Beysenbi, 24 Mausym 2021
Ghylym-bilim 2847 1 pikir 25 Mamyr, 2020 saghat 12:19

Qashyqtan oqytu tiyimdi me?

Bolashaqta ýsh әlemdik tendensiya qashyqtyqtan bilim beruding damuyna әser etedi. Birinshisi - gigonomika (Djig Ekonomikasy) dep atalatyn ósim, búl kәdimgi dәstýrli júmystarmen ainalysqannan góri, kóp adamdar ózderi ýshin júmys isteudi jón kóretindiginde. Ekinshi jahandyq tendensiya qazirgi adamnyng jeke ózin-ózi tanugha degen úmtylysymen baylanysty: әrkim ózining ómirining maqsaty men maghynasy bolghanyn qalaydy. Ýshinshi tendensiya әlemdik bilim beru naryghynyng ortalyqsyzdandyryluynan kórinedi. Qazirgi kezde bilim beru qyzmetterin tútynushylar neni, qashan jәne qalay oqyghysy keletinin ózderi sheshedi. Aqparattyq tehnologiyalargha negizdelgen qashyqtyqtan bilim beru osy tendensiyalardy eskerip, әr oqushygha jeke kózqaras qalyptastyrugha mýmkindik beredi. Bill men Melinda Geytsting aituynsha, jetildirilgen baghdarlamalyq jasaqtama men jana tehnologiyalardyng arqasynda bilim salasyndaghy revolusiya bolady. Bilim beru tehnologiyalary bilimge qol jetimdilikti arttyrady jәne әlemdegi, әsirese Afrika men Ontýstik Aziya siyaqty aimaqtarda sauattylyq dengeyindegi aiyrmashylyqty azaytady. Bilim beru tehnologiyasynyng jogharghy maqsaty bilim sapasyn kóteru bolyp qala beredi. 2011 jyly qashyqtyqtan bilim beruding dýniyejýzilik naryghy 35,6 milliard dollargha baghalandy, boljam boyynsha, naryq 2016 jylgha qaray 51,5 milliard dollargha deyin ósedi. Naryqtaghy eng ýlken ósim Latyn Amerikasynda (14,6%), Shyghys Europada (16,9%) jәne Aziyada (17,3%) bolady jegen boljam bar. Amerika Qúrama Shtattary men basqa da damyghan elderding bilim beru jýiesi búrynnan beri ózgerip otyrghan ortagha beyimdelip keledi. Ár týrli zertteuler jaqyn bolashaqta onlayn-bilim beruding damitynyn aitady. Kleyton Kristensenning aituynsha, 2019 jylgha qaray AQSh-taghy barlyq orta mektep kurstarynyng 50% -y onlayn rejiyminde qol jetimdi bolmaq. Qashyqtan oqytudyng damuyna baylanysty kez kelgen kursty onlayn rejiyminde oqityn studentter sany artyp otyr.   Amerika Qúrama Shtattaryndaghy studentterding jalpy sanynyng ósui ayasynda (2002 j. 16,611 mln. Bastap 2011 j. 20994 mln. Deyin), on-layn rejiyminde kem degende bir kursta oqityn studentterding sany 2002 j. 1.603 mln.-dan 6.714-ke deyin ósti. Internettegi studentter sanynyng artuy bayqalady: 2002 jyly barlyq talapkerlerding tek 9,6% -y onlayn kurstardy tandaghan, 2011 jyly - 32% -dan kem emes bir onlayn-kurstargha qatysqan. Alghash ret qashyqtan oqytu arqyly joghary bilim alu mýmkindigi 1836 jyly London uniyversiyteti qúrylghan kezde payda boldy. Pochta baylanysy arqyly oqulyqtar men oqu materialdary, emtihan súraqtary, keys tapsyrmalar qashyqtan oqityn studentke jiberilip,  keri baylanys ta ornatyldy. 1920 jyldardaghy radiony oilap tabu birqatar leksiyadan túratyn radio kurstardyng payda boluyna әkeldi. Keyde múnday kurstar baspa materialdarymen jәne synyptaghy is-sharalarmen tolyqtyryldy. 50-shi jyldary teledidar kurstary belsendi damydy, oqu qúraldarymen, sabaqtarmen jәne mezgil-mezgil emtihan baqylauymen birge jýrdi.

