshylyq aldynan alyp ótti: han kóterdi. Tabyn Bókenbay batyr halyq jasaghyna jetekshilik etetin sardar retinde tanyldy. Osylay, oirattardyng ýdey týsken agressiyasyna jauap retinde, qazaq elining batysyndaghy ólkede memleket ishindegi jana әkimshilik birlik – ózining әskeri bolatyn Ábilqayyr handyghy payda boldy. (Búl – Joshy әuletinen shyqqan II Ábilqayyr. Búdan búryn aitqanymyzday, I Ábilqayyr Aq Orda әmirshisi Baraq han qaza tauyp, Noghay Ordasy bólingen son, Aq Ordanyng qalghan bóliginde qúrylghan «Ábilqayyr handyghyn» biylegen). Handyqqa Kishi jýzding Álimúly, Bayúly, Jetiru birlestikterining kóp bóligi kirdi, Orta jýzden qypshaq pen nayman rularynyng biraz bóligi endi. El ishine kóterinki kónil-kýy ornady. Basqynshylargha tosqauyl qoygha júrt tas-týiin әzirlendi. Ókilderi qúryltaygha qatysqan aimaqtardan jәne qúryltay sheshimin estigen ózge jerlerden de sarbazdar otan qorghaytyn joryqtargha saylana bastady. Auyl-auylda ústalar, sheberler, ismerler iske kiristi. Qaru-jaraq dayyndady. Dulygha, sauyt tigip, jebe, sadaq, aibalta, qylysh, shoqpar soghyp jatty. Júmys qyzdy.

Taqqa otyrghan bette Ábilqayyr han kóptegen ózekti mәselelermen betpe-bet kelgen edi. Qúryltaydan keyin ile-shala ótken Qaraqúm shayqasy qazaqtyng otanshyldyghy, namysy joghary ekenin kórsetti. Dúshpandy úiymdasqan týrde týre qudy. Alayda Edil qalmaqtary men Jayyq kazaktary, tipti kýni keshe mýddelerin ózi aralaryna baryp qorghasqan bashqúrttar da elding teristigi men teristik-batysyndaghy qúnarly jer-sugha, Edil-Jayyq aralyghyna, Yrghyz, Tobyl ózenderi alqaptaryna sol alapat úrystan keyin de údayy kóz alartyp, әlsin-әlsin qazaqtarmen qaqtyghysyp qalularyn dogharmay túrghan. Al ontýstikte Sevan Ravdannyng jongharlary tegeuirindi joryqtaryn toqtata qoymaghan edi. Osynday kýrdeli ahual saldarynan Ábilqayyr birneshe baghytta bir mezgilde әreket etu joldaryn oilaugha mәjbýr boldy. Halqy ony týsindi, qoldady. Ár atadan iriktelgen jigitter atqa qondy.  Sonda Ábilqayyr han men Bókenbay batyr bas bolyp, az uaqytta qalmaqty Qaraqúm alabynan asyrdy. Jem ózeninen qudy. Jayyqtyng arghy betine deyin tyqsyrdy. Sarysu ózenining syrtyna qashyrdy.

Ábilqayyr hannyng qalyptasqan jaghdaygha baylanysty tastaghan úranyna Qayyp han men Abdolla han óz ýnderin qosty. Tabyn Bókenbay batyr bastaghan qaharman sarbazdar qataryna el ishindegi Tama Eset batyr, Qoshqarúly Shaqshaq Jәnibek, Qanjyghaly Bógenbay, Qarakerey Qabanbay syndy ondaghan aituly batyrlar qosyldy. Solar bastaghan sarbazdar azattyq ýshin alysyp, dúshpan jasaqtaryn elden quyp shyqty. Joghaltqan kóshi-qondyq jerlerin, shúrayly jaqsy jayylymdaryn qaytaryp aldy. Qazaq handyghynyng әskeri 1711–1712-shi jyldary jonghar basqynshylaryna toytarys berumen, olardy handyqtyng jer-suynan alastap, shyghysqa yghystyryp tastaumen ghana shektelmey, olardyng eline – Jonghariyagha basyp kirdi. Sәtti joryq jasap, oljaly oraldy. Oirattardyng qarymta qaytaru maqsatymen  1713 jyly jasaghan qarsy shabuylyn da  jeniliske úshyratty. Aragha az uaqyt salyp, jongharlardyng qazaq elimen shektesetin úlystaryn taghy shapty. Sodan keyin birneshe jyl boyy qazaq jәne jonghar elderimen eki arada úsaq qaqtyghystar ghana oryn alyp túrdy. Biraz uaqyt tynysh ótti. Sevan Ravdan qontayshy әzirge qazaq eline ýlken armiyasyn búra qoymady. Onyng iri shabuyl jasamauynyng bir sebebi qytaymen eki aralarynda jana soghystyng bastaluynda jatqan.  Oirattardyng negizgi әskery kýshi Siyn-Qytay imperiyasy әskerlerine qarsy soghysqa júmyldyrylghan bolatyn.  Búl 1715 jyl edi. Qazaqtargha ishki jaghdaydy túraqtandyryp, nyghayta týsu mýmkindigi tudy.

