Dýisenbi, 26 Qyrkýiek 2022
Ózgeler 3678 8 pikir 19 Sәuir, 2021 saghat 14:17

Bosqyndyq ómir. Otansyz taghdyr

Basy: Oralghandar eli – Izraili

Tarihshylar evreylerdi Rim imperiyasynyng qatygez sayasatynyng kesirinen óz Otanyn tastap ketuge mәjbýr boldy desedi. Biraq múnday kózqarasta belgili bir jansaqtyq bar siyaqty. Áriyne, eshbir últ kir juyp, kindik kesken qasiyetti  mekeninen onayshylyqqa qol ýzbesi anyq. Evreylerding Palestinadan ketuining basty sebebi Rim imperiyasynyng taghylyq sayasatynan bolghandyghy dausyz. Biraq, sonau yqylym zamandaghy Dәuit, Sýleymen patshalar dәuirinde-aq  evreyler basqa jerlerge qonys audaryp, jat elderdi panalay bastaghan bolatyn. Ol kezde kóptegen evrey saudagerleri sauda-sattyqtyng qajettiligine baylanysty Mysyrgha, Siriyagha qonys audarghan edi. Al evreylerding tolyghymen óz Otanyn tastap shyghuy jat elderding shapqynshylyghynyng saldary bolatyn.  Assiriyanyng Izrailidi talqandauynan bastap «Vavilon qúldyghy», oghan jalghasqan Rim imperiyasynyng ýstemdigi olardyng otansyz bosqyndargha ainaluynyng basty sebep ekeni dausyz.

Jana eranyng 70-jyldaryndaghy sanaqtargha qaraghanda, Palestinada 3 mln evreyding ómir sýrgeni aitylady. Mysyrda, Siriyada, kishi Aziya men Mesopotamiyada jiyny 1 mln-day evrey ómir sýripti. Al kýlli әlemde 8 mln-day evrey bolghan desedi. Sol dәuirde búl tym qomaqty jan sany. Rim imperiyasy Bar-Kohba kóterilisin taghylyqpen janyshtaghannan keyin tiri qalghan evreyler óz Otanyn tastap, әlemning týkpir-týkpirine bas saughalap ketuge mәjbýr boldy. Sodan bastap Palestinanyng tarihy evrey halqymen baylanysty bolghan joq. Mysyrgha, Siriyagha, kishi Aziya men Mesopotamiyagha bosyp barghan evreyler birtindep Jerorta tenizining jaghalauyndaghy elderge qonystana bastady. Odan әri batys Europagha da bas saughalap bardy. Olar aldymen Europa, Aziya, Afrika – ýsh qúrlyqqa qonystandy da, birtindep әlemning týkpir-týkpirine shashyray qonystandy.

