Sәrsenbi, 19 Mamyr 2021
Ekonomika 16906 6 pikir 20 Aqpan, 2020 saghat 15:29

Qazaqstandaghy mashina óndirisi ne kýide?

Ýkimet eldegi mashina óndirisi salasyna taldau jasapty. Qazir de elde óndiriletin mashinany nesie alu júrt arasynda kóptep kórinis bere bastady. Sol ýshin de Qazaqstandaghy mashina óndirisining jay-kýii turaly ýkimet taldauy oqyrman nazaryna úsynyp otyrmyz.

Abay-aqparat

Býgingi tanda qazaqstandyq avtomobili ónerkәsibi shiykizattyq emes sektordy industriyalyq damytudyng 12 basym baghyttarynyng qataryna qosylghan jәne jýieli memlekettik qoldau obektisi retinde sanalady. 2019 jyldyng qorytyndysy boyynsha QR Mashina jasau salasyndaghy avtomobili ónerkәsibining ýlesi 26%-dy qúrady, 50 mynnan astam tehnika óndirildi, 2,7 myngha juyq avtomobili eksporttaldy. Qazaqstandyq avtoónerkәsip qalay damyp jatyr jәne onyng keleshegi qanday?

Bәri neden bastau aldy?

Otandyq avtomobili ónerkәsibining tarihy 2003 jyly alghashqy «NIVA» avtokóligi shygharylghan kezden bastalady. Ol kezde óndiris kólemi bar bolghany birneshe myng birlikti qúrady (2010 jyly eng kóbi — 4 myng dana). Shygharylatyn ónim jelisin tek VAZ markasynyng avtomobilideri qúrady. Elimizding avtomobili naryghynyng negizgi bóligi importqa tiyesili boldy.

Kәsiporyndardyng naqty mindetterimen damudyng negizgi kezeni 2010 jyly motorly kólik qúraldaryn ónerkәsiptik qúrastyru turaly alghashqy kelisimderge qol qonmen bastaldy. Degenmen, tәjiriybe kórsetkendey, salany damytu jóninde qabyldanghan kelisimderding tiyimdiligi az boldy, satylatyn otandyq avtomobiliderding ýlesi 2016 jyly tek 26%-dy qúrady. Yntalandyrudyng jana әdisteri qajet boldy.

Osyghan baylanysty Ýkimet qosylghan qún salyghy (QQS) boyynsha preferensiyalar, kәdege jaratu alymyn engizu, jenildikpen nesie beru jәne lizing baghdarlamasyn әzirleu, ónim eksportyn qoldau sharalary sekildi salany yntalandyru sharalaryn qabyldady. Ónerkәsiptik kooperasiya baghdarlamasy iske qosyldy.

Salany damytugha «SaryarqaAvtoÓnerkәsip» JShS strategiyalyq әriptesi — SMS–JAC Motors túlghasyndaghy iri transúlttyq investor tartyldy. Osynyng barlyghy salany damytu, yntalandyru baghdarlamalaryn engizu boyynsha jana tәsilderdi engizuding arqasynda mýmkin boldy.

Kommersiyalyq tehnika óndirisine keler bolsaq, elimizge jahandyq oiynshylar tartyla bastady. 2005 jyly Qazaqstangha kelgen alghashqy iri óndirushi KamAZ boldy. Sodan keyin Daewoo, Hyundai, IVECO, ANKAI jәne basqa da markalar óz óndiristerin ashty.

Sonyng nәtiyjesinde, qysqa merzim ishinde salyq audarymdary esebinen budjetti jýieli týrde tolyqtyratyn, irgeles salalardy esepke ala otyryp, ondaghan myng júmys orny bar tútas sala qúryldy. Avtoóndirushiler sany artyp, adal bәsekelestik damy bastady.

Býgingi tanda mashina jasau — óndeu ónerkәsibining qarqyndy damyp kele jatqan salalarynyng biri.

Industriyaldy-innovasiyalyq damu memlekettik baghdarlamasyn iske asyru jyldary (2010 jyldan bastap) elimizde shamamen 400 mlrd tenge somasyna 130-dan astam jana mashina jasau óndirisi iske qosyldy. 14 mynnan astam júmys orny ashyldy.

