Seysenbi, 1 Jeltoqsan 2020
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Kýbirtke 5825 0 pikir 21 Shilde, 2016 saghat 11:00

"QALYPTY SÁLÁFIZM" DEGEN BOLA MA?

(Suret "Azattyq" radiosynyng saytynan alyndy)

Songhy kezderi qogham arasynda, búqaralyq aqparat qúraldarynda, tipti biylik basynda «qalypty sәlәfizm» (umerennyy salyafizm) degen úghym boy kórsetip, keng talqylaugha týsip jýr. Tipti, esimi elge belgili keybir sarapshylarymyz «qalypty sәlәfizmdi» jaqtap, dissertasiyalyq júmys jazyp jýrse, tanymal sayasattanushylarymyz solardyng shashpauyn kóterip auditoriyasy auqymdy BAQ betterinde súhbat berip jýr. Olardyng sendiruinshe, sәlәfizm (uahabshylyq) eki týrli bolady: biri qolyna qaru alghan sәlәfiyler bolsa, endi biri – beybitshilikti tu etken, biylikke qarsy shyqpaytyn qalypty sәlәfizm.

Sәlәfizmdi, rasymen de, osylay ekige bólip qaraugha bola ma? Joq, әlde, bireui qasqyr da, al ekinshisi qoy terisin jamylghan qasqyr ma?

Ol ýshin sәlәfizmning tarihyna kóz jýgirteyik. Jalpy, búlar «sәlәfizm» atauyn da keyinnen alghanyn aita ketuimiz kerek. Sebebi, uahabshylyq jer-jerde býlik salyp, tarihta eshqashan jaqsy atpen shyqqan emes. Sondyqtan da, búl jamanattan qútylu ýshin ózderin «alghashqy saliqalylardyn» jolyn ústaushymyz dep sýikimdi kórsetkisi kelip, «sәlәf» atyn jamylghan.

Sәlәfizm aghymyn XIII ghasyrda doktrinalyq túrghyda jetildirgen Ibn Taymiya esimdi teolog boldy. Haq dinning ózegi sanalatyn әhli-sýnnet ilimine mýlde qarama-qayshy keletin Ibn Taymiyanyng ilimimen XVIII ghasyrda Saud Arabiyasynda ómir sýrgen Múhammed Abduluahab qarulanyp, sol kezdegi aibyndy imperiya – Osman biyligine qarsy shyghady. Aghylshyn alpauyttarynan qoldau tauyp, «taza islamdy» jeleu etken uahabshylyq osylaysha әu basta sayasy maqsat-mýddeni kózdeydi. Búl qozghalystyng sol kezdegi eng basty maqsaty – Nәjit aimaghyndaghy uahabshyldyq iydeologiyanyng negizinde arabtardyng sayasy derbestigin qúru. Ádepkide, óz maqsattaryna qol jetkize almasa da, HH ghasyrdyng basyndaghy I Dýniyejýzilik soghysta Osman imperiyasynyng kýireuimen Nәjit arabtary uahabshyldyq iydeologiyanyng negizinde óz tәuelsiz iyeligin qúrdy. Keyin 1991 jyldary sәlәfizm sayasy mәselege qatysty eki tarmaqqa bólinedi. Yaghni, sururiya jәne madhaliya bolyp. Toqsanynshy jyldary Irak biyleushisi Saddam Huseyn Kuveytke soghys ashyp, jaulay bastaghanda Saud Arabiyasy Baghdattyng әskery әreketinen qauiptenip, AQSh-pen auyz jalasyp, odaqtasugha bel buady. Yaghni, Irak Hizaj aimaghyna әskery shapqynshylyq jasay qalghan jaghdayda, AQSh Saudiyany qorghaytyn bolyp kelisedi. Osynyng nәtiyjesinde, qasiyetti Qaghbagha iyelik etken el Protestanttyq alpauyt memleketke (AQSh) protektorat (bir memleketting әskery qorghauynda bolu) retinde baghynyshty bolady. Saudiya ýkimetining búl sheshimine narazy bolghan Múhammed Surur ibn Nәif Zeyn әl-Abidin bastaghan diny azshylyq top koroli biyligin «kәpirge» shygharady. Olardyng payymynsha, músylman memleketi ózge din ókilderimen auyz jalaspauy kerek edi. Al, biylikting sayasatyn jaqtaghan Rabigh ibn Hәdy әl-Madhaly bastaghan top Sururdyng ústanymyn teriske shygharyp, olardy «Ýmbetting Hauarijderi» dep atady. Mine, osylaysha sәlәfizm diny túrghydan emes, sayasy túrghydan ekige jarylyp kete barady. Biraq, eki tarmaqtyng da ilimi bir qaynardan shyghyp jatyr. Yaghni, ekeuining nasihattaytyn iydeologiyasy ortaq, bir bastaudan su ishedi. Ayyrmashylyq tek sayasy ústanymynda. Bireui biylikke qarsy shyqpaymyz dese, endi biri qarumen bolsa da biylikti ózderining yrqyna kóndirgisi keledi.