1969 jyly Birikken Korolidikting Ashyq Uniyversiytetining payda boluy (Open University of the United Kingdom,UKOU) jana kezenning bastaluynan habar berdi. Osy sәtten bastap qashyqtyqtan bilim berude birinshi ret oqytudyng jan-jaqty tәsili baspa materialdarynyng basymdyq jaghdayynda barlyq qúraldardy qoldana bastady. Ashyq uniyversiytet qashyqtyqtan oqytugha arnalghan joghary sapaly oqu qúraldaryn shyghardy. Uniyversiytetting studenttermen birjaqty qarym-qatynasy radio jәne teledidarlyq habarlarmen tolyqtyrylghan baspa materialdary arqyly jýzege asty (audiokassetalar keyinirek keng taraldy). Oqytushylar men studentterding ekijaqty әreketi túrghylyqty jeri boyynsha syrttay, betpe-bet konsulitasiyalar jәne qysqa merzimdi kurstar arqyly jýzege asyryldy. Búl modeli dayyndyq kezeninde qymbat baghalandy. Alayda, qajetti materialdar men baghdarlamalardy jasaghannan keyin,  әr studentti oqytu ýlken shyghyndardy qajet etpeytin boldy. Úlybritaniya ýkimeti búl jobagha aitarlyqtay qarajat bóldi. Qashyqtyqtan oqytu ýshin oqu josparlary, baghdarlamalar, oqu qúraldary jәne bilim beru tehnologiyalary qajet boldy. Korolevanyng ózi ashyq uniyversiytet qúryp, al  ýkimet palatasynyng spiykeri kansler (rektor) bolyp taghayyndaldy. Uniyversiytetting auqymdy jәne bedeldi boluy ýshin bәri jasaldy. Úlybritaniyanyng Ashyq uniyversiyteti onyng qol jetimdiligin tómen baghamen jәne sabaqqa jii barudyng qajeti bolmauymen kórsetetin etip atady. Bastapqyda uniyversiytet oqu turaly ótinishterdi tek Birikken Korolidikting azamattarynan qabyldady. Keyinnen, biraz tәjiriybe jinap, olar sheteldikterden qashyqtyqtan bilim alugha ótinishter qabylday bastady.

Qashyqtan oqytu tehnologiyasynyng songhy buyny aqparattyq jәne kommunikasiyalyq tehnologiyalardy belsendi qoldanugha negizdelgen, әr týrli nysandarda (mәtin, grafika, dybys, animasiya) eki jaqty baylanysty sinhrondy týrde de (beyne nemese audiografiyalyq konferensiyalar) jәne elektrondy poshtany qoldana otyryp jýzege asyryldy.