Jana eranyng 7-ghasyrynda Islam dinining keng taraluymen Arab imperiyasy dәuren sýrip, onyng territoriyasy batys Aziya, soltýstik Afrika jәne Europadaghy Ispaniyagha deyin keneydi. Evreyler Islam dinin qabyldaghysy kelmedi. Sol sebepti Múhammed Payghambardyng jәne odan keyingi arab halifalarynyng evreylerge yqylasy aughan joq. Soghan qaramastan, evreyler batys Europadaghy Hristiandar ýstemdik etken elderge qaraghanda әldeqayda erkin, baquatty ghúmyr keshti. Mysaly Mesopotamiyada evreyler óz dinderin erkin uaghyzdap, ghibadathanalar túrghyzdy. Qalaghan mekenderine qonystanyp, óz kәsipterimen ainalysty. Tipti, ordada joghary shendi mansap alghandar da boldy. HII ghasyrgha kelgende Palestinanyng ózinde 40 mynday evrey, jiyrma ghibadathana, ondaghan diny medreseler boldy. Ispaniyany músylmandar biylegen dәuirde evreyler biylikke senimdi halyqtar retinde tanylyp, erekshe qamqorlyqtargha bólendi. Sebebi,  Qasiyetti Islam diny senimge zorlyq jasaudy jat kóredi. Músylmandardyng sharapatynyng arqasynda arabtardyng mәdeniyet ortalyghy sanalatyn Kordobada evrey últynyng ókilderi aitarlyqtay kóp boldy. Jәne olardyng kóptegen mektep-medreseleri boy kóterdi. Olardyng arasynan sandaghan evrey filosoftary, matematikteri, til ghalymdary, medisina ghalymdary jәne diny ghúlamalar ósip jetildi. Evreylerding arasynan әkimshilik qúrlymdarda joghary shendi mansaptylar, tipti uәzirler men әskery qolbasylar da boldy. Osy dәuirde evreylerding aqyl-parasaty jarqyray kórindi. Ásirese, mәdeniyetke bolghan ýlesi erekshe qomaqty edi. Múny bir qyrynan olardyng batys pen shyghysty birdey sharlap, erkin kezip jýretin jihangezdigining paydasy dese de bolady, olar sol arqyly batys pen shyghystyng mәdeniyetin toghystyrushy rólin atqardy. Olar arab elderining tandauly tuyndylaryn aldymen irbit tiline audaryp, odan son, hristiandar elindegi evreyler ony latyn tiline audaryp otyrdy. Sóitip, evreyler arab mәdeniyetin, shyghys mәdeniyetin jәne grek mәdeniyetin salystyrmaly týrde qaranghy, mesheu, Hristian dinindegi batys Europagha taratyp, Europanyng damuyna iygi yqpal jasap otyrdy.

Músylman elderindegi evreylermen salystyrghanda batys Europadaghy elderde ómir sýretin evreylerding taghydyry tym ayanyshty boldy. Evreyler batys Europagha ayaq basqan kýnnen bastap, shet-shegi joq qorlau men qudalaugha úshyrady. Tipti búl ónir jaratylysynan-aq evreylerge qany qas, olargha qarsy qughyn men sýrginning mekenine ainalghanday kórinetin. Evreyler ne sebepti orta ghasyrda Europalyqtardyng qyryna ilinip, qughyngha týsedi? Búl adamnyng aqyly jetpeytin hiyqmetke toly qúbylys. Qúdaydyng pendesi, adamnyng balasy ne sebepti bir-birine óshtik pen qastyq saylaugha tiyis? Jýzdegen jyldardan beri ghylymy ortada ghalymdardyng kózqarasy bir arnagha toghysqan emes. Jalpylay qaraghanda, orta ghasyrdaghy Europanyng evreylerge qarsy óshpendiligining tarihi, dini, mәdeniyet jәne ekonomikalyq jaqtaghy sebepteri boluy mýmkin. Múnyng ishinde  dindik mәdeniyet eng basty sebep deuge bolady. Tarihy túrghydan qaraghanda orta ghasyrdaghy Europa Rim imperiyasynyng evreylerge qaratqan óshpendiligi men qudalauynyng tarihy jalghasy. Jana eranyng 4-ghasyrynda Hristian dinin alghash qabyldaghan Konstantinopoliding imperatory evreylerdi tejeytin alghashqy jarlyghyn shyghardy. Onda: «Evreyler ózderining diny senimin ózgertuge bolmaydy jәne basqalardyng da Hristian dinin qabyldauyna kedergi keltiruge haqysy joq. Olay bolghan jaghdayda -ólim jazasyna kesiledi. Evreylerding Hristian dinindegilermen nekelesuine, bir dastarqanda otyryp tamaq ishuine, jana evrey ghibadathanalaryn saluyna , eski ýlyerin jóndep, qalpyna keltiruine bolmaydy. Evreyler qúl iyelenuine, armiya qatarynda qyzmet etuine tyiym salynady. Olar medisina, dәri jasau qatarly kәsippen ainalysuyna rúqsat joq. Olar jat dindegilermen qatardaghy azamattar siyaqty sot isterinde «senimdi kuәger» bolugha tolymdylyghy joq» degen qorlau, kemsitu sipatyndaghy kóptegen tarmaqtardan túratyn. Atalghan jarlyqtaghy osy tarmaqtardy keyin kele Europa elderining týgelge juyghy múra etip qaldyryp, odan beter kýsheytip jiberdi.