Búl eki tarmaq ta býginde Qazaqstangha túmsyq súghyp, óz iydeologiyalaryn eki jaqtap nasihattauda. Bizdegi tiyisti oryndar da sururiya tarmaghyn biylikke qauipti, al madhalidter qalypty dep bólip qarastyrady. Sondyqtan da, elimizding qúqyqqorghau organdary madhalidterdi sururiya tobyna qarsy qoldanu ýshin olardyng jolyna tosqauyl bolmay, kerisinshe bar mýmkindikterin ashyp berude. Búghan dәlel – sәlәfiylikti ashyq uaghyzdap jýrgen madhalidterding birqatar sayttary esh tosqauylsyz emin-erkin júmys isteude. Sol sayttary arqyly onlayn sabaqtaryn ashyq jýrgizip keledi. Elding dýrdarazdyghyn tudyratyn sayttardy jabu turaly neshe mәrte úsynys týsse de, әli kýnge deyin tiyisti sharalar qoldanylmay keledi. Sonday-aq, olardyng uly әdebiyetteri men audio-viydeo uaghyzdaryna memleket tarapynan arnayy saraptama jýrgizilmey, resmy tyiym salynbaghan. Sonyng sebebinen uaghyzdary men әdebiyetteri әrkimning qolynda, ýiinde, ghalamtorda kezip jýr. Jastar da qazirgi tehnologiyanyng mýmkinshilikterin paydala otyryp sol әdebiyetterdi bir-birine taratuda. Eger búl әdebiyetter men uaghyzdargha zanmen tyiym salynghanda, búl әreketterding iyeleri zang aldynda jauapqa tartylar edi. Ókinishke qaray, olay bolmay túr. El imamdary 10 adamnyng 8-in búl aghymnan saqtap qalghanymen, sәlәfiyler osynday mýmkindikter berip qoyghandyqtan qalghan 2-in óz jeteginde әketip jatyr.

Madhalidterdi qolgha qaru alyp biylikke qarsy shyghatyn sururiyalyqtargha qarsy qoldanu taktikalyq túrghydan dúrys desek te, olargha bar mýmkinshilikti ashyp berip, tayrandatyp qon ýlken qatelik. Sebebi, osynyng saldarynan qanshama dinnen habary joq nemese dinge endi-endi bet búryp kele jatqan talay jastarymyz olardyng emin-erkin aitylyp, esh kedergisiz taratylyp jýrgen uaghyzdarynyng qúrbanyna ainaluda. Sondyqtan, olardy tek biylikke qarsy әlgi toptyng mýshelerine ghana baghyttap qoldanu kerek. Yaghni, olargha aqparattyq kenistikti tútastay berip qoy qauipti.

Ásilinde sәlәfiylikti «qalypty» jәne «qauipti» dep ekige jaryp qaraugha bolmaydy. Óitkeni, olardyng oqityn әdebiyetteri de, negizgi diny ústanymdary da ortaq. Býginde birneshege bólinip otyrghan sәlәfiylikting qay tarmaghy bolsa da últtyq qúndylyqtar men әdet-ghúryptarymyzdy Allagha serik qosu dep, elimizde ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan diny mektepterdi adasqangha sanaydy.

Jerimizge kelgen búl aghym ata-babadan kele jatqan dәstýrli dinimizdi teriske shygharyp, «ata-babang adasqan, taza islam ol emes, mynau» dep, ata-baba dinin óz úrpaghynyng auzymen mansúqtata bastady. Osydan keyin el ishi ekige jaryluda. Halyqtyng arasynan bet sipap, aruaqqa Qúran baghyshtaugha qarsy shyghatyn jamaghat boy kórsetti. Osynyng kesirinen alauyzdyq tuyndap, at shaptyryp, as berilip jatqan jerde eki qazaqtyng basy bir dastarhanda týiispeytin boldy.

