Júma, 1 Shilde 2022
Ádebiyet 8572 15 pikir 29 Qarasha, 2017 saghat 08:31

Abaydy qayta tanu haqynda...

Biz Abaydy qanshalyq tanyp jýrmiz? Shynymen Abaydy tanyp boldyq pa? Biz biletin Abay men biz bilmeytin Abaydyng arasy qanshalyq? Abay Semeydegi Ahmet Riza mediresede oqydy. Ol oqu orny Shyghystanu әleminde qomaqty enbekter jazghan Shahabauddin Bahauiddiynúly Marjaniyding (1818-1889) baghytyn ústandy. Jәdiyshiler din islam ilimimen qatar matematika, himiya, jaratylystanu, qoghamtanu, jaghyrafiya t.b dýniyelik bilimderdi iygere otyryp, dindi ghylym dәrejesine kóterdi, sóitip Allanyng jasyryp qoyghan shyndyghyn aqylmen tabudy úsyndy. /1.64-65b/

Abay onymen toqtaghan joq, ol arab, parsy, osmanlynyng eskishe týrki tilin jәne orys tilin, qazaqtyng eski tilin mengerip, sonymen birge Qúran, sýnne,usul, fiyh, aqida bilimderin jaqsy bildi, bilim Abaydyng ruhyna singen. Aytar sózin jýrekting sýzgisinen ótkizip, qaghazgha týsirgen әlemdik úly oishyl.

Liahy ilimder әueli adamnyng ruhyna sinedi, sosyn baryp ol tәnde (boyynda) kórinis beredi. (Qazaqtyng islamy osylay qalyptasqan bolatyn, keyin ókinishke oray әlsiredi). Auzynda qansha jerden ilimi bolyp, is-әreketinde imandylyq, mәdeniyettilik, izettilik, úyat, namys, jauapkershilik t.b qúndylyqtar bolmasa, ony kim deymiz? Demek bilim adam boyynda kórinui  kerek, sonda ghana ol shynayy bilimdi bolady.

Payghambarymyz turaly súraghada Aysha (r.a) anamyz, Alla elshisining minezi, is-әreketi Qúran demep pe edi? Abaydy basqanyng aitqany emes, ózining ólenderi men qara sózderine zer salyp, shamamyz kelgenshe zerdelsek. Abaydyng №7, №17,№19, №25, №31, №32, №43-shi qara sózderinde jas úrpaqty, jalpy qazaqty ghylym-bilimge shaqyrady, sonyng jolyn ýiretedi. Búl Abaydyng aghartushylyq, oishyldyq qyry, ol óz aldyna ýlken әngime.

Kórkem shygharmadaghy Abaydyng negizinde halyqtyng týsinigi qalyptasqany shyndyq. “Abay joly” romanyndaghy Abay bir ret te namaz oqymaydy, biz soghan qarap Abay namaz oqymady deytinder bar, sózimizding dәleldi boluy ýshin “Abay joly” roman-epopeyasynan ýzindi keltireyik:

“Abay: -E, nemene, búl ne bar molla-qojang jinalyp, meni Mekege jibergeli jatyrsyndar ma? Álde “basy namazgha tiygen joq edi, Qúday jolyna salayyq, sauap alayyq” dep jýrsinder me? - dedi”./№4 tom, 321 bet./

Al Abaydyng №12, №13, №16, №27, №28, №34,№35, №38, №45-shi qara sózining barlyghy onyng namazda tereng oigha shomyp, Allagha jaqyn bolghanynyn  aighaghy. Ony tek kókirek kózi ashylghandar sezedi. Biz taghy da romangha kezek bersek: “Al Dәrmen men Maghash, Kәkitaylar ózderi sýisingen oilaryn asha almasa da, Abay aitqan jaylargha sonshalyq yntygha qyzyghyp tyndaydy. Abay әli sóilep otyr.