Dini, mәdeny sebepterge kelsek, eng aldymen, evreylerding ata-babasy Isa Payghambardy óltirgen qúndyger bolyp shyghady. Hristiandardyng tanym-týsiniginshe, Isa әlemdi qútqarushy Allanyng elshisi. Qúdaydyng núrynan jaralghan balasy. Ony evreylerding ata-babasy krestke shegelep, azaptap óltirgen. Bibliyanyng «Taurat pen Injilding tolyq jinaghyndaghy» 4 kiyeli kitaptyng ishindegi «Evangeliyede» jazyluynsha Isa Yahudy dinining dәstýrli ústanymyna qarsy shyghyp, Músagha týsken Taurattaghy ósiyetterdi ózgertkisi kelgen. Ol tipti ózin erekshe qúdiret iyesine balap, eger adamdar qasiyetti saraydy qiratar bolsa, ol ýsh kýn ishinde ol saraydy qaytadan qalpyna keltiruge qabiletti ekendigin aitady. Isanyng әrbir isteri evreylerding qyzghanyshyn qozghaghan. IYerusalimdegi Yahudy ravvinderi Isany ústap, Rim gubernatory Pilatqa tapsyryp, onyng krestke shegelep óltiruine sebepker bolghan. «Evangeliyede» evreylerding ózderi jәne olardyng úrpaqtaryna deyin Isanyng ólimine qúndyger ekendigi jazylghan desedi. Sol sebepti Hristiandar evreylerdi Tәnirding jazuyna qarsy kelip, keshirilmes qylmys jasaghandardyng sanatyna jatqyzady. Keyin kele ishinara Hristian dindarlary Isa óltirilgennen keyingi evreyler dәl sol Isany satyp ketken mýnafyq Taytanostyng úrpaqtary eken degen sәuegeylik pen ósek taratyp evreylerge degen óshpendilikting otyn odan beter ýrley týsti. Búl qisyngha sensek, evreyler Hristiandardyng aldyndaghy keshirilmes kýnaharlar sanalady. Sol sebepti olardyng kózin qúrtqanda ghana kegi tarqamaq. Hristian ilimine qaraghanda, qasiyetti Qúran Isa Payghambardyng ólimin әdil tarazylaghandyghyn astyn syza otyryp ashyq dәripteuge tispiz.

Europanyng feodaldyq qoghamy Europagha auyp barghan ghúndar tarapynan kýiretilgen Batys Rim imperiyasynyng  qiraghan júrtynda qayta týlegen memleketter bolatyn. Europalyq tarihshylar ghúndardyng mәdeniyet óresi Rimdikterden kósh keyin bolghandyqtan, olar qúrghan feodaldyq memleketter Rimdikterding adamzat ýshin jasaghan ozyq mәdeny múralaryn qabyldamay, Hristiandyq diny ajyrghygha múragerlik etip, sonyng qúlyna ainaldy dep sanaydy. Shyndap kelgende, Hristian ilim men ghúndardyng ýsh qaynasa, sorpasy qosylmaydy. Ghúndar tәnirge tabynatyn kóshpendi úlys. Olardyng qatysuynsyz-aq Hristan dini birneshe ghasyrdyng ishinde-aq  kýlli Europagha tarap ýlgerdi. Shirkeuler barlyq eldi-mekenderde boy kóterdi. Rimde boy kótergen Vatikandaghy katolik shirkeui jәne Rim Papasy Europada tendessiz ruhany bedelge ie boldy. Shirkeu Injildi eshqanday shek keltiruge bolmaytyn talassyz aqiqat sanaydy jәne ol barlyq katolik dindarlarynyng is-әreketining qúbylanamasy sanalady.  Sol sebepti de Hristian dinin qabyldaghan barlyq qarasha halyq Hristiandyng evreyler jónindegi aitqandaryn shýbәsiz qabyldap, qaltqysyz senedi. Olar Isany óltirgen evreylerdi shirkeu biyligining aituymen albastylar sanatynda qabyldady. Búdan tys,  Hristian dini bir kezdegi Yahudy dininen bólinip shyqqan, sonyng bir tarmaghy degen úghym da Hristian dindarlary ýshin qabyldaugha auyr, shyndyqqa say kelmeytin sandyraq sanalady. Álemdegi tendessiz aqiqat óz qolymyzda dep oilaytyn Vatikan shirkeui ýshin Hristian dini Yahudy dinining qol balasy degen týsinik olardy evreylerding ayaghyna jyghyp berumen birdey. Sol sebepti olar Taurattyq ilimdi ústanushylardyng kózin qúrtyp, ózderi ghana asyl dinning bastauynda túrmaq boldy.