Búl kәsiporyndar ónimning barlyq derlik týrin shygharudy iygerip ýlgerdi (jiyntyqtaushy jәne qosalqy bólshekterden joghary dәldikti tehnikany qúrastyrugha deyin) jәne múnay-gaz, metallurgiya jәne agroónerkәsip sekildi ekonomikanyng bazalyq sektorlarynyng qajettilikterin qamtamasyz etedi.

Qazirgi tanda Qazaqstanda avtokólik qúraldarynyng barlyq sanattarynyng óndirisi qolgha alynghan. Elimizde 167 avtomobili modeli, onyng ishinde 39 jenil modeli, 22 әlemdik brend jinalady.

Avtomobili jasau — Qazaqstannyng mashina jasau salasynyng drayveri

QR-nyng 2015-2019 jyldargha arnalghan industrialdy-innovasiyalyq damu memlekettik baghdarlamasynda avtoónerkәsip basym salalar qatarynda kórsetilgen. Memlekettik baghdarlamada әlemdik trendter Qazaqstannyng avtomobili ónerkәsibin damytugha yqpal etetini, oghan qosa metallurgiya, rezenke búiymdarynyng óndirisi, shyny óndirisi, toqyma ónerkәsibi, elektr jabdyqtary men qúraldary óndirisi, GhZTKJ jәne t. b. sekildi irgeles salalardy damytugha da septigin tiygizetini aitylghan.

Eki besjyldyqta avtomobili jasau Qazaqstannyng mashina jasau salasynyng drayverlerining birine ainaldy. Iri torapty qúrastyrudan (DKD) úsaq torapty qúrastyrugha (CKD) kóshu boldy. Mysaly, shanaqtardy dәnekerleu jәne boyau boyynsha tehnologiyalyq operasiyalar qolgha alyndy.

Qazirgi tanda elimizde satylatyn avtomobiliderding 60%-y Qazaqstanda shygharylghan.

Avtoónerkәsipti jergiliktendiruding ortasha dengeyi 33%-dy qúraydy, al keybir ýlgiler boyynsha eng jogharghy dengeyi 50%-dan asady.

2010 jyldan bastap óndiris kólemi 12,5 esege ósti (2010 jylghy 4 myng birlikten 2019 jyly 50,4 myng birlikke deyin). Mashina jasaudyng jalpy kólemindegi avtoónerkәsip ýlesi 2010 jylghy 4%-gha qaraghanda 26%-gha jetti. Ónerkәsiptegi avtoónerkәsip ýlesi 1,9% qúrady.

2019 jyly avtomobili ónerkәsibinde 359,5 mlrd tengege 50 447 birlik kólik qúraly óndirildi, naqty kólem indeksi (NKI) 162,5%-dy qúrady. Onyng ishinde 44 077 jenil avtomobili óndirildi, óndiris ósimi 46,8%-dy qúrady.

Satylymdaghy qazaqstandyq avtomobiliderding ýlesi 59%-gha deyin artty (2018 jyly – 49%), QR-da eng kóp satylatyn avtomobili brendining 5-ten 4-i — otandyq óndiriske tiyesili.

Qazaqstandyq avtobiznes qauymdastyghynyng mәlimetinshe, 2019 jyly 16 332 Hyundai avtomobiyli (+75,7%), 14 623 birlik Lada (+9,8%) jәne 5 366 Ravon avtomobiyli (+912%) óndirildi. Sonday-aq bestikke Kia (3683 birlik) jәne JAC (2 775 birlik) markalary kirdi.

QR-da óndirilgen avtokólikterding jartysy derlik iri avtokólik óndirushi «SaryarqaAvtoÓnerkәsipke» tiyesili. Biyl Qostanay zauyty óndiristi eki ese úlghaytyp, jalpy somasy 186 609 mln tengege 25 802 danagha deyin jenil avtomobilider, jýk kólikteri men avtobustar shyghardy.

Qazaqstandyq avtoónerkәsip — eksporttyq naryqtarda

Ishki qazaqstandyq naryqtyng shaghyn kólemin eskere otyryp, otandyq mashina jasaushylardy úzaq merzimdi josparlau eksporttyq kólemderdi úlghaytudy qarastyruy tiyis. Memlekettik organdar tiyisti júmystardy jýrgizip jatyr. Mәselen, Qazaqstan Respublikasynda ekologiyalyq taza avtomobilider óndirisin yntalandyru tetigi ayasynda avtoónerkәsip kәsiporyndaryn eksporttyq qarjylandyru kózdelgen.

