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Qazaq jeri 4925 1 pikir 7 Sәuir, 2017 saghat 11:47

Múz qúrsauyndaghy Balqash (foto-reportaj)

Balqash mәselesine búghan deyin de birneshe maqala arnaghan edik. Kólding qysqy jaghdayyn bayqau ýshin aqpan aiynyng basynda «National Geographic Qazaqstan» redaksiyasy Astana-Balqash baghyty boyynsha taghy da jolgha shyqty.

Kýrejol boyynda baylauly túrghan týie. Qaraghandy oblysy Shet audany.

Kýrejol boyynda baylauly túrghan týie. Qaraghandy oblysy Shet audany.

Kýn batyp, qas qarayghan shaqta 650 shaqyrymdy artqa tastaghan biz Balqash qalasyna da kelip jettik. Qalany jan-jaqty tanu ýshin kelesi kýni is-saparymyzdy qalalyq ólketanu muzeyin aralaudan bastadyq. Onda bizdi ghylymy qyzmetker Meruert Aghylbaeva qarsy alyp, aimaq tarihy, mәdeniyeti men jergilikti túlghalar turaly egjey-tegjeyli әngimelep berdi.

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Qazaqstan boyynsha Balqash óniri qola dәuiri eskertkishterine, jan-januarlar men qorymdargha bay. Múndaghy qysh-qúmyra, balbal tas, HI-HII ghasyrlarda paydalanylghan dulygha, sauyttar men Sayaqtan tabylghan Tanbaly tastar muzeyding eng qúndy jәdigeri bolyp tabylady.

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Balqashtyng Soltýstik-Batys óniri mys, altyn, kýmis sekildi qúndy metaldargha da bay bolghandyqtan óndiris oryndarynyng basym kópshiligi osy aimaqta shoghyrlanghan. 1967 jyly Balqashtaghy ken bayytu kombinatynda óndirilgen mys Londonda ótken týsti metaldar birjasynda eng taza metall retinde tirkelgen.

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Myna metall qúimalary qala men kombinattyng әr jyldardaghy mereytoyy qarsanynda shygharylypty. Al altyn men kýmis 1997 jyldan bastap óndirile bastaghan.

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1928 jyly Balqash qalasynan 12 shaqyrym jerden ashylghan Qonyrat, odan keyingi jyldary tabylghan Sayaq pen Shatyrkól sekildi ken oryndary әli kýnge deyin kombinattyng negizgi shiykizat bazasy bolyp tabylady. Bir kezde búnda 12 myngha deyin adam júmys istegen. Býginde kombinat ónimderi sym, buma nemese paraqsha týrinde onnan astam elge eksportqa shygharylady. Sonday-aq 1950 jyldan beri qalada jylu elektr ortalyghy (JEO) júmys istep keledi.

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Balqash qalasynyng ortalyghy. Biyl 11 sәuirde 80 jyldyq mereytoyyn atap ótkeli otyrghan Balqash qalasynda 75 myngha juyq adam túrady.

Balqash qalasynyng ortalyghy. Biyl 11 sәuirde 80 jyldyq mereytoyyn atap ótkeli otyrghan Balqash qalasynda 75 myngha juyq adam túrady.

«Kólding Soltýstiginde ornalasqan múnday óndiris oryndary qalanyng túrmys-tirshiliginen bólek, aua basseyni men kól ekologiyasyna da tikeley әseri bar. Mәselen, Balqashtyng auasy el boyynsha eng las sanalady. Balqash qalasynyng ereksheligi ondaghy jelding baghyty bir tәulikte 360 gradusqa ainala soghyp túrady, ony óndiris oryndarynan shyqqan týtinge qarap ta bayqaugha bolady, – deydi Qaraghandy oblystyq ekologiyalyq baqylau departamentine qarasty mekemede 35 jyl boyy ýzdiksiz júmys istegen ekologiya inspektory, býginde zeynetker Rymgýl Mәshýrbekova. – Balqash kólindegi apatty jaghdaygha birneshe ret kuә boldym. Onyng alghashqysy adamy faktorlardan bolsa, ekinshisi tabighy apat sanatyna jatqyzylady».

