Senbi, 31 Shilde 2021
Anyq 15696 56 pikir 18 Qazan, 2017 saghat 09:25

Latyngha A. Baytúrsynúlynsha kóshuding uaqyty keldi!

 

 

  • Jýz jyl búryn Ahmet Baytúrsynov qalay naghyz últtyq әlipby jasau kerektigin jazyp ketken edi. Al býgin, Baytúrsynovtyng dәl sol әlipby jasau erejesimen (eng kemeldi) apostrofty latyngha kóshu joly bizding aldymyzda túr. 
  • A. Baytúrsynov qazaq tilining negizgi ereksheligi - ýndestik zanyna negizdelip, qalay әlipby jasau kerektigin, әsirese, qay kezde apostroftardy qoldanu jәne ony qalay joghaltu,  qalay qazaq tiline baghyndyrudy óte keremet jәne óte kemeldi týrde sheship ketken.

Jaqynda preziydentke úsynylghan songhy apostrofty latyn әlipbiyin kórdik, aqiqatyn aitsaq, onda apostroftar kelsin-kelmesin qoldanylghan. Apostrofta eshqanday naqty funksiya joq. Oghan qosa, aldynghy digrafti latynnan esh artyqshylyghy joq, jazghan kezde úzaryp, shúbalanqy bolyp ketedi.

Býgin biz A. Baytúrsynovtyng әlipby jasau erejesin tolyqtay qoldana otyryp, әri qazaq tilining óz ereksheligine say, әri yqsham jazylatyn apostrofty latyndy qalay jasau jayynda bayandaymyz. Ahmet Baytúrsynov arab әlipbiyindegi kóp apostroftardy qalay qazaq tiline iykemdep, azaytyp, joghaltsa, biz de sol erejege jýgine otyryp, latyn tanbalaryndaghy qaptaghan qalyng apostroftardy qazaq tilining zandylyqtaryna say ózimizge baghyndyramyz, yqshamdaymyz, joghaltamyz. Nәtiyjesinde, әri tez, әri yqsham jazylatyn jәne halyqaralyq latyn әripterimen tanbalanghan, oghan qosa, qazaqtyng til zandylyqtaryn saqtaghan Baytúrsynovsha últtyq latyngha jol tartamyz.

BAYTÚRSYNOVShA LATYN ÁLIPBY JOBASY

 

Latyn tanbasy Dybystaluy Latyn tanbasy Dybystaluy
1 A a A a 14 M m M m
2 B b B b 15 N n N n
3 V v V v 16 O o O o
4 G g G g 17 P p P p
5 H h Gh gh 18 R r R r
6 D d D d 19 C c Sh sh
7 E e E e 20 T t T t
8 J j J j 21 F f F f
9 Z z Z z 22 W w U u
10 Y y Y y/Y iy 23 U u Ú ú
11 K k K k 24 S s S s
12 Q q Q q 25 I  i Y y
13 L l L l 26 Dәiekshe

 

Jinishke dauystylar Digraftar
Latyn tanbasy Dybystaluy Latyn tanbasy Dybystaluy
1 A’ a’ Á ә 1 NG ng NG n
2 O’ o’ Ó ó 2 KH kh X x
3 U’ u’ Ý ý 3 CH ch Ch ch
4 I’ i’ I i 4 TS ts S s

Búl joba-26 latyn әripi men tynys belgileri ayasynda qarastyryldy. Árqanday elektrondy teru jýiesinde esh kedergisiz tóte teru kózdelgendikten, esh әripke formalyq ózgeris engizilmedi, Ózge jobalardan eng basty aiyrmashylyghy:

1. Qazaqtyng tól dybystary bir әrip-bir dybys erejesine baghyndyryldy. 2. Apostroftardy qoldanuda Axmet Baytúrsynúlynyn qaghidalary negiz etildi. Búl núsqa Qazaq tilining 28 tól dybysyn tolyghymen qamtumen birge, shetten enip, tilimizge әbden ornyqqan keybir kirme dybystargha mýmkindik berilip, mýldem qajetsiz dybystar qaltyryldy. Tómende, fonema tanbalaryn dybys ereksheligi boyynsha bólip kórsetip, búl núsqanyng basqa núsqalardan ózgeshe tústaryn atap kórsetip, tandaghan tanbalarymyzgha qysqasha týsinikteme jasaytyn bolamyz.

  • Dauysty dybystar (sany 9)
Jinishke dauystylar Juan dauystylar
a’ (ә) a (a)
o’ (ó) o ( o)
u’ (ý) u ( ú)
i’ (i) i ( y)
e (e/e)

 

Týsinikteme: juan dauysty A, O, Ú dybystary әlem elderi keninen paydalanatyn núsqa boyynsha qabyldansa, olardyng sәikesti jinishke dauystylary Á, Ó, Ý apostraf belgisin (’) qoldanu arqyly jasaldy. Ony dәiekshe dep ataugha da bolady. (Microsoft Office jýisinde tómen baghyttalghan apostraf belgisining dúrys jazyluy ýshin dәieksheni jinishke dauysty dybys tanbasynyng sonyna qoiidy úsyndyq.) Dәiekshening BAYTÚRSYNOVShA qoldanylu tәsili maqala sonyna qaray tәpteshtey týsindiriletin bolady.