Marketingtik ilgeriletumen qatar, el ishinde dayyn ónimdi tasymaldaugha jәne eksporttyq naryqtarda ónimdi sertifikattaugha júmsalghan shyghyndardyng bir bóligin óteu sharalary kórsetiledi. Búl bizding kәsiporyndargha syrtqy naryqtargha qol jetkizudi jenildetuge mýmkindik berdi.

Óz kezeginde, otandyq kәsiporyndar kәsiporyndarda jýrgiziletin tehnologiyalyq operasiyalardyng sanyn arttyryp, jergilikti qúrauyshtar men materialdardy paydalanyp, sonday-aq iri seriyaly óndiriske shyghuy tiyis.

Sonymen qatar Qazaqstanda avtokomponenttik bazany damytu josparlanuda.

Atqarylghan júmystardyng nәtiyjesinde eksport 2018 jylmen salystyrghanda 10 esege artty. 2019 jyldyng qorytyndysy boyynsha 2 629 avtokólik eksporttaldy. Avtomobilider kóbinese Resey Federasiyasy men Ózbekstangha eksporttalady. Sheteldik satylymdardyng negizgi bóligin 2019 jyly JAC (1471), Hyundai (716) jәne Ravon (442) markalary qúrady. Búl markalargha kórshiles elderde markalardyng distribiutorlary tapsyrys beredi.

Avtomobili ónerkәsibindegi ýrdister 

Songhy jyldary avtoóndirushiler jana naryqtargha qol jetkizu, ózining ótkizu jelisin keneytu, jana tehnologiyalar alu maqsatynda strategiyalyq seriktesterdi izdestirude. Songhy uaqytta avtomobili salasyn damytudyng negizgi baghyttary otynnyng jana týrlerin paydalanu, jana konstruksiyalyq materialdardy qoldanu, jaylylyqty arttyru esebinen janarmay tútynudy aitarlyqtay tómendetu; sapalyq jәne bagha belgileri boyynsha da, nysanaly maqsaty boyynsha da modelidik qatarlardy әrtaraptandyru boldy.

Songhy uaqytta avtomobili salasynyng ereksheligi modelidik qatarlardy ýdemeli әrtaraptandyru boldy.

Qazaqstandyq mashina jasau ekologiyalyq taza kólikting damuymen baylanysty jalpy әlemdik trendten qalys qalyp jatqan joq. 2014 jyly elektromobiliderding birinshi partiyasy shygharyldy, sonday-aq otandyq óndiristing 15 elektroavtobusy qoldanysta.

Avtomobili ónerkәsibin damytu sharalary 

QR Ýkimeti salany yntalandyru boyynsha sharalardy qabyldady, onyng ishinde QQS boyynsha artyqshylyqtar, jenildikpen nesiyelendiru jәne lizing baghdarlamasyn әzirleu, ónim eksportyn qoldau sharalary bar.

2019 jyly mausym aiynda 2019-2024 jyldargha arnalghan mashina jasaudy damytu jónindegi Jol kartasy bekitildi, ol mashina jasaudyng barlyq shaghyn salalaryn qamtidy jәne qoldau sharalary boyynsha is-sharalar keshenin qarastyrady. Olar – salyq artyqshylyqtary, qarjylay jәne shiykizattyq qoldau, bilikti kadrlarmen qamtamasyz etu jәne taghy basqalary.

Kooperasiyalyq baylanystardy damytu ýshin 2019 jyly 3 sәuirde Qazaqstan men Resey Federasiyasynyng arasynda Birlesken is-qimyl baghdarlamasy qabyldandy. Ol kelesi jobalarda kooperasiyany qarastyrady.

Ónerkәsiptik kooperasiya baghdarlamasy ayasynda «KAMAZ» JAQ, «AVTOVAZ» JAQ jәne «Hende Motor Manufakturing Rus» JShQ jýk avtomobiliderining jetekshi bilikterining basty berilis reduktorlaryn shygharu zauytyn, qúng zauytyn jәne ghylymiy-zertteu injiniring ortalyghyn salu boyynsha birlesken jobalardy iske asyrudy pysyqtau bastaldy.