Hristiandardyng dәripteuinshe evreyler Qúdaydyng qarghysyna úshyraghan «albasty ibilister» bolghandyqtan olargha tejeu salu, qorlau men kemsitu tabighy nәrse. Hristian biyleushileri evreylerding jer iyelenuine jol bermeytin. Tipti, olardyng ónerkәsip jәne auylsharuashylyghymen ainalysuyna da tejem saldy. Endi evreylerge tek qana saudamen ainalysugha, odan qalsa, joghary ósimdi qaryz beruden basqa ómir sýretin jol qalmaghan bolatyn. Hristiandar Islam dinindegiler siyaqty óz ýmbetterine ósimmen kýn kóruge tyiym salatyndyqtan, olar aqsha kapitalymen ainalyspaytyn. Al ekonomikanyng damu zany qarjylyq qoldaudan qol ýze almaytyn bolghandyqtan biyleushiler evreylerge osynday keshirilmes kýnәgha batatyn tirlikpen ainalysugha jol qoyyp edi.  Kәsipkerlik salalaryndaghy shekteuler men ózderining erekshe qarym-qabiletining arqasynda evreyler tabysty saudager, esepqor bankir jәne ashkóz ósimqorlargha ainaldy. Olardyng qolyna toptalghan aqsha kapitaly men qisapsyz baylyq ainalyp kelip, «asa baylyq jangha qas»-degendey, olargha jana qauip-qaterler men baqytsyzdyq әkeldi. Dinbasylary, әskery shonjarlar, tipti, patshalargha deyin aqsha men baylyqty susha sapyryp  nemese  tynymsyz joryqtargha attanatyn bolghandyqtan, ýnemi qazynasy qaghylyp, evreylerding boryshkerlerine ainalatyn. Búl ainalyp kelip, ósimqor evreylerge degen óshpendilikti ýdete týsetin. Sondyqtan, Europadaghy memleketter nemese jergilikti biyleushiler esebin tauyp, evreylerdi tonaudy әdetke ainaldyrdy. Osy arqyly olar evreyding aldyndaghy boryshtan qútylady jәne óz jan-dýniyesindegi qyzghanysh otyn sóndiruge sebep tabady.  Múnday bassyzdyqqa barugha olar tipti de qinalmaydy. Ol ýshin qisynyn tauyp, bir japyraq jarlyq shygharsa, jetip jatyr. Sebebi, evreyler qansha jerden bay bolghanymen, zang jýzinde olardyng qoghamdyq orny men qúqytqtary mýlde qorghalmaytyn. Yahudy dininen tysqary qarasha halyq ta evrey saudagerleri men ósimqorlarynyng qúrbanyna ainalatyn.  Olardyng evreylerge qaratylghan óshpendiligi biyleushilerden asyp týspese, kem emes edi. Olardyng evreylerge kózqarasy Shekspirding «Venesiya saudagerindegi» somdalatyn Sheyloktyng obrazynan paryqty emes bolatyn. Úly Shekspirding ózi  evreylerdi ashkóz, bezbýirek, boryshkerlerding etinen et kesip alugha tayynbaytyn qatygez qaraqshy beynesinde elestetken son, qatardaghy tobyrdyng olar turaly ne oilaytyndyghy beseneden belgilitúghyn.  Nadandyq pen diny synarjaqtylyqtyng kesirinen adamdar óz baqytsyzdyghy men kedeyligine evreylerdi kinәlap, aq-qarany aiyrmastan, ishtegi barlyq ashu-yzasy men ashy zapyranyn  evreylerge tógip, óshin solardan alatyn. Sol sebepti de orta ghasyrdaghy evreylerdi qughyn-sýrginge salu tútastay halyqtyq sipat aldy. Biraq Europadaghy elderding biyleushileri bir qyrynan evreylerdi qudalasa, taghy bir qyrynan olargha múqtaj boldy. Sebebi, evreyler kәsipkerlikting maytalman sheberleri bolghandyqtan, memlekettik qazynalyq kiristing asa manyzdy qaynar kózi sanalatyn. Bylaysha aitqanda, belsendi salyq tóleushiler edi. Olar keyde evreylerdi qyryna alyp, qudalaytyn. Keyde olardyng ayaghyna bas úryp, investor retinde qayta shaqyratyn. Mysalgha, jana eranyng 1182 jyldan 1321 jylgha deyingi aralyqta Fransiya evreylerdi tórt ret qughyngha týsirip, tórt ret qayta shaqyrdy. Evreylerding Angliyada qonystanghanynyng nebәri eki jýz jyldyq tarihynda 1066 jylghy Normandyq basyp aludan bastap, 1290 jylghy Eduard I evreylerdi qudalau jónindegi jarlyghy jariyalanghangha deyin 16 000 evrey Angliyadan ketip, olardyng barlyq mýlki koroliding qolynda qaldy.