Kóp sandy latyn qarpyn qoldanushylar Y dybysy ýshin << y >> tanbasyn paydalanudy әdetke ainaldyrghan. Alayda, qazaq tilindegi Y dybysynyng qoldanylu jiyiligi IY dybysynan joghary bolghandyqtan, << y >> tanbasyn jii qaytalap jazu әureshilik tudyrumen qatar jazu kórkine de nashar yqpal etetindikten, jazugha birshama yqsham bolghan << i >> tanbasy alyndy. << y >> tanbasy qoldanysy siyrekteu bolghan IY dybysyna berildi. Y dybysynyng sәikesti jinishke týri I dybysy << i >> tanbasyna dәiekshe qoii arqyly jasaldy.

Dәieksheni qoldanu tәsili Ahymet Baytúrsynúly úsynghan tәsilmen birdey: 

  1. Qazaq tili buyn ýndestigi zandylyghyna sәikes, kóp buyndy sóz juan bolyp bastalsa, qalghan buyndary da týgeldey juan; jinishke bastalsa, qalghan buyndary da týgeldey jinishke bolatyndyqtan, dәiekshe tek birinshi buyndaghy jinishke dybysqa qoyylady da, sonyndaghy jinishke dauysty dybystar tabighy týrde jinishke oqyla beredi. Mysaly:

Bilimdi-Bi’limdi ( B’il’imd’i emes);

Ómir-o’mir;

Jýzim-ju’zim;

Bilim-bi’lim;

Múnda aita ketetin bir jayit: preziydentke úsynylghan songhy apostrofty latyn әlipbiyinde, apostroftarda naqty bir funksiya joq. Kelsin-kelmesin apostroftardy qoldana bergen. Al, bizde apostroftar BAYTÚRSYNOVShA tek juan dauysty dybystardyng jinishke synaryn tanbalaugha ghana qoldanady. Búl óz kezeginde, Latyn tanbalaryn BAYTÚRSYNOVShA últtyq til zandylyghymyzgha baghyndyrady jәne apostroftardyng tolyghymen joghalyp ketetin kezi kóp bolady, búl óz kezeginde yqsham jazu artyqshylyghyna ie bolady. Al, preziydentke úsynylghan núsqada qaptaghan apostroftar jazudy úzartyp, shúbalanqy etip jiberedi.

Bir mysal, ol núsqada, «u-shugha ósh ýi» y’-s’y’g’a o’s’ u’i' (9 әrip, 8 apostrof) degen siyaqty sózderdi jazatyn bolsaq, sóz qabattasqan apostroftardyng arasynda qalady. Al, BAYTÚRSYNOVShA latynda «w-cwha o’c u’y» ( 9 әrip). Eki-aq apostrof. Al, digrafty núsqa tipti soraqy: W-shwgha oesh uej (14 әrip).

  1. Qúramynda G, K, E dybystary bar sózderge dәiekshe qoyylmaydy da, ondaghy dauysty dybystar tikeley jinishke bolyp oqylady. ( Sebebi, K, G, E qashanda jinishke dauystylarmen qatar keledi. Sol ýshin jýz payyz jinishke dauysty bolghan son, dәiekshe qoidyng keregi joq). Mysaly:

Áke-ake;

Kóke-koke;

Ýirek-uyrek;

Ilgek-ilgek.

  1. Qúramynda G, K, E dybystary bar, biraq juan buyn aralasyp kelgen shetten, әsirese, orys tilinen engen sózder әuelgi núsqa boyynsha qabyldanady. G, K, E dybystary sóz ishindegi basqa juan dauysty dybystardyng juan bolyp oqyluyna әser etpeydi. Mysaly:

Jazyluy: strategya 

Oqyluy: strategiya (strәtәgiә emes);

Jazyluy: ekologya 

Oqyluy: ekologiya (ekólógiә emes).

  1. Juan-jinishke buyn aralasyp kelip, buyn ýndestigi saqtalmaghan keybir tuyndy sózder, birikken sózder men birikken jer-su, kisi attaryn jazuda jәne oquda, biriguding aldynda qalay jazylyp, qalay oqylatyn bolsa, birikkennen keyin de sol qalpynda jazylyp, sol qalpynda oqylady. Jinishke buyndy bólek, juan buyndy bólekting oqyluyna әser jasamaydy. Mysaly:

Jazyluy: Asan+a’li= Asana’li 

Oqyluy: Asanәli (Ásәnәli emes);

Jazyluy: A’lim+jan= A’limjan

Oqyluy: Álimjan (Álimjәn emes);

Jazyluy: oner+paz=onerpaz 

Oqyluy: ónerpaz (ónerpәz emes);

Jazyluy: Ala+kol=Alakol 

Oqyluy: Alakól (Álәkól emes).