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Kez kelgen óndiris oshaqtarynyng júmys istep túrghany elding ekonomikasyna paydasy zor. Alayda túrghyndarynyng tynys joldary taryltyp, densaulyqtaryna uly týtinning keltirer zalaly kóp bolyp túr.

Rymgýl apay alghashqy apatty jaghday 1975 jyly qalanyng túrmystyq sularyn (kәriz) aidaytyn qúbyrdyng isten shyghuynan bolghanyn jәne ol las su kólge qúiylghanyn aitady. Ókinishke oray, ol kezde bolmaghan qalanyng túrmystyq sularyn tazartatyn qondyrghy әli kýnge deyin salynghan joq.

Al, Balqash JEO salynghanda kәsiporyn paydalanghan jyly sudy suytugha arnalghan úzyndyghy 2,5 shaqyrymgha sozylatyn ashyq qúbyr qosa salynghanymen búl lotokqa mys zauytynan da su qúiylatyn. Soghan baylanysty keybir jyldary sudyng qúramynda himiyalyq qospalardyng mólsheri kóbeyip, kól suynyng tazalyghyna aitarlyqtay keri әserin tiygizgen edi. Osyny eskergen ekologtar búl mәseleni qayta qayta kótere bergennen keyin, mys zauytynyng sularyn kólge qúng 1989 jyly mýlde toqtatyldy.

Tarihy derekterge jýginsek, 1937-53 jyldary kólge ken-bayytu fabrikasynan shyqqan qúm aralas su tosqauylsyz tikeley qúiylyp kelgen. 1953 jyly Balqash ken-bayytu kombinaty (BGMK) qaldyq qoymasyn iske qosqanda, ol ken bayytu kezinde qúmmen birge shyghatyn reagentterge tosqauyl bola aldy. Mәseleni qayta-qayta kóteru arqyly BGMK-nyng is-sharalarynyng arqasynda 1990 jyldary kólge kәsiporynnan su jiberu mýldem toqtatylghany bylay túrsyn, su arnayy jýieden ótip, fabrikagha qayta jiberiletin boldy.

Qazirgi tanda, kólge JEO-nan su tastalynady, ony sheshuge tehnikalyq mýmkindik joq dep týsindiredi kәsiporyn.

Ekinshi qauipti jaghday 1986-87 jyldary Balqash kóli teniz dengeyinen 341 metrge tómendep ketken uaqytta oryn aldy. Ol kezde Soltýstik Balqashtaghy túz mólsheri bir litr suda 1 gramnan 2,5 gramgha artyp ketip, kólding tirshiligine aitarlyqtay qauip tóndirgen. Qazir kól suy teniz dengeyinen 342 metrge jogharylaghandyqtan jaghday qalypty sanalady.

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Saparymyzdyng ýshinshi kýni balyqshylardyng qys ailaryndaghy tirshiligin óz kózimizben kóru maqsatynda kýn qylang bere Balqashtan ontýstik-shyghysqa qaray 90 shaqyrym jerdegi Tasaral auylyna jol tarttyq. Eldimekenge kire beriste bizdi auyl әkimi Ayan Smaylovtyng ózi qarsy aldy. Ákim ózi basqaryp otyrghan auylynyng býgingi jay-kýii, ótkeni men ketkenin bayandap, shejiresi men tarihy jayly әngime órbitti.

«Búl jerge qazaqtyng songhy hany Kenesarynyng bas qolbasshysy Aghybay Qonyrbayúlynyng anasy Qoysana qystaugha kelip, «tas kóp eken,  tas aral ghoy» degen eken, sodan Tasaral atalyp ketipti, – dep sóz bastady әkim. – Kózkórgender sonau 30 jyldardaghy asharshylyqtan jan saughalap kelgenderding barlyghy aman qalghanyn aitatyn. Jaryqtyq, búl jer qúnarly, shúrayly jer ghoy».