Synalap kire bastaghan sәlәfizm iydeologiyasy astan bastap, toy-tomalaqty da jaghalay bastady. Ýlkenge qúrmet kórsetip, jerden jibek alghanday iyilip sәlem salatyn kelinderimizding beli betasharda býgilmey, qaqqan qazyqtay qaqiyp túratyn boldy. Yaghni, otbasyndaghy úl men kelin «shirk» dep shy shygharyp, airanday úiyghan әuletting berekesin qashyryp, irkittey iritip, otbasylyq qúndylyqtardy qúldyratugha apardy.

Aqyrayaghy salt-dәstýrdi adasqan ata-babanyng sarqynshaghy dep, yrymgha qyryn qarap, dombyrany shaytannyng qúralyna balap, últtyq bolmystan aiyrugha kiristi.

Qúran men Payghambar hadiysinen basqanyng bәri bayansyz dep, qazaq dalasyna san ghasyrlar boyy dinning dәnin egip kelgen Qoja Ahmet Yassaui, Búqar Jyrau, Abay, Shәkәrim, Mәshhýr sekildi dala dilmarlaryn da moyyndamay, olardyng bәrin adasqandargha tenep, әdebiyetimizding qúndy jauharlaryn tarih betinen óshiruge kýsh saluda. Sebebi, olar Orta Aziyada qanatyn kenge jayghan Mәturudiya aqidasynyng ókilderi sanalady. Al sәlәfizm әhli-sýnnet uәl jamaghat aqidalary: maturudy men әshghariydi adasqan aghym dep esepteydi. Ol az deseniz, Qoja Ahmet Yassaui, Arystan Bab, Qarahan sekildi aituly túlghalarymyzdyng kesenesin de «shirk» dep jaryp jiberuge shaq qalyp túr.

Eng qorqynyshtysy, el músylmandary úiyp otyrghan Qazaqstan Músylmandary Diny Basqarmasyna qarsy nasihat jýrgizip, imamdardyng syrtynan ghaybat aityp, bilimsiz nadangha tenep, eldi del-sal kýige týsirdi. Tipti, meshitting ishinde de alauyzdyq tuyndap, jamaghat ekige bólinip, imamgha úidy qoyghandar da shyghuda. Halyq osylardyng kesirinen balasyn meshitke jiberuge qorqady. Ne kerek, balasy imangha bet búryp, namazgha jyghylghany ýshin ata-anasy quanghannyng ornyna «balam basqa aghymgha ketip qalmady ma?» dep te ýreylenetin boldy.

Endi elding ishin osylay alatayday býldirip, yntymaghana syzat týsirip, diny dýrdarazdyqqa sebep bolyp otyrghan sәlәfiylik iydeologiyasyn qalay ghana «qalypty» dep bólip qaraugha bolady. «Qalypty» degen sóz elimizge esh qaupi joq degendi bildiredi emes pe? Al olardyng qazirge qaru almaghandyghyn eskerip, búlay deytin bolsaq, onda iyegovalardy da, ahmadiyashylardy da «qauipsiz» dep jaybaraqat otyra beruimiz qajet.

Sәlәfizmning búlardan basqa elimizde taghy bir toby bar. Olar ózderining týpki maqsatyn aiqyn kórsetpey, qoghammen ashyq qarsylaspay, bәrimen til tabysa jýrip qiynnan jol taba biletin top. Uahabshylardyng búl әdis-aylasy teologiya ghylymynda «tahiya» (jasyrynu) dep atalady. Ishki qalauy aiparaday aiqyn kórinbegenimen, osy tahiyashylar sәlәfizm qozghalysynyng ishindegi eng qauipti tarmaghy sanalady. Óitkeni, tahiyashylar qalyng búqaranyng qamyn jegen bolyp, kópshilikting senimine kirip, sәti týskende, óz iydeologiyalaryn tyqpalaugha tyrysyp baghady.

Býginde búl aghym ókilderining túmsyq súqpaghan jeri qalmady. Qara halyqqa, qoghamdyq pikirge yqpal ete alatyn kóptegen óner iyelerin, sportshylardy, jurnalisterdi, aqyn-jazushylardy, iri kәsipkerlerdi, tipti keybir moldalardy da osy aghymnyng sapynan kóruge bolady. Olar kóbine qoghamgha sózi ótetin, beldi-bedeldi túlghalardy kózdeydi. Sonday ókilderdi birneshe mәrte úmra men qajylyqqa aparyp, sol jerde otyrghan ózderining uaghyzshylaryna sanalaryn ulap keledi. Olarmen qajylyqqa baryp kelgenderding kózqarasy kóz aldymyzda ózgerip shygha kelgenine talay mәrte kuә bolyp ta jýrmiz.