Osy rette úlan-ghayyr Úly dala tósin alyp jatqan qazaq elin zamana dauyldaryna tótep beretindey dәrejede damytyp, basqara aludy kózdegen jana jýiening engizilgeni ondy bolghanyn aita ketu lәzim. Jýzder óz aralarynda әldebir basymdyqqa qol jetkizudi eshqashan maqsat etken emes, bir de bir ret  ózara qaqtyghystargha barghan joq. Kerisinshe, aralas-qúralas, aghayyngershilikpen kýn keshti. Al qajettilik tughanda, ru-taypalardyng bәri ýsh jýzding birikken әskerine sarbaz berdi, syrtqy jaudan birlesip qorghanudan esh uaqytta bas tartpady. Tәuke han men onyng ýzengilesterining jogharyda aitylghan nәtiyjege jetkizgen sayasy tvorchestvosy shyn mәninde  el aghalaryna layyq danyshpandyq pen kóregendikti tanytqan edi. Alayda әbden qartayghan Tәuke han ózining osynau reformasy mýmkin etken jana tarihy jaghdaydaghy elin úzaq basqara almady. Ol 1715 jyly dýnie saldy. Sýiegi Qoja Ahmet Yassauy kýmbezi janyndaghy qazaq handary panteonynda mәngi tynshugha qoyyldy. Búl kezde zamana qazaq eline jana syndaryn әkele jatqan. Tarih ghylymynda qalyptasqan kózqaras túrghysynan qarasaq, Tәuke han qazaq elining tarihyndaghy handyq dәuir dep atalatyn tarihy kezenning eng songhy jәne eng kemenger hany bola bildi, ol qaytys bolghannan keyin birtútas memleketting de tarihy ayaqtaldy, sóitip, qazaq elining әr jýzindegi kishi handyqtardyng tarihy bastaldy – kәsiby de, әuesqoy da tarihshy bitken býginderi osylay sanaydy. Áytse de, belgili bir dәrejede jany bar bolghanmen, búl sonshalyqty әdil tújyrymgha jata qoymasa kerek.  Bizding oiymyzsha, Tәuke han túsynda qazaq handyghynyng konfederativtik sipatta damu kezeni bastaldy deu әdil bolmaq.  Al ol qaytys bolghannan song búl joba qanday ýderisterdi bastan keshti – búl aldaghy әngimeler ýlesinde...      

XIV. ALAPAT APAT QARSANYNDAGhY JAGhDAYLAR

Qaraqúm qúryltayynan keyingi jyldary Ábilqayyr hannyng әskery jasaqtary teristik-batys shekarany qorghaugha batyl kiristi. Edil qalmaqtarymen, Jayyq kazachestvosymen, tipti bashqúrttarmen de jiyi-jii shayqasyp qalyp jýrdi.

Ábilqayyr hannyn ózi de әlsin-әlsin el tynyshtyghyn búzushylargha qarsy shabuyldar jasap qoyatyn. Qazan qalasyna deyin bardy. Jayyq qalashyghyn aidan astam uaqyt boyy qorshaugha alyp túrdy. Ontýstik Oral, Edilding orta aghysy jәne Sibir aimaqtaryndaghy qazaq elimen shektesetin jerlerde óte shapshan, júldyzsha aqqan  túlparlarmen shapqan qazaq sarbazdarynyng kórinui patsha әkimshilikterine edәuir qobalju tughyzdy. Jigitterding patshalyq jerine tereng súghyna joryqtar jasauy Astrahan, Qazan, Sibir guberniyalary әkimshilikterine qorqynysh tughyzyp qana qoymay, solardyng bas qolbasshysy Ábilqayyr hannyng esimin әbden tanyp aldy. Resey guberniyalary men Qazaq handyghy arasynda elshiler tolassyz jýrip jatty. Eki jaqtan alynghan tútqyndardy bosatudyng yaky ózara almasudyng joldaryn kelisu, qazaqtar men reseylik bodandar (Jayyq jәne Sibir kazaktary, qalmaqtar, bashqúrttar) arasyndaghy әskery qaqtyghystardy, týrli ózge de kiykiljinderdi sheship, retke keltiru, sonday-aq sauda-sattyq baylanystaryn damytu, kópesterding qazaq halqy ishine baruyna jaghday tughyzu, dala ýstimen ótetin sauda keruenderining qauipsizdigi mәselesin sheshu – kelissózderding negizgi taqyryptary boldy. 