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Aghybay batyrdyng eskertkishi. Joryqta ýnemi joly bolatyndyqtan ol «Aqjoltay batyr» atandy. Sarbazdary Abylay esimimen qatar Aghybay batyrdy da úrangha ainaldyrdy.

KSRO túsynda balyq sharuashylyghymen Aqtoghay audanynda tek Gýlshat, Shashubay men Tasaral auyly ghana ainalysqan jәne aulanghan balyqtardyng barlyghy bir ghana «Balqashbalyq» kombinatyna ótkiziletin. «Al qazir basqa qalalardan da, shetelderden de keletinder qytaydyng su astynda shirimeytin aularyn qúryp qoyady da, qajet bolsa jinap alyp, qajet bolmasa tastap kete beredi. Al onday nemqúraylylyq ekologiyagha orasan zalal keltiretini aitpasa da týsinikti. Ókinishtisi ondaylardy qadaghalap, tәrtipke shaqyratyn da, kól tabanyn tazalaytyn da dәl qazir eshkim joq, – dep keiydi Ayan Smaylov. – Jergilikti balyqshylardyng ózi eshqashan kóldi búlay lastamaydy, amal joq ashynystaryn bizge aitady».

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Auyl ishin aralay jýrip mektep, medisinalyq punkt sekildi memlekettik mekemelerde qyzmet etetinderden bólek mal sharuashylyghymen ainalysatyndardyng da barshylyq ekenine kóz jetkizdik. Shaghyn ghana auylda «shapqylaghan» balalardy kórgende quanyshymyzdy jasyra almadyq.

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Ayan myrza bizge auyldy aralata jýrip Tasaralda 2001 jylgha deyin balyq óndeytin sehtyng júmys istegenin, tipti, kól jaghasynda alyp katerlerding kezekte túrghanyn aityp qaldy.

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Týs aua әkim bizge auyldy aralatyp bolghannan keyin Berik Bekmaghambetov esimdi balyqshymen tanystyrdy. Ár jyldary týrli ken oryndarynda brigadiyr, mehanik bolyp júmys istegen Berik Músadyqúly qay jasta bolmasyn auyldan úzaghan shaghynda ýnemi balyq aulaugha ansary auyp túratynyn aitady. «Balyq aulau – bizding ata kәsibimiz. Balyqshy kólding betine jyldyng qay mezgilinde, kýnning qay uaqytynda shyghu kerektigin týisine bilgende ghana kórer nәpaqasy artpaq. Biraq onyng artynda tartar tauqymetting de túratynyn esten shygharmaghan abzal, – dedi Berik myrza.

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Kәsiby balyqshynyng aituynsha, әsirese songhy jyldary balyqty satpaq týgili, jeuge de tappay qalatyn kezder bolady. Soghan qaraghanda, dәl qazir býgingidey jer betinde adam sany kóbeygen sayyn, sugha da, azyq-týlikke de súranys arta beretini anyq. «Sondyqtan balyqqa ghana qarap otyrugha bolmaydy», – dedi Berik Músadyqúly.

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Tanghy saghat 7. Ýy iyesimen birge juynyp-shayynyp, tanghy asymyzdy ishtik. Shaydan song Berik myrza qoradaghy malyn jayghaugha ketti.

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Bir qaraghan adamgha qysqy Balqashtyng ainalasy ýnemi súrghylt tartyp, kólding jaghasy qaysysy, ózi qaysysy ekeni bilinbey jatqanday bolyp kórinedi. Alayda onday tabighy qúbylys auyl túrghyndary ýshin ýirenshikti nәrse.

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Saghat tili 9-gha tayaghanda Berik agha úlymen birge osydan onshaqty kýn búryn salynghan aulardy tekserip qaytu ýshin qajetti qúral-saymandaryn jinaugha kiristi. Ýiden 10 shaqyrym jerdegi augha jetem degenshe qalyng qargha birneshe ret maltyghyp ta aldyq. Jolgha shyqqanymyzgha bir saghat ótpey jatyp birneshe jerden salynghan audyng alghashqysyna da kelip jettik.