Qashyqtan oqytudyng әlemdik kóshbasshylary

Úlybritaniyanyng ashyq uniyversiytetining qúryluy býkil әlemdegi qashyqtyqtan oqytu jýiesine әser etti. Qashyqtyqtan oqytudy qamtamasyz etetin oqu oryndary birqatar elderde payda boldy, negizinen Europa men Aziya. Olardyng qataryna Ispaniyadaghy Distancia últtyq bilim beru uniyversiyteti (UNED) (1972), Pәkistandaghy Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) (1974), Tailandtaghy Suhothay Tammathirat ashyq uniyversiyteti (STOU) (1978), Koreya memlekettik ashyq uniyversiyteti (Koreya Últtyq) jatady. Ashyq Uniyversiytet, (KNOU) (1982),  Indoneziyada Terbuka Uniyversiyteti (UT) (1984) jәne Memlekettik Ashyq Uniyversiytet,  Ýndistanda Indira Gandy (Indira Gandy últtyq ashyq uniyversiyteti (IGNOU), (1985) ashyldy. Europadaghy qashyqtyqtan bilim beru - búl, eng aldymen, Ispaniyadaghy eng iri qashyqtyqtan bilim beru últtyq uniyversiyteti (iyNED) (elinde  58 oqu ortalyghy, 9 shetelde) jәne shtab-pәteri Baltyq aimaghynyng 10 eldi biriktiretin Stokgolimda ornalasqan Baltika uniyversiyteti (BU). Al eng iri fransuzdyq qashyqtyqtan oqytu ortalyghy (CEND) 1969 jyly ashyldy. Ortalyq 2,5 mynnan astam oqu kurstaryn úsynady, onyng filialdaryn әlemning 120 elinen tabugha bolady, 5 myngha juyq múghalim qashyqtyqtan oqytu kurstary men bilim beru is-sharalaryn damytugha qatysady. CEND qashyqtyqtan oqytudy úiymdastyruda qoldanylatyn tehnikalyq qúraldargha sputniktik teledidar, viydeo jәne audio taspalar, elektrondy poshta, Internet, sonymen qatar dәstýrli әdebiyet kózderi jatady. 1989 jyly Amerika Qúrama Shtattarynda qashyqtyqtan oqytu iydeyasy 1500 kolledjder men telekompaniyalardyng konsorsiumy bolyp tabylatyn Qoghamdyq habar taratu jýiesinde (PBS TV) payda boldy. PBS TV  tórt bilim beru arnasy arqyly beriletin birneshe oqytu baghdarlamalaryn qamtidy. Olardyng ishinde ghylymnyn, biznesting jәne menedjmentting әrtýrli baghyttary boyynsha kurstardy úsynatyn PBS Adalt Learning Service qashyqtyqtan oqytu baghdarlamasy erekshe oryn alady. Býgingi tanda Pensilivan (Penn State University) memlekettik uniyversiyteti qashyqtyqtan bilim beru salasyndaghy eng bedeldi uniyversiytetterding biri. Onyng tәjiriybesin YuNESKO virtualdy uniyversiytet tújyrymdamasyn jasauda qoldandy. Qytayda mәdeny revolusiya kezinde jabylghan dәstýrli joghary oqu oryndarynyng ornyna 1979 jyly Radio jәne teledidar uniyversiytetterining últtyq jelisi (CRTVU) qúryldy. Oqytu sputniktik habar taratu jәne teledidar uniyversiytetterin qoldana otyryp úiymdastyrylady.

Bilim berudi basqaru jýiesi

Qashyqtan oqytudy sәtti jýzege asyrudyng negizi bolyp onlayn rejiyminde oqu prosesin qúrugha mýmkindik beretin baghdarlamalyq portaldar. Qazirgi kezde әlemdik dengeyde Learning Management Systems (LMS) yaghny bilim berudi basqaru jýiesi (BBBJ). 2014 jyly menedjment jýiesin oqytudyng әlemdik naryghy $ 2,5 mlrd astam qarjygha baghalandy, al 2009 jyly naryq kólemi -1,2 mlrd dollardan eki ese az boldy. Dýnie jýzinde oqytudy basqaru jýiesin 600-den astam jetkizushiler bar. Eng iri әlemdik BBBJ 15 iri kompaniyanyng ýlesinde. AQSh joghary oqu oryndarynyng zertteui boyynsha (studentter sany 1000-nan asady) BBBJ eng tanymaldary: Blackboard Learn, Moodle, Desire2Learn jәne Canvas. Blackboard Learn platformasyn 35,8% amerikandyq uniyversiytetter paydalanady, Moodle – 19,7%, Desire2Learn – 9,5% jәne Canvas – 9%. Qashyqtyqtan oqytu kurstaryna qatysatyn studentter sany boyynsha Blackboard Learn kóshbasshy (barlyq studentterding 44,6%-y), studentterding 16,5% Moodle platformasynda, 12,9%  Canvas jýiesin tandasa,  12,6%-y Desire2Learn jýiesimen qashyqtan oqidy.