1715 jyly Týrkistanda Tәuke han dýnie saldy. Qazaqtyng bas hanyn arulap qonggha ýsh jýzding de handary, keybir qalalardaghy kishi handardyng bәri, súltandar, biyler men el ishindegi ózge de bas adamdar týgel qatysty. Qaraly astan keyingi mәslihatta el basqaru tizginin kim ústaytyny talqylandy. Qazaqtyng kóne zamannan kele jatqan jasy ýlkendi syilau haqyndaghy jol-jorasyna sәikes,  jalpyqazaq әmirshisining ókilettilikteri han taghynda otyrghan merzimi men jasy esepke alynyp, jýzderdegi handardyng birine berilgeni jón dep sheshildi.  Solay tandalghan agha han óz aimaghyndaghy biyligimen qosa, basqa әriptesterimen aqyldasa otyryp Áz Tәukening mindetin atqarsyn, sonday tәrtip el birligine tiyimdi qyzmet etedi degen úigharymgha toqtasty. Sóitip, qazaqtyng agha hany  retinde Tәukening kózi tirisinde eng birinshi bolyp shyghys ólkede han mәrtebesine kóterilgen Qayyp han tanyldy. Osy oqighanyng artynsha, sol 1715 jyly, búl jayynda Ábilqayyr han orys patshasynyng Tobyl (Tobolisk) qalasyndaghy sibirlik ókimetine hat jazyp habarlady. Qayyp hannyng ózi de Tobyldaghy gubernator әkimshiligine jibergen arnayy elshisi arqyly hat joldap, Áz Tәukening izbasary bolghanyn bayan qyldy.

Sibir aimaghy ókimetining basshylyghyna taghayyndalghan Matvey Gagarin gubernator qyzmetine 1711 jyly kirisken-tin. Ol múnda Qayyp  qaza tauyp, Ábilqayyr agha han  bolghan 1719 jylgha deyin istedi. Guberniya әkimi kezinde Tәuke hanmen, Qayyp hanmen, Ábilqayyr hanmen hat jazysyp, elshilerin qabyldap, ózi de olargha elshi jiberip, jiyi  baylanys jasap túrdy. (Ol erterekte Nerchinskide voevoda bolghan. Tobylda gubernator lauazymynda otyrghanynda Sibirdegi obalardy qazghyzyp, kóne zaman kósemderimen birge kómilgen altyn búiym, әshekeylerdi jiyp alghan da, I Petrge jiberip túrghan. Mәskeu men Petrborda zәulim saraylary bar, Reseydegi eng bay adamdardyng sanatyna jatatyn. Gubernator shaghynda Qytaymen jasyryn sauda-sattyq jasaghany, Sibirden ýkimetke tólenui tiyis alym-salyqty kem bergeni, tipti Sibirdi derbes memleket retinde bólip almaq oiy bary anyqtalghan da,  Petr patsha ony 1721 jyly sybaylas jemqor retinde Sankt-Peterburgte dargha astyrghan. Eldegi ózge korrupsionerlerdi ýreylendiru ýshin, mәiitin birneshe ay boyy dargha asuly túrghan kýii alannan alangha kóshirip, el nazaryna ashyq kórsetip qoyyp otyrghan desedi). Gagarin atalghan handardyng ýsheuine de  jonghar qontayshysynyng Qazaq handyghyn jaulap aludy kózdeytin  orasan zor jospary bar ekenin aityp, orys patshasynan qoldau izdegenderi jón degen maghynada kenes bergen. Eger olar Resey memleketine baghynar bolsa, atalmysh jaudan qorghanularyna ózining kómektese alatynyn aitqan. Alayda jeme-jemge kelgende olay etpedi. Qayyp han men Ábilqayyr han jonghargha qarsy orys әskerimen birlesip joryq jasau jayynda 1717–1718 jyldary úsynys bildirgen, biraq qoldau tappady. Óitkeni orys ýkimeti, shyndap kelgende, Jonghariyanyng әlsiregenin qalamaytyn. Reseyge búl kóshpendi handyq sol shamada kýsheyip kele jatqan Siyn-Qytay imperiyasyna qarsy kýsh retinde qajet edi. Ári, jongharlar da, Edil boyyndaghy qalmaq tuystary sekildi, orys patshalyghynyng bodandyghyn qabyl eter dep te ýmittenetin. Sondyqtan Gagarin qazaq handarynyng jonghargha qarsy birlesip qimyl jasau jayyndaghy naqty úsynysyn qúrghaq uәdemen aldausyratyp,   әskery kómek súraghan ótinishine syrghytpa jauap berumen shekteldi. Al orys ýkimetinen әskery jәrdem ala almaghan  qazaq armiyasy 1917 jylghy jazda Ayagóz  ózeni manynda qalmaqtardan oisyray jenildi. Býginde búl jәitti tarihshylar  Qayyp han men Ábilqayyr hannyng alauyzdyghy saldarynan oryn aldy dep baghalaugha qúlaghan...