-Hatta, ol filosof qúran ishinde adam ilanghysyz ertegiler de bar, ghylym, farasat bilgen sau aqyldy adamdar ilanbaytyn “jyn, siqyr” siyaqtylargha balasha ilanu da bar deydi. Eske alynyzdarshy? “Álem tәrakәifa faghghala rabbukә by ashabili fiyl” degen ayat qanday edi? Yaghni, “Tәniri iyege kýfirlik keltirgendikten fili qauymyna qarsy, ghajayyp qústar kelip, әr adamnyng balasyna tәnirining qahar tastaryn tastap óltirgeni kәni!” deydi ghoy qúranda. Osyghan qalay lianugha bolady? Yaki, jәne de kýndegi bes uaqyt namazda, myna Kókbay oqyp jýretin qúran dúghalyghy bar. “Qúl aghuzi birabbil falaq minashәrrima halaqa, uәminshary nәffәsәty fil ghuqad” deydi. Yaghni, “rabbynnan saqta” dep súra, siqyrshy kempirding shýbirekke týiip, әfsun oqyp siqyrlap tastaytyn pәleketinen saqta dep tile!” deydi. Búl filosof aitqanday, ózimiz osy kýnde ilanbaytyn, baqsy-qúshnashtyng sandyraghyna ilanghandyqty kórsetedi emes pe? Mine,“haqikat” dep jýrgenimizding keybiri bara-bara osylay oilay bersek, siyrqúiymshaqtap baryp, әldene bop ketetini de bar!-dep kýlip toqtady.

Jas dostarynyng kóbi Abaymen qosa kýldi, Kókbay búdan arygha shyday almay, tysqa qaray tartty. /№3 tom.30-31better./

Áriyne, biz qazaqtyng dara talantty jazushysyn jamandaudan aulaqpyz, oghan zaman kinәli, ol zamanda “saptayaqpen as iship, sabyna qarauyl qoyghan” ker zamandaghy tuyndy ekeni barshagha ayan. Bizding oiymyz Abaydyng әkesi Qúnanbaydy qayta tanyghanymyz siyaqty Abaydy qayta tanysaq.

Biz Abaydy tanu ýshin alysqa barmay-aq, Abay atamyzdyng №38 qara sózin birge taldap kórsek:

“Ey, jýregimning quaty, perzentterim!” -, dep Abay atamyz sózin sabaqtaydy: “Áueli adam bir nәrseni jaqsy kórui kerek, jaqsy kóru ýshin adamda adamgershilik, aqyl, ghylym boluy shart. Al búlargha jetu ýshin adam boyynda jaqsy qasiyettermen birge deni sau bolu. Búghan taghy ortanyn(ot basy, qogham, dos) әserin qosady. Adamnyng ghylym-bilimge mahabbaty oyansa, sol adam bolady, sodan song Allany tanidy, ózin tanidy, ainalasyn tanidy, jaqsy men jamandy ajyratady. Áueli balany bastan dúrys tәrbiyeleu kerek, bolmasa ol bala jarym adamgha, jarym músylmangha ainalady. Onday baladan kemel adam shyqpaydy. Alla Haqiqat, oghan tek adam shynaylyqpen jaqyndaydy. Adam ghylymy-bilimi arqyly әr nәrsening ishki syryn biluge, haqiqatqa, shyndyqqa úmtyluy kerek. Ghylym Allanyng bir sipaty әitse ghalym adam Allagha ghashyq boluy kerek, shynayy ghylymdy izdegen adam dýniye-mýlik, mansaptan, aqshadan boyyn aulaq ústay alady, sonda ghana ol shyn ghalymgha ainalady. Eger ghalym ataq-abyroy, mal tappaq bolsa, onyng ghylymy shala, adamgershiligi de joq bolady. Adamdy ataq pen abyroy, mal ózi izdep tapsa, onda ol adamdyghyna ziyan emes. “Allany sýiip, shyndyqty bilmek bolsang jaqsylap tynda”,- dep Abay atamyz sózin janarta jalghaydy. “Iman - degenimiz tek senim ghana emes dep imannyng alghashqy ýsh shartyn  eske salady, sen iman keltirseng ózing ýshin keltiresin, iman keltirmeseng de Alla taghalada eshbir kemshilik joq. Alla bizge múqtaj emes, biz Allagha múqtajbyz. Ózindi Allanyng qúly dep bilip, sol jolda jýr.