Zoom nege qauipsiz bolmady?

Zoom - búl bizding kópshiligimiz karantinge deyin bilmeytin beynekonferensiyalyq alan. Nauryzdyng ayaghynda onyng qarjysy 29 milliard dollargha deyin ósti, yaghny búl kez kelgen amerikandyq aviakompaniyagha qaraghanda qymbat túrady. Búl oqshaulanugha mәjbýr boludan tuyndaghan súranys ekeni bәrimizge mәlim. Zoom Video Communications bas kensesi Kaliforniya shtatynyng San-Hose qalasynda (AQSh) ornalasqan jәne qashyqtan konferensiya ótkizetin baghdarlamamen ainalysady. Kompaniyany 2011 jyly Erik Yuani qúrghan. Servisting ózi 2013 jyly iske qosyldy, iske qosylghannan keyin birden oghan million paydalanushy qosyldy, 2014 jyldyng jazynda ol 10 milliongha jetti, al 2015 jylgha qaray Zoom qyzmetin 40 million jeke túlgha men 65 myng úiym paydalandy(Biy-Biy-Siy). Baghdarlamanyng tegin núsqasyna 100 adamgha deyin qatysa alady, búl jaghdayda beynekonferensiya 40 minutqa deyin sozyluy mýmkin. Eger paydalanushygha qatysushylardyng kóbirek sanyn qosu nemese olarmen úzaq sóilesu qajet bolsa, sizge aiyna 15 dollardy qúraytyn aqyly núsqagha kóshu kerek. Búl jaghdayda, tegin núsqada jeke beyne qonyraular shektelmeydi.

Zoom-gha kompiuterde de, mobilidi qosymshada arqyly qosyla alasyz. Qonyrau shalugha, hat jazugha jәne konferensiya barysynda qatysushylargha habarlama jazugha da bolady. Erik Yuan әlemde karantin bastalghannan beri baghdarlamany paydalanushylar sany tez ósip kele jatqanyn jәne qazirgi uaqytta ony kýnine 200 million adam paydalanatynyn aitty. Alayda San-Hose (AQSh) federaldy sotynda Zoom kompaniyasy ýshinshi tarap kompaniyalaryna, atap aitqanda Facebook-ke jәne basqa da әleumettik jelilerge derekterdi jiberdi dep aiyptaldy. The Guardian iOS qoldanbasy әleumettik jelide tirkelmegen bolsa da Facebook-ke  mәlimetterin jiberedi dep jazdy. Búl aqparat paydalanushynyng ornalasqan jerin jәne baghdarlamadaghy onyng jeke mәlimetterin qamtidy, sol arqyly basqa kompaniyalar oghan jeke jarnamalaryn jibere alady. Taghy bir mәsele 2020 jyldyng qantarynda tabyldy. Check Point izraildik kiyberqauipsizdik kompaniyasy zoom-daghy әngimelerdi tyndaugha jәne osynday parolimen qorghalmaghan konferensiyalar kezinde taratylghan barlyq fayldardy alugha bolatyn kemshiligin anyqtady. Hakkerler zoom-daghy konferensiyalar búzu ýshin týrli parnografiyalyq beynerolikter jiberedi.  Amerikandyq búqaralyq aqparat qúraldarynda hakerler nәsilshil jәne jay ghana qorlaytyn habarlamalar jiberip konferensiyalardyng berekesin ketirgeni jayly aitylady. Alayda, BAQ-tyng habarlauynsha, hakkerler kompiuterler men telefondardaghy jeke aqparatqa qol jetkize almady.

Qazaqstandyq ghalymdar әr týrli pikirde, alayda olar qashyqtan oqytsaq  bilim sapasy tómendey me dep alandaydy. 

Mәriya Maylyqútova,

Abylay han atyndaghy HQjÁTU agha oqytushysy, MosGU aspiranty

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