Shyghysta Sevan Rabdan qontayshy orys ekspansiyasyna azu tisin kórsetip qalyp jýrdi. Gagarin Sibirge әkim bop taghayyndalar qarsanda, I Petrding jarlyghymen Bie jәne Katun ózenderining qúiylysyndaghy qazirgi Biysk qalasynyng ornyna 1709 jyly Bikatun qamaly salynghan bolatyn, jongharlar sony jana әkim túsynda tas-talqan etken. Odan olar Petr patshanyng Ertis aimaghynan altyn izdeuge attandyrghan ekspedisiyasyn joyghan. (Podpolkovnik Buhgolis basqarghan ýsh myng adamdyq ekspedisiya  1715 jyly Tobyldan shyqqan edi, ony jasaqtaugha Gagarin jauapty bolatyn. Ekspedisiya sәtsizdikke úshyraghan son, ony joryqqa dayyndaudy úiymdastyru júmysyn nashar jýrgizgen dep, ýkimet Gagarindi aiyptaydy). Ekspedisiyagha qatysushynyng birazy tútqyngha alynghan-dy. Tútqyndar ishinde  shved artilleriya serjanty Yuhan-Gustav Renat bolatyn. Ol 1709 jylghy Poltava shayqasy kezindegi soghys tútqyny edi, sodan orys әskerinde qyzmet etip, patshalyqtyng shyghys sheginen bir-aq shyqqan. Renattyng qolgha týsui Jonghar handyghy ýshin naghyz olja boldy. Ol handyqta 17 jyl qyzmet etti. Zenbirek qúyatyn zauyttar saldy. Ken óndiru zauyttaryn ashty. Oq-dәrimen atylatyn qaru-jaraq jasaudy jolgha qoyyp berdi. Óstip, jonghar tútqynynda jýrgen reseylik әskery adamdardyng arqasynda, Jonghar handyghynda soghys óndirisi payda boldy. Handyqtyng әskery kýsh-quaty artty. Múnyng I Petrdi alandatyp, oilandyrghany sonday, mәselening nasyrgha shabuy yqtimaldyghynyng aldyn alu ýshin, 1716 jyly Sevan Rabdangha arnayy elshi jiberuge mәjbýr boldy. Sosyn kazaktar men soldattar qaytadan Ertis boyymen joghary órley bastady. Olar әr basqan jerlerine qamaldar salyp, qaruly  garnizon qaldyryp otyrdy. Al jonghar qontayshysy orys syndy kýshti qarsylaspen tikeley aiqasa ketuden tartyndy. Áskery teke-tireske barudan, soghysudan qashqandyqtan, orys ekspedisiyasynyng shyghysqa qaray tek Ertis boyymen jasaghan ekspansiyasyna kóz júma qarady. Ertis pen Obi arasynda kóship-qonyp jýrgen Altay kóshpendilerin ishki audandaryna qonys audartty. Syrtqy sayasy jaghday kýrdeli sipat aldy.  Handyghyna qaraytyn aumaqtyng birazynan airylugha tura keldi. Degenmen Jonghariyanyng óz ishinde halyqtyng tyghyz boluyn qamtamasyz etti.  1715 jyldan beri jongharlardyng negizgi әskeriy-soghys qimyldary ekinshi oirat-sin soghysy maydandaryna auysqan bolatyn. Al 1717 jyldan bastap soghys Kukunor (Kók kól) aumaghy men Tiybet jerlerinde jýrip jatty. Kukunor handyghy Tiybettegi buddizm ortalyghynyng ýstinen qaraytyn, al búl Siyn-Qytay biyleushileri ýshin – jol beruge bolmaytyn jәit edi, sondyqtan olar óz әskerin solay qaray baghyttap, 1719 jyly Tiybetke basyp kirdi. Onyng aldynda oirattar Tiybetti basyp alyp, Lhasany talan-tarajgha týsirgen. Endi ózderine soghys asha kelgen sin әskerin talqandady. Sonda Siyn-Qytay imperatory Kansy Tiybetke arnayy әskery ekspedisiya jiberip, oirattardyng sondaghy handyghyn 1720 jyly mýldem joydy. Odan Hami, Túrpan alqaptaryn aldy. Jonghar handyghyna kiruge dayyndaldy. Tiybettegi jenisti sheruining jalghasy retinde, 1720–1721 jyldary Shyghys Týrkistangha joryq jasady. Ýrimshini basyp aldy. Jeri men qalasyn ózine qaytaru ýshin jongharlargha ýlken kýsh-jiger júmsaugha tura keldi. Osy shaqta Qara Ertispen jýzgen Reseyding ekspedisiyalyq  kýshteri Jonghariyanyng tap ortasynan shygha keldi.  Jongharlar olardyng ózen boyymen ilgerileuin kórmegensigenmen, tap múnysyn kýtpegen bolatyn. Onsyz da sindermen, halhalarmen, qazaqtarmen soghysyp jýrgendikten, endi orystarmen arada jana maydan tuuy olar ýshin  mýldem qolaysyz edi. Sondyqtan Sevan Rabdan shúghyl attandyrghan elshilik I Petrge kómek súray barady, alayda ong nәtiyjege jete almaydy.