Hristian iliminde evreyler sau denege shyqqan óspe siyaqty. Óspeni ota jasap, kesip tastaudan búryn, óspening taraluyn boldyrmau kerek dep esepteytin. Sol sebepti әr memlekettegi evreyler ýlken qalalarda arnayy oqshaulanghan aimaqtarda ghana túrugha rúqsat etildi. «Oqshaulanghan aimaq» úghymy jana eranyng 1516-jyldan bastap qoldanysqa endi. Osy jyly Venesiya Respublikasy  óz aumaghynda túratyn evreylerdi qughyndap, arnayy oqshaulanghan aimaqqa ornalastyrdy. «Oqshaulanghan qala»  úghymy sodan bastap evreyler qonystanghan aumaqtyng auyspaly maghynadaghy atauyna ainaldy.

Oqshaulanghan qalalardyng óz qorghanys-qamaldary bolyp, basqa әlemnen oqshaulanumen birge qorghanystyq róldi de atqardy. Evreyler osy qamaldardyng ishinde óz tirlikterimen ainalysyp, mýmkindiginshe qamaldan qargha adym úzap shyqpaugha tyrysatyn. Ásirese, Hristiandardyng merekesinde nemese qoghamdyq tolqular kezinde qamaldyng qaqpasy tars bekitilip, adam balasy qamaldan attap shyqpaytyn. Ondaghy maqsaty kózine qan tolghan Hristian muritteri pәle izdep, janjal shygharyp, qantógis jasamau ýshin solay jasalatyn. Árbir oqshaulanghan qamaldar syrt әlemmen baylanysy joq shaghyn memleketterge úqsaytyn. Olardyng óz avtonomiyasy bar, óz kósemderi bar. Óz sudiyalary Yahudy dinining sharighattarymen eldi basqaryp, týrlishe dau-sharalargha tórelik aitatyn. Yahudiylerding ghibadathanalary men mektep-medreseleri oqshaulanghan qamal tirligining ózegi sanalatyn. Búdan tys, evreylerding ózindik sot jýiesi men derbes basqaru qúrylymdary da boldy. Qamaldyng ishinde evreylerding monshalary, mal soyatyn qasaphanalary, qonaq ýileri, qaytys bolghandardy jerleytin qabirstandary, tipti, arnayy týrmeleri de boldy. Kólemdi oqshau-qamaldarda kóbinde 12 biyden túratyn arnayy kenes biylik jýrgizetin. Óz erejelerine say 12 biyding ishinde bireui mindetti týrde Yahudy ravvinderinen saylanatyn. Evreylerding oqshaulanuy jәne arnayy qamaldargha bekinui ózderining qalauymen de jasalatyn. Evreyler ózderin Tәnirding sýigen qúly sanaytyndyqtan, jat dindegilermen aralasyp ketudi qalamaytyn. Sol sebepti olar belgili dәrejede oqshaulanghan qamaldardy Tәnirding ózderine jasaghan syiy retinde de qabyldady. Oqshaulanghan qamaldar evreylerdi syrtqy әlemnen bólip tastaghanymen, qamaldyng ishindegi evreyler beybit, ózimen-ózi erkin, bayashat ómir keshti. Búl, óz kezeginde, evreylerdi teris aghym men dýrmekke ilesuden saqtap, erekshe tәrbiyelengen derbes qoghamdyq qauym retinde qalyptastyrdy. Myndaghan jyldar boyy evreylerding basqa últtargha assimilyasiyalanyp, jútylyp ketpeuining bir sebebi osynda jatqan boluy da bek mýmkin.