Siz Allanyng úly esimderi men sipattaryna iman keltiresiz, Onyng “Tiri, Ghylym, Qúdiret, Kórushi, Bilushi, Qalaushy, Sóileushi, Boldyrushy” /2./ sipattary bar, Alla bizdi ózining osy segiz sipatymen jaratqan, onda biz Alladan bet búryp basqa qanday joldy tandaymyz, qanday músylman bolamyz? Jaratushynyng kórkem esimderin jaqsylap maghynasyn bilmesek, Allany dúrys tany almaymyz. Áriyne, Allany biz azdap bilsek te jetip jatyr, Allany tolyq tanu, týgelimen bilu esh mýmkin emes, Allanyng zaty túrmaq, hiykimetine eshbir ghalym-ghúlamanyng aqyly jetpeydi. Alla taghala ólsheusiz, bizding aqylymyz ólsheuli, әitse ólsheuli men ólsheusizdi qaytip ólsheymiz? Kitaptarda Alla taghalanyng biz biletin segiz sipaty men toqsan toghyz týrli kórkem esimderi aitylady, al biz bilmeytin Alla taghalanyng sansyz esimderi bar, ghalamnyng ishinde ghalamdar bar shyghar. Isin kórde isteushini tany.“Allanyng “Kórushi, Bilushi, Qalaushy, Sóileushi, Boldyrushy” sipattary Ózining “Ghylym men Qúdiret” sipatyn bizge ashyqtap týsindiredi, sen aspangha qara, jerge qara, ortasyndaghylargha qara, Onyng jaratqan әrbir zaty hikmetpen, sheber ornalastyrlyghan, oghan siz ben bizding aqylymyz jetpeydi. Adamgha Alla taghala aqyl, qayrat, kýsh berip, ózine boysúnudy búiyrdy. Bolmasa adasady. Allanyng Raqyman(Raqymdy), Rahiym(Qayyrymdy),Ghafur(Keshirimdi),Uadud(Aqpeyil), Hafiyz(Saqtaushy),

Sattar(Ayypty jabushy), Razzaq(Ryzdyq berushi), Nafiygh(Napaqa berushi), Uakiyl(Qorghashy), Latiyf(Iltipatty) /2./ esimderin úlyqtap Alla taghalnyng búl ghalamdy aqyl jetpeytin etip jaratqan. Mysalgha: jansyz zattardan(sudan, shópten) payda alatyn tirshilik iyesi etip hayuandy jaratty, al adamgha sol hayuandy baqtyryp, odan alghan paydasyn (ony jeudi, minudi) hiyamette súralmaytyn etip jaratty. Adam balasy basqa ýlkendi-kishli isteri ýshin maqsharda jauap beredi, onyng ózi Allanyng bizdi jaqsy kórgendigi, әdildigi. Alla taghalanyng adamdy erekshe ilimimen jaratqan, adam dene bitimine bir-birlep zer sala qaraydy, dene mýshelerimizding sonshama ýilesimmen, kemel jaratylghanyna tanghalady. Jartushynyng adamgha bergen nyghmetterin sanap tausa almaysyn, jer betine Alla taghala adam ýshin qisapsyz dastarhan jayyp qoyghan, olar esh tausylmaydy, jerding betinde adamnyng meniki deytin eshtenesi joq bәri Allaniki. Al ghylymdy mengerip, óner tapsan, janalyq ashsang taghy sol Allanyng bergen aqylymen, densaulyghymen, kýshimen taptyn. “Alla bizdi jaqsy kórgen song osynyng bәrin berdi, biz de Allany jaqsy kóruimiz, qúlshylyq jasaumyz paryz”,- deydi hakim Abay. Taghy bir tyng taqyrypty Abay atamyz bylay bastaydy: “Alla taghalanyng pendelerine salghan joly qanday? Ony kóbi bilmeydi. Alla taghala adamgha tereng oilan deydi. “Eger sen Allany sýisen, Ol da seni sýiedi. Adamdargha jaqsylyq jasa, óitkeni Alla jaqsylyq jasaushyny jaqsy kóredi. Allagha iman keltirip, jaqsy ister isteytin adam jәnatqa barady. Kimning úyaty joq bolsa, onyng imany joq. Kim әdiletsiz bolsa, sol imansyz”- degen ayat-hadistermen bastap, Qúrannyng ishi tolghan izgilik, adamdy tek jalang iman qútqarmaydy, sol imanyng ón boyynnan kórinsin,- deydi ghúlama. Adam әr kez Allagha shýkirin, raqmetin aitsa, onda ol jaqsy adam, sodan onyng iman kýsheyedi. Sen әu basta talaptanyp músylman bolasyn, sodan song adam bolasyn, solay shynshyl, izigilik jolyndaghy danalyqa talpynasyn.