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Qysty kýnderi kólding әr jerinde kýnning bir jylyp, bir suuynan osynday múzqyrqalar payda bolady.

Kólding betine shyghu ýshin múzqyrqalardy tegistep jatqan sәt. Audy tartyp jatqandary.

Kólding betine shyghu ýshin múzqyrqalardy tegistep jatqan sәt.

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«Osydan 4-5 jyl búryn augha iri balyqtar iligetin, al keyinderi balyqshynyng kóptiginen be, joq basqa ma kóldegi balyq sany azayyp barady, – deydi Berik Bekmaghambetov. – Býgin ózderiniz kórip túrghanday augha ilingen balyq tym az әri mayda».

Berik myrza men úly ýshinshi audyng ornyn arshugha kiriskende biz Tasaraldan 40 shaqyrym jerdegi Priozer qalasyna tarttyq. Maqsat – Priozerge jaqyn әskery poligondardaghy qiraghan ghimarattardy qas qarayghansha suretke týsirip ýlgeru. Poligondaghy ghimarattardyng júmys isteytini bar, istemeytini bar, qazaqstandyq әskeriylerge tiyesilisi bar, reseylikterge jalgha berilgeni bar oryndardy aralamaq oidamyz.

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KSRO túsynda búl ghimarattardyng keybirinde, qaru jaraqtarmen qatar, asa uly himiyalyq qospalardyng da saqtalghany jasyryn emes. Solardyng keybiri reseylik әskeriyler ýdere kóshken jyldary ainalagha shashyrap, qorshaghan ortagha orasan ziyan keltirdi.

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Balqash kógershini – beybitshilik qúsy

Esterinizde bolsa, 2014 jyly 20 mamyr kýni  Reseyding «Kapustin yar» әskery poligonynan úshyp shyqqan «Topoli» ballistikalyq zymyrany 2 myng shaqyrym qashyqta jatqan Qazaqstandaghy Saryshaghan poligony aumaghyna qúlap, poligon manyndaghy jergilikti halyqtyng zәre-qútyn alghan. Týngi 23:55-te úshyrylghan zymyrannyng izi Atyrau, Aqtau, Oral, Jezqazghan jәne taghy basqa qalalardyng ýstinen kóringen. Poligonnyng bir sheti Balqashqa da tiyip túrghandyqtan basqa bir elding aumaghynan úshyrylghan múnday zymyrannyng baghytynan janylyp ne kólge, ya bolmasa kez kelgen ýiding tóbesine týsu qauipi tym joghary edi. Sondyqtan aumaghy eki Gollandiyagha teng «Saryshaghandy» tútastay bir synaq alany desek te bolatynday.

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Tileuәli Kókkózov, Tasaral auyly meshitining imamy, búrynghy balyqshy.

Balqash ónirining halqy qay zamanda da, tabighat pen adamzattyng da qataldyghyna qatar tózip keledi. Búnday qataldyq olardy tek qaysarlyqqa tәrbiyeleytindey.

Biz ekspedisiyadan qaytqan kýni Balqash ónirindegi aua temperaturasy sәl de bolsa kóterilip, jol qaraya bastaghan. Sol kezdegi kólding betindegi qalyndyghy 80 santiymetrden asqan múz qabaty arada eki apta ótkende ghana júqarypty.

Balyqshylar arasynda «balyqshynyn baylyghy etek-jeni kepkenshe» degen naqyl sóz bar. Bir balyqshy sugha ketip, sýiegi jer qoynauyna tapsyrylyp jatqanda ekinshi balyqshy kólge qayta shyghady. Al búl balyqshynyng ómiri ýnemi qyl ýstinde túratynyn anghartsa kerek.

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Búl basylym Europalyq Odaq qoldauymen әzirlengen. Basylymnyng mazmúny JShS «KAZMEDIA HOLDING» jauapkershiligine jatady jәne Europalyq Odaq kózqarasyn bildirmeydi.

Avtory: Dәuren Qúdaybergen, foto: Erbolat Shadrahov, Bekzat Saynazar

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