Búl jerde barlyq evreyler tek qana qamaldyng ishinde rahat ómir sýrdi degen úghym tumaugha tiyis. Evreyler batys Europagha ayaq basqannan tartyp, olardy óz dinderinen bezdirip, shoqyndyrugha mәjbýrlegen elder de boldy. Ispaniya jana eranyng 630-jyly, Fransiya 629-jyly evreylerdi kýshpen shoqyndyrugha baryn saldy. Dey túrghanmen, HI ghasyrdan búryn Europanyng basqa elderi Yahudy dinindegilerdi qudalauy salystyrmaly týrde az boldy. HII ghasyrdan bastap  Yahudiylik senim-nanymgha bolghan óshpendilik pen qudalau órshy týsti. 1096-jyldan bastap krest armiyasy shyghysqa joryq jasaghan dәuirlerde san myndaghan evrey últynyng ókilderi ayausyz óltirildi. Evreyler qonystanghan aimaqtar qiratylyp, talan-tarajygha týsip, halqy qyrghyngha úshyrady. Krest jasaqtary evreylerdi kórgen son, endi olargha Palestinadaghy qasiyetti  jerge baryp, Isa Payghambardy óltirgen qúndyger qylmyskerlerding úrpaqtaryn izdep tauyp, jazalaudyng qajeti joq dep oilady. Óitkeni olar óz aralarynda jýr eken. Endi at terletip, alysqa shabudyng qajeti qansha? Kóz aldaghy evreylerdi qoysha bauyzdap, qyra beru kerek. Krestshilerding úrandary: «Bir evreydi óltirip, bir әruaqty razy eteyik!» deytin. Rim Papasy Innokentiy III tórtinshi kezekti Laterandyq Shirkeulerining jinalysyn shaqyryp, evreylerge qarsy diny jarlyqty jariyalady. Osydan keyin kýlli Europany dýr silkindirgen evreylerge qarsy qughyn-sýrgin bastaldy. Evreyler kiri arzymaytyn syltaulargha bola ólimge búiyrylatyn, nemese mal-mýlki tәrkilenip alynatyn. 1348 jyly «qara ólim indeti» Europany jaylap, Europalyqtardyng tórtten birining ómirin jalmady. Evreyler Yahudy dinining sharighattary boyynsha sanitarlyq tazalyqqa erekshe mәn beretindikten, jәne medisinalyq shart-jaghdayy qatardaghy Europalyqtardan kósh ilgeri bolghandyqtan qara ólim indetinen qaytys bolghandardyng sany azdau boldy. Osyny paydalanghan Hristian shirkeuleri: «Evreyler shaytanmen odaqtasyp, qara ólim indetin bizge taratty» - dep jala japty. Oghan jalghas, evreylerden kek alu bastalyp, kóptegen evrey qonystary shabylyp, san myndaghan evreyler naqaqtan qyryldy.