  1. Arab-Parsy tilinen kirgen, buyn ýndestigi saqtalmaghan az sandy sózderdi jazuda jogharghy erejeler saqtalady. Alayda, tilimizge singen oqylu mәnerimen oqylady, әri qúramynda Q dybysy bar buyn qashanda juan oqylady. Jinishke buyndy bólek juan buyndy bólekting oqyluyna әser jasamaydy. Mysaly:

Jazyluy: rakhmet 

Oqyluy: rahmet (rәhmet emes);

Jazyluy: qurmet 

Oqyluy: qúrmet (qýrmet emes);

Jazyluy: qate 

Oqyluy: qate (qәte emes).

  1. Juan buyndy sózderge jalghanghan kómektes septik jalghaulary ózderining aldyndaghy sózding juan oqyluyna әser jasamaydy. Mysaly:

Jazyluy: mal+men=malmen 

Oqyluy: malmen (mәlmen emes) ; 

Jazyluy: ot+pen=otpen 

Oqyluy: otpen (ótpen emes);

(Eger ótpen dep jazu kerek bolsa e dybysyna Qaramastan dәiekshe qoiigha bolady. Yaghni, o’tpen ).

Jazyluy: murt+pen= murtpen

Oqyluy: múrtpen (mýrtpen emes);

Jazyluy: hilim+men=hilimmen

Oqyluy: ghylymmen (ghilimmen emes).

 

  • Jartylay dauysty dybystar (sany 2)

w (u)
y (i/y)

Týsinikteme: Búlar basqa dauysty dybystarmen bir buynda kelse dauyssyz, al, úqsas bir buynda basqa dauysty bolmasa dauysty dybys bolyp qoldanylady. Mysaly:

Oy-oy

Toy-toy

Taw-tau

Baw-bau

Búl sózderde U jәne IY dybystary dauyssyz ;

Qyin-qiyn

Tyim-tyiym

sw-su

Qw-qu

Búl sózderde U jәne Y dybystary dauysty.

 

  • Dauyssyz dybystar (sany 17)
Ýndi Úyan Qatan
m(m) b(b) p (p)
n(n) d(d) t(t)
ng(n) g(g) k(k)
l(l) h(gh) q(q)
r(r) z(z) s(s)
j(j) c(sh)

Týsinikteme: Búnda qazaq tilinde jii kezigetin Sh, Gh, J dybystaryna bir әripten berilse, NG dybysy xalqarada keninen qoldanylatyn  <<ng>>  qos tanbasymen berildi.

Qazaq tilinde bar dybystardy barynsha qosarlamau ýshin Sh dybysyna qosarlanghan <<sh>> digrafyn qoldanbadyq. Esesine, 1924 jyly Tóreqúlov úsynghan latyn әlippesi núsqasy boyynsha, Sh dybysy <<c>> tanbasymen berildi.         (Oghan qosa halyqaralyq dybystaluda s ding Sh bolyp oqylatyn kezderi bar. Mysaly: Social [soushl]. )

 

  • Kirme dybystar (sany 5)

Arab-Parsy, sonday-aq, Ors tilinen enip, әbden ornyqqan shinara dybystargha mýmkindik berildi. Qajetsiz dep tapqan jaghdayda, búl tanbalardy alfavitten alyp tastaugha da bolady.

kh(h) f(f)
ts(s) ch(ch)
v(v)

Sonymen, búl Alfavit 9 dauysty, 2 jartylay dauysty, 17 dauyssz, 5 kirme, jiyny 33 dybysty beyneleytin 26 tanba men 1 belgiden túrady.

Latyn- Qazaq әlippesine mysal:

Jasimda hilim bar dep eskermedim,

Paydasin kore tura teksermedim,

Erjetken song tuspedi wisima,

Qolimdi mezgilinen kec sermedim.

Abay Qunanbayuli

Bir Allaha syinip,

Kel, balalar, oqiliq,

Oqihandi kongilge,

Iqilaspen toqiliq.

Ibiray Altinsaryn

Baytúrsynovsha latyn әlpbiyining

ARTYQShYLYQTARY:

  • Qazaqtyng til zandylyqtaryn saqtaytyn Ahmet Baytúrsynovtyng emile erejesi arqyly qaptaghan qalyng apostroftar joghalady. Yqsham jazylady.
  • Qazaq dybystary tek bir әrippen tanbalanady.

Pernetaqtadaghy halyqaralyq latyn әripteri maksimaldy dengeyde qoldanylady.

Ári yqsham, әri tez, eng bastysy, әri últtyq әri halyqaralyq latyn tanbalarymen tanbalanghan әmbebap núsqa. Bastary bir qazaqngha simaghan últtyq jәne pernetaqtalyq jobany bir boyyna jinaghan әmbebap joba deuge bolady. 

Joba avtorlary: Talghar Dәlelghazy,  Bolatbek Kerim

Abai.kz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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