Alla o bastan adamdy ghylymgha qúshtar, raqymdy, әdiletti etip jaratqan, al endi osy qasiyetterdi ary qaray damytu ne sóndiru әr adamnyng óz isi. Osy  qasiyetterdi kemeline jetkizgenning eng myqtysy payghambar, sodan song әuliye, odan song hakim, eng songhysy tolyq músylman”,- dep topshylaydy dana Abay. “Payghambar men Áuliyelerning jýrek kózi ashylghan Allanyng shynayy qúldary, olar Allagha shyn ghashyq bolghandar-dýniyede tek aqretin oilaghandar. Al Hakimder bolsa, dýniyelik isterdi aqrettik iske ainaldyrghandar, bәri bir Allany úlyqtaydy. Olarda nәpsi degen bolmaydy. Adam pendesining eng songhy ruhany biyik dәrejesi әuliyelik dep baghamdasaq, әuliyening bәri dýniyeni tәrki etti desek, sonda maldy kim baghady, dúshpandy kim toqtatady, kiyimdi kim toqidy, astyqty kim egedi, Allanyng pendeleri ýshin jaratqan qazynalaryn kim jinaydy?”- dep shekten shyqpaudy aitady. “Áriyne, kýnәdan tiylghan týrde haram, makruh jemey, taza dýnie tap, Allagha shýkir et”-, dep sózin týiedi Abay. “Allagha baylan da hәreket et, sebebin jasa, sonda elge jem bolmaysyn”. “Endi ne músylman emes, ne kәpir emes orta jolda jýrsen, sol jaman”,- dep jiyirkenedi. “Áuliyelerding barlyghyn dýniyeden bezgen dep aita almaymyz, naghyz әuliye, ol dýniyeni qolynda ústap túrsa da, jýregi tek Alla dep soghady”. Syrty halyqpen, ishi Haqpen bolghandar naghyz kemel adamdar. Adamdy búzatyn nәrse, ol - adasushylyq, bilimsizdik, nadandyq, jat toptyng artynan ketu solay tariyhqa kiru. Bilim syrtqy jәne ishki bilim bolyp bólinedi. Syrtqy bilimdi ústanghandar tek aqylymen júmys jasaydy, olar ghalym atanady, әrbir ghalym hakim emes, al әrbir hakim ol ghalym. Hakimder tek óz ruhyn, jýregin tyndaydy, olardyng aqyly soghan baghynady, olar adaspaydy.