Osy retki qyrghynshylyqta Ispaniyalyq evreyler eng qatygezdikpen qangha boyaldy. Ispaniya Koroli evreylerge  eki týrli tandau jasaugha búiyrdy: birinshisi – óz dinderinen bezip, Hristian dinine shoqynu, ekinshisi  jol tek qana ólim. Odan da soraqysy evreyler barlyq azamattyq qúqyqtary men ekonomikalyq qúqyqtarynan maqrúm etildi. Koroliding qatygez sayasatynan qoryqqan evreyler amalsyzdan óz dinderinen bezip, shoqynugha mәjbýr boldy. Búlardyng kóbi kóriniste shoqynghanymen, ishki senimderi bәz-bayaghysynday Yahudiylik nanymda qalyp qoydy. Qazirgi HHI ghasyrda Qytay biyligining sol eldegi músylmandargha jasap otyrghan taghylyq sayasaty Ispaniya Korolining sol kezdegi sayasatynyng kóshirmesi siyaqty. Kór soqyr biyleushiler kóbinde adamdardyng ghasyrlar boyy qangha singen nanym-senimderimen әlekke týsemin dep ony joyghansha Kenestik bolishevikter siyaqty ózderining de talqany tausylyp bitetindigin sezip-bilgen joq. Ispaniyalyqtar shoqynghan evreylerdi «jana Hristiandyqtar» dep ataghanymen,  olardy kóbinde «shoshqalar» dep kemsitetin. Bylaysha aitqanda, bayghús evreyler Ispaniyada otyrsa opaq, túrsa sopaq bolyp kóz týrtki men qorlau astynda ghúmyr keshti. Ispaniyalyqtar siyaqty Portugaliyanyng din basylary da evreylerding mandayynan sipaghan joq. Portugaliyalyq evreyler de taghylyqpen qyrghyndaldy, tonaldy jәne ayausyz qudalandy. Ýsh jarym ghasyrgha sozylghan qatygez sayasattyng kesirinen tórt jýz myng evrey últynyng ókilderi qylmystyq jauapkershilikke tartylyp, otyz myny ólimge ýkim etildi. 1479-jyly katolik patshasy basshylyghymen Kastiliya men Aragon birikken kezde evreylerdi qudalau nauqany shyrqau shegine jetti. Ferdinand patsha men Izabella patshayym evreylerdi qudalaudy ózderining qasiyetti paryzy sanady. Olar óz elindegi jat dindegilerdi týgelimen tazartyp, tap-taza katoliktik memleket qúrugha bel baylady. Sonymen, 1492 jyly arnayy jarlyq shygharyp, osy eldegi evreylerdi týp-týgel Ispaniyagha jer audardy.

HV ghasyrdyng sonyna kelgende evreyler týgelge juyq  batys Europadan quyp shygharyldy. Tek qana әli de birtútas elge ainalmaghan Italiya men Germaniyada ghana azdaghan evreyler qalyp qoydy. Qughyndalghan adamdar nópiri eki topqa bólinip, shyghystaghy eki iri elge bet týzedi. Ashkenaziyler (soltýstik Europadaghy evreyler) Polishagha bosyp bardy. Sefardtar (Ispaniya men Latyn tili aimaghyndaghy evreyler) Osman Imperiyasynyng aumaghyna bet týzedi.

Osman Imperiyasynyng súltany óz iyeligining qaqpasyn aiqara ashyp, azyp-tozghan evreylerdi músylmangha tәn erekshe janashyrlyqpen qabyldady. XVI ghasyrdyng ortasyna barghanda osy evreylerding úrpaqtary Týrkiya ekonomikasynyn  quatty kýshine ainaldy. Týrikter óz iyelikterin keneytu barysynda 1517 jyly Palestinany basyp aldy. Ol kezde Palestina ekonomikasy kýireuding sheginde túrghan bolatyn. Kóptegen evreyler Týrkiya arqyly ata-qonysy Palestinagha oralugha mýmkindik aldy. Olar azdaghan jyldyng ishinde atalghan aimaqty órkendetip, ekonomikasyn shyrqau biyikke kóterdi. Týrkiyanyng evreylerge bolghan qamqorlyghy 1574 jylghy Selim II súltan ómirden ótkenge deyin jalghasty. Polishagha bosyp barghan evreyler de ýzdiksiz kóbeydi. Sanaq mәlimetterine qaraghanda XVII ghasyrdyng orta shenine barghanda, Polishada qonystanghan evreylerding sany 500 mynnan asyp jyghylypty.