Mine, osylaysha týrli tәsildermen qoghamgha enip, týrli tarmaqtarmen iydeologiyasyn jayyp kele jatqan sәlәfizm aghymynyng endigi ansary elimizding diny basqarmasy men memleketting tizginin qoldaryna alu.

Osynyng bәrin qoryta kelgende aitarymyz, sәlәfizmge jol ashuymyz óz últtyghymyzdyng tamyryna balta shabuymyz. Qoy terisin jamylyp jýrgen «qalypty sәlәfizmnin» jolyn qazirden kespesek, terisin sypyrghannan keyin «ayqaylay-ayqaylay qasqyrdan úyat boldy» deu ghana qalady. Odan keyin qolymyzdy kesh sermegen bolady. Eger qazirden bastap sәlәfizmning kýre tamyryn qyspasaq, ertengi kýni tynyshtyghy ketip, berekesi qashyp, túnyghy laylanghan Soltýstik Kavkazdaghy Sheshenstannyn, Tәjikstannyn, Daghystannyng kýiin kesherimiz anyq.

SOL ÝShIN:

– qazirden bastap qogham arasynda «qalypty sәlәfizm» degen úghymdy qalyptastyrmaq týgili atatqyzbauymyz kerek;

– dәstýrli hanafy mәzhabyn nasihattap, sәlәfizm degen aghymnyng qauipti ekenin mektep qabyrghasynan bastap sanagha siniru qajet, ol ýshin Bilim jәne ghylym ministrligi mektep jәne jogharghy oqu oryndarynda «islamtanu»fakulitativtik pәnderin engizui qajet;

– barlyq búqaralyq aqparat qúraldary arqyly sәlәfizm iydeologiyasynyng qoghamgha qauipti, elge jat aghym ekenin jappay týsindiruge tiyispiz;

– memleketting qoldauymen dәstýrli dinimizdi nasihattaytyn, halyqqa baghyt silteytin, aghartushylyq baghyttaghy radio ashyluy kerek;

– aqparattyq nasihat, aghartushylyq júmystarmen qatar qúzyrly organdar da sәlәfizmning oshaqtaryn anyqtap, olargha tiyisti sharalar qoldanu kerek;

– shetelde, әsirese Saud Arabiyasynda Qazaqstan Músylmandary Diny Basqarmasynyng arnayy rúqsatynsyz diny bilim alyp jatqan azamattarymyzdy Syrtqy ister ministrligi dereu elge qaytaruy qajet;

– sonday-aq, Syrtqy ister ministrligi sheteldik diny oqu oryndarymen memleket tarapynan, Qazaqstan Músylmandary Diny Basqarmasynyng rúqsatymen kelmegen Qazaqstan azamattaryn oqytpau turaly kelisimshart jasauy kerek;

– al oqugha óz betimen barghan azamattardy keri qaytarugha yqpal etu ýshin sol elding qúzyrly organdarymen kelisim jasaluy qajet;

– ghalamtor kenistiginde sәlәfizmge qarsy sýzgi ornatyp, sot sheshimimen sәlәfizmning iysi shyghatyn barlyq sayttargha tyiym salu qajet.

Dosay Kenjetay, týrkologiya zertteu ortalyghynyng diyrektory, dintanushy-filosof, Qayrat Joldybayúly, QMDB nayb-mýftiyi, Áziret Súltan meshitining bas imamy, Aydos Sarym, sayasattanushy, Dәuren Quat, Abai.kz aqparattyq portalynyng bas redaktory, Múhan Isahan, zanger-sharighattanushy,  Gýlbighash Omarova, «Týrkistan» gazetining jauapty hatshysy,  Amangeldi Qúrmetúly, Respublikalyq «Jebe» gazetining bas redaktory, Qayrat Qúrmanbay, islamtanushy-doktorant, Sayd Abdunayym, islamtanushy-doktarant, Ermek Múqatay, Almaty telearnasy «Bes paryz» baghdarlamasynyng jýrgizushisi, Tóre Qydyrәli, Shyghystanushy ghalym, Rýstem Syzdyqov, dintanushy, Rahymjan Ákimbekov, islamtanushy, Erbol Ómirjanov, zanger-publisist. 

("Sәlәfizm - jat aghym" atty ashyq hat. 2009 jyldyng shildesi, Abai.kz aqparattyq portaly)

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