Sol 1721 jyly  I Petr Coltýstik soghysynda jeniske jetip, el aumaghyn Baltyq tenizi jaghyna qaray keneytken. Sodan song patshalyqty imperiya, ózin imperator dep jariyalaghan. Al senat imperatorgha Úly Petr degen ataq bergen. Jana mәrtebe Úly Petrge úlan-ghayyr jana jospar jasatty. Ol ontýstik-shyghys baghytqa nazaryn tikti. 1722 jyldyng basynda Jonghar әmirshisi Sevan Rabdangha arnayy elshilik attandyrdy. Qúramynda geodeziya jәne tau-ken isi mamandary bar, yaghny ghylymy sipatty búl ekspedisiyany artilleriya kapitany Ivan Unkovskiy basqardy. Unkovskiy basqarghan osynau elshilikting aldyna tek qana qontayshymen diplomatiyalyq kelissózder jýrgizu ghana emes, sonymen birge Sibirden Orta Aziyagha baratyn ózen joldaryn zerttep, altyn kenin izdey qaytu mindeti qoyylghan bolatyn. Missiya kerueni erte kóktemde Tobylgha keldi, odan jalpaq taban qayyqtargha minip, Ertis boyyndaghy Semeyge, sosyn Ertisting sol jaq salasy Shar ózeni angharymen Qalba qyrqalaryna bardy, ýlken qiyndyqpen qalyng qarly Tarbaghataydan asty. Emil ózeninen ótti. Sodan keyin Altyn-Emil qyrqalarymen jýrip,  kýzde Jonghar qaqpasy arqyly jazyqqa shyqty, taghy biraz jer-sudy artqa salyp, 1722 jylghy qarashanyng sonyna qaray Ile ózenining orta aghysyndaghy qontayshy ordasyna jetti.

Búl kezde Sevan Rabdan qytay qateri jәne qazaq elin shabu jayyn oilastyryp otyrghan...

Redaksiyadan: Jogharydaghy taraular jazushy, tarihshy, kósemsózshi Beybit Qoyshybaevtyn "Qazaq memleketi tarihyna kózqaras" atty enbeginen jalghasty týrde alynyp otyrghyn eskertemiz. Basy myna siltemelerde: http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4553;  http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4554;  http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4579; http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5256;http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5335; http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5370

(Jalghasy bar)

Beybit Qoyshybaev

Abai.kz

 

 

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