XVI ghasyrdyng sony men XVII ghasyrdyng basynda Niyderlandyda burjuaziyalyq tónkeris jeniske jetti. Evreyler Gollandiyanyng ekonomikalyq salasynda erekshe belsendi bolatyn. Mysalgha, Amsterdamdaghy qúndy qaghazdar ortalyghyndaghy saylanghan 41 kenes mýshelerining 37-si evrey últynyng ókilderi edi. Gollandiyanyng iyeligindegi shyghys Indiya kompaniyasy aksiyasynyng tórtten biri evreylerge tiyesili bolatyn. Evreyler Gollandiyanyng syrtqy saudasyn dóngeletip túrdy.

XVIII ghasyrda Europadaghy evreyler burjuaziyalyq tónkeris tolqyndarynyng yqpalymen evrey últynyng azattyghy jolyndaghy kýresin bastap ketti. Fransiyadaghy úly tónkeristing qarsanynda batys Europada tórt jýz mynday evrey últynyng ókilderi boldy. Olardyng ýsh jýz myny Germaniyada túrdy. Kóptegen evreyler sayasy jәne qúqyqtyq jaqtan teng qúqyly bolugha úmtylyp, san ghasyrgha sozylghan oqshaulanghan qamaldardan shyghyp, qoghamgha belsendi aralasa bastady. Olar óz ravvinderining sottau qúqyghynan, avtonomiyalyq qúqyghynan jәne Palestinagha qaytu armandarynan bas tartyp, ózderi qonystanghan elderding teng qúqyly, adal azamattary bolugha bel baylap, óz taghdyrlaryn ózderi ómir sýrgen memleketterding taghdyrlarymen baylanystyrudy armandady. Europalyq biyleushilerding ishinde de dәstýrge moyyn úsynbaytyn dara túlghalar da boldy. Fransiya imperatory Napaleon evreylerdi erekshe batyldyqpen azat etu sayasatyn ústanyp, Fransiyadaghy evreylerge barlyq azamattyq qúqyqtaryn qaytaryp berdi. Napaleon: «Evrey últy Fransiyadan ózderining taghy bir IYerusalimderin taba alady» - dep mәlimdedi. Osynday qamqorlyq pen beybitshilikting arqasynda batys Europadaghy kóptegen evreyler óz dinderinen bezip, shoqyna bastady. Áygili aqyn Genrih Geyne osy shoqynghan evreylerding ókili sanaldy. Karl Markstyng әkesi de erte shoqynghan evreylerding sanatynda. Olardyng búlay isteudegi maqsaty órkeniyetti Europa qoghamyna kiruge joldama alu jәne evreylerding azat halyq atanuyna qúqysy barlyghyn dәleldeu ýshin bolatyn. HIH ghasyrdyng 60-jyldaryna kelgende basym kópshilik Europa elderindegi evreyler azattyq aldy.

Ókinishke oray, evreylerding mәselesi múnymen sheshilip ketken joq. Myndaghan jylgha sozylghan san qabat múz onaylyqsha erip ketpeydi eken. Hristiandardyn  on toghyz ghasyrgha juyq evreylerge qarsy ýgit-nasihaty adamdar sanasynda  myzghymastay ornap qalyp edi. Áyteu bir sebep-syltau bolsa, evreylerge qarsy osy bir kónil-kýy adam aghzasynda jasyrylyp jatqan aurudyng qozdyrghyshtary siyaqty ósip shygha keletin. Europadaghy evreyler ózderin ózi ómir sýrip jatqan elding qoghamy eshbir jatsynbay qabyldasa dep armandady. Jәne sol jolda kýresti. Biraq HIH ghasyrdyng sonyn ala evreylerge qarsy baghyttalghan әldeneshe retki qoghamdyq tolqu olardyng izgi armanyn kýl-talqan etti. Olardyng ishindegi kóptegen aqyldy jandar ózderining qatygez taghdyrlarynan evreyler shynayy azattyqqa qol jetkizgisi kelse, bir ghana jol bar, ol qasiyetti Sion tauyna qaytu degen qorytyndygha keldi.

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