Iman eki týrli bolady, biri bireuge erip, uaghyz tyndap, kitap oqyp jetken naqyly iman bolsa, endi biri, ol hakimderding imany, ol (Yaqiyn), shynayy tereng oimen, jýrekting kózimen ózi Haqty tanyghan ghaqly iman. Adamnyng jaqsysy adamgha payda keltirgen adam” dep Payghambarymyzdyng hadiysimen sózin túzdyqtaghan Abay, “ Zaman ózgeredi, biraq qaghidalar ózgeremeydi. Mening zamanymnyng moldalary hakimderge dúshpan”,“ moldalar bilimsiz, olar arab, parsydan azdap til syndyrsa, sosyn birli jarym, bolymsyz sóz jattap, shala bilgenine mәz bolyp, elge paydasy tiymek túrmaq, eldi shatastyryp bitiredi”,- dep ashynady. “Olardyng bilimi tek birdi-ekili, auzynda ghana, ruhyna bilim sinbegen, naghyz búzyqtar sol. Olar shyn sózge or qazady, al shyn sóz ol Allanki, olar sonda kimder?”,- dep sózin sabaqtaydy. “Týrkiyada eski formattaghy medreseler zamangha qaray janartylyp, әskery mektep, týrli dýniyelik bilimder qosa oqylatyn meketep bolghan. Al myna moldalar sol bayaghy eski medresede oqyghan, olar ghylymdy paydasyz kóredi, býgingi tirshilik dýniyesinde nadan, essizge ainalady, ne olardyng tirlikke beyimi joq, solay olar el aldaudan basqagha jaramaydy, olardyng bilimi shynayy bolmaghasyn, jýrekten shyqpaydy, onday bilimning adamgha esh paydasy bolmaydy. Olardyng aqylyn jónge salatyn Allanyng núry jýreginde joq, endi tirshilikke beyimi bolmaghasyn, kedey bolady, solay joqshylyq adamdy hayuandandyryp jiberedi”,- dep sózin týiindeydi oishyl Abay. Dýnie ghylymyn bilmeu ol ziyandy, ol Qúranda sógilgen. “Biz әriyne ghylymdy malgha sat demeymiz, ghylym arqyly óner tauyp, kәsipten, sonda mal ózi izdeydi”,- deydi. Biraq bizding ónerimiz sharighattyng zanyna sәikes bolsyn, әr kez Allanyng kórip túrghanyn sezine bilu kerek. Sonymen birge óz zamanynyng ishandaryn synaydy, olardyng bilimsizdigin algha tartady, solay ózderinshe tarihat qalyptastyrghanyna jany ashidy. Olardyng tek el aldap jýrgenine ókinedi. Alla joly sheksiz, onyng eshkim týbine jetpeydi, kimde-kim sol jolgha jýrudi ózine shart etse, ol taza músylman, tolyq adam delinedi. Dýnie qusang óz paydana, eger sol dýniyenmen, aqylynmen adamgha kómek bersen, pendege jaqsylyq jasau maqsatynda bolsang ol Qúday joly. Ókinishe oray, kóp adamnyng maqsaty basqa, tek ózin oilaydy, olar sәndene kiyinip, qúr maqtanady, odan ne shyqty? Maqtanshaq adam ol ishitar, kýnshil bolady. Alla taghala sening syrtyna qaramaydy, jýregine qaraydy, eger adam jamanshylyqtyng arasyna jýrip ózin taza ústay alsa ol adam, al eger ózin basqalardan artyq sanasa onda onyng qúryghany, al endi elge qastyq jasau, basqalardy qorlau ol naghyz hayuandyq. Barlyq adam balasyn qor qylatyn ýsh nәrse: nadandyq(hayuandyq), erinshektik(jigersizdik, úyatsyzdyq, kedeylik), zalymdyq(jyrtqysh hayuandyq). Qúday taghala barlyq nәrseni sebepsiz jaratpady, әri onyng bәrin bir hikmetpen jaratty, demek, nadandyqtan qútylugha talaptanudy, talaptanugha niyet etudi sebep etti.  Adam bilimi arqyly tura jolgha týsedi, mine osylay bәrin Alla bir-birine baylaghan, biz sony týsinsek. Al siz namaz oqugha niyet ettiniz, búl sizding ishki imanynyzdan, onyng syrtqy kórinisi tolyq dәret alu, namazgha túru, al endi siz namazda Allany kórip túrmyn, ne Alla meni kórip túr dep sezine alsang ol sening ishki imanynnan. “Eger kýzetshi tek oyau túrmyn dep kýzetip túrghan nәrsesin bilmese, onyng nesi kýzet?”,- dep mysal beredi. Sóz sonynda Abay atamyz dәretten bastap, namyzdyng ishi men syrtyna óte jinishkelikpen toqtalady. Namazdaghy birinshi sәjde ol sening jerden jaralghanndy rastauyn, ekinshi sәjde sol qara jerge qaytatynyna maqúldyq tanytqanyn, al ortadaghy bas kótergening sening qayta tirilip súraqqa jauap beretinindi qostaghanyn. “Osy sózderden ghibarat aldynyz ba?”,- dep súraq bere sózin tamamdaydy./3./

Al Abay atamyzdyng Qalghan 30 sózi derlik, Qazaq psihologiyasy men qoghamyndaghy kemshilikterdi saralay taldaydy jәne ony sheshuding jolyn islamdyq qúndylyqtardy “tez” etip soghan salyp týzeuge shaqyrady.

 

Paydalanghan әdebiyetter:

  1. Qydyrbek Álqojaev “Abay estetikasy jәne islam” An-Arys baspasy, Almaty 2007jyl
  2. Sәduaqas Ermatúly Ermatov (orys tilinen audarghan) “Allanyng 99 ghajayy esimi” merey baspasy, Almaty, 2006 jyl
  3. Akbar majiyt, Su jou shoing “Abay aqyliyalary” QHR últtar baspasy, Beyjin.1995 jyl
  4. Múhtar Áuezov “Abay joly” №3,4 tom, Jazushy baspasy, Almaty 2013jyl

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