Almaty qalasynda «Hyundai» jenil avtomobili markasyn shygharatyn «Hyundai Trans Kazakhstan» JShS jana zauytynyng qúrylysy bastaldy, onyng quattylyghy birinshi kezende jylyna 30 000 birlikti, al ekinshi kezende 45 myng birlikti qúraydy.

SMS – JAC Motors «SaryarqaAvtoÓnerkәsip» JShS alanynda óndiris kólemin arttyru jәne shygharatyn avtomobilider jelisin keneytuden basqa, avtokomponentter óndirisin jolgha qoydy josparlap otyr.

Qytay seriktesterimen yntymaqtastyq ayasynda shinalar men dvigatelider shygharatyn zauytty iske qosu josparlanghan, búl Qazaqstandaghy avtokomponent bazasyn damytugha quatty serpin beretin bolady.

Sonymen qatar, QR densaulyq saqtau jәne infraqúrylymdyq damu ministrleri Qazaqstan Respublikasynda sanitarlyq kólikti janartu boyynsha Jol kartasyn bekitti, búl sanitarlyq kólikti lizingtik qarjylandyru tetigi esebinen janartugha mýmkindik beredi.

Jol kartasyna sәikes, oblys әkimdikterindegi, respublikalyq manyzy bar qalalardaghy densaulyq saqtau basqarmalary ýshin lizingtik qarjylandyru sharttary mynaday: lizing merzimi 5 jyl, syiaqy mólsherlemesi otandyq tauar óndirushiler ýshin 7%-dan aspaydy, avans tólemi qarastyrylmaghan, jenildik úsynylatyn kezeng 12 aigha deyin. 2019 jyly 800 jedel jәrdem kóligine jәne 2019-2020 jyldary 18 jyljymaly medisinalyq keshen ýshin 10 mlrd tenge bólindi.

Avtomobili óndirushilerdi qoldau

Avtoóndirushilerge óndeu ónerkәsibindegi basqa kәsiporyndarmen qatar arnayy investisiyalyq kelisimsharttar ayasynda salyq jәne kedendik jenildikter úsynylady.

Búl sharalar jenildikti nesiyelendiru baghdarlamalarymen qatar avtokólik qúraldarynyng qazaqstandyq ekologiyalyq taza óndirisin damytudy yntalandyrady.

Qazaqstan Respublikasynda ekologiyalyq taza kólik qúraldarynyng shygharyluyna baylanysty, 2018 jyldan bastap avtoóndirushiler tolyghymen besinshi ekologiyalyq klasqa kóshti, onyng ishinde kommersiyalyq tehnikany dayyndauda da, elektromobilider óndirisi iygerildi.

Ekologiyalyq taza kólik qúraldaryn óndirude (Evro-4 jәne odan joghary ekologiyalyq klastargha sәikes keletin, elektrodvigatelideri bar) jәne ónerkәsiptik qúrastyru turaly kelisim ayasynda jergiliktendirudi kezen-kezenmen arttyru boyynsha talaptardy oryndau kezinde óndirushiler óndiristik prosester boyynsha shyghyndardyng ornyn toltyru týrindegi yntalandyrugha ie bolugha ýmitker bola alady.

Avtomobili ónerkәsibining jergiliktendiriluining ortasha dengeyi 33% qúraydy, jekelegen modelider boyynsha eng jogharghysy 50%-dan asady. Yntalandyrushy damytu sharalarymen birge jergilikti qamtu ýlesi men óndiris kólemin arttyru shygharylatyn kólik qúraldarynyng qúnyn tómendetuge baghyttalghan.

Óndeu ónerkәsibin qoldaudyng jalpy sharalarynan basqa, jenildikpen avtonesiyelendiru jәne jenildikti lizing baghdarlamalary ózining nәtiyjeliligin kórsetti, onyng ayasynda «BRK-Lizing» AQ júmys istegen 4 jyl ishinde 50 mlrd tenge bólindi (42 mlrd tenge – avtonesiyelendiruge, 8 mlrd tenge – lizingke).

2019 jylghy qazan aiynan bastap «BRK-Lizing» AQ arqyly Últtyq bankting jenildikpen avtonesiyelendiru baghdarlamasy iske qosyldy, sol arqyly 5 jyl boyy 100 mlrd tenge bólu kózdelgen (jyl sayyn 20 mlrd tengeden).

Baghdarlama túrghyndar arasynda zor súranysqa iye, býginde qarajatty ekinshi ret iygeru jýrgizilude.

Elimizding avtobus parkin janartu 

2019 jyldyng 12 aiynda avtobus shygharu kólemi 2,5 ese ósti (1 076 birl.).

Qosymsha yntalandyru retinde 2018 jyldan bastap qazaqstandyq óndiris avtobustaryn lizingke ótkizu baghdarlamasy júmys isteydi. Respublikalyq budjetten «BRK-Lizing» AQ-yna 33,5 mlrd tenge bólindi, býginde 1 550 birlik avtobusty jetkizuge qarjylandyru jasaldy.

«BRK-Lizing» AQ mәlimeti boyynsha, 2020 jylghy qantar aiyndaghy jaghday boyynsha Qazaqstan Respublikasynda tozghan avtobustar parkin janartu jónindegi keshendi jospar ayasynda 904 Yutong avtobusy, 330 Ankai avtobusy, 181 Daewoo avtobusy, 75 Golden Dragon avtobusy jәne 60 DongFeng avtobusy óndirilu ýstinde jәne olardyng bir bóligi jetkizilip qoydy.

Qazaqstandaghy avtomobili ónerkәsibining damu keleshegi

Sóz sonynda elimizdegi avtomobili salasynyng damuy ýshin perspektivalardyng shynymen de joghary ekenin atap ótken jón. Óitkeni otandyq avtomobili jasaudy damytu memleketting ortasha merzimdik jәne úzaq merzimdik josparlau boyynsha baghdarlamalyq qújattarda belgilengen mýddelerine jәne basymdyqtaryna say keledi.

Biyl Qazaqstanda 10-nan astam jana avtomobili modelining óndirisi bastalady. Qysqa merzim ishinde avtomobili ónerkәsibi ónimderining jalpy kólemin 100 myng avtomobilige deyin jetkizu josparlanghan, onyng ishinde 10-15 myny — Reseyge, Qyrghyzstangha, Ózbekstangha, Tәjikstangha, Belarusike, Ázerbayjangha jәne basqa da elderge eksporttalatyn bolady.

Almaty qalasynda quattylyghy jylyna 45 myng birlikti qúraytyn «Hyundai» zauyty ashyldy. Zauyt Industriyalyq aimaq aumaghynda ashyldy. Jana zauyt qúrylysyna salynghan investisiyalar kólemi 25 mlrd tengeni qúrady. Jobalyq quattylyghy — jylyna 30 000 birlik. Ekinshi kezegin jәne shanaqty dәnekerleu jәne boyau boyynsha tehnologiyalyq operasiyalarmen shygharylatyn alghashqy avtomobili óndirisi 2020 jyldyng qyrkýiek aiyna josparlanghan. Kәsiporyn óndiriste 700-ge juyq jana júmys ornyn qúrugha mýmkindik beredi. Qazaqstan ónirlerinde diyler jelisin qúru shaghyn jәne orta biznesting damuyna ong yqpalyn tiygizetin bolady.

Osy jyldyng qantar aiynyng sonynda QR Premier-Ministri A. Maminning qatysuymen «Uzavtosanoat» AQ jәne «KazakhExport» eksporttyq saqtandyru kompaniyasy» AQ arasynda yntymaqtastyq turaly kelisimge qol qoyyldy, sonday-aq «SaryarqaAvtoÓnerkәsip» JShS men «UzAuto Motors» AQ arasynda avtomobiliderding mashina jiyntyqtaryn jetkizu turaly shartqa qol qoyyldy.

Keleshekte avtomobili ónerkәsibinde:

  • 2021 jyldyng basynan bastap kólik qúraldaryn ónerkәsiptik qúrastyru turaly jana kelisimderge kóshu jolymen jergilikti qamtu ýlesin úlghaytu júmystaryn jalghastyru;
  • qazaqstandyq avtoóndirushilerding seriktesterimen óndiristik kooperasiyany damytu, onyng ishinde avtokomponentter óndirisi;
  • elektromobilider óndirisin iygerudi jalghastyru kózdelgen.
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