Beysenbi, 22 Sәuir 2021
Ádebiyet 3586 2 pikir 27 Mausym, 2020 saghat 15:35

«Usarymsaq jyry»: Manday ter, kóz jasy jәne qan

Qytay jazushysy Mo Yan tyng oily, ózgeshe órnekti shygharmalarymen kópshilikti tandandyrudan tanghan emes. Janashyldyghymen, shynshyldyghymen erekshelenetin jazushy eng kópo qylatyn qalamgerler qatarynda. «Qazaq Ádebiyeti» gәzetining «Talgham-tarazy» aidarynda aqyn Dýisenәli Álimaqyn Mo Yannyng «Usarymsaq jyry» romany turasynda oy tolghapty. 

Redaksiya


«Qúddy Garsia Markes siyaqty mening de shygharmalarym әjem aitqan anyz-ertegilerding negizinde jazyldy», – degen Mo Yannyng shygharmashylyghy әlem oqyrmandaryna beytanys emes.

Kópten beri sóremde «myzghyp» jatqan Nobeli syilyghynyng iyegeri, Qytaydyng tanymal jazushysy Mo Yannyng «Usarymsaq jyry» atty romanyn jaqynda oqyp bitir­dim. «Usarymsaqjyry» – búl iykemsiz jәne beytarap ýkimetting halyq aldyndaghy jauapsyzdyghyn әshkerelegen shyghar­ma. Sonymen qatar er men әiel, әke men bala, dostarar asyndaghy sýiis­pen­­shilikting jyry.

Bes jýz betten túratyn búl roman kýni býginge deyin jaqsy oqylyp jatqan shygharmalardyng qatarynda. «Roman degen alyp kiyt. Tereng teniz­der­de japadan-jalghyz shayqap jýredi; dýrildetip, zil-batpan kýshpen tynys alady. Tolqyn-tolqyn sulardy ýiiriltip, qandy kóbik oinatyp balalaydy. Ýiirimen jýzetin akulalarmen belgili bir aralyq saqtap jýiitkiydi», – dep úly әngimege erekshe bagha ber­gen Mo Yannyng búl tuyndysy GauYan, GauMa, Jinjýy siyaqty keyip­ker­ler arqyly adamgershilikti tu etip, Qytaydyng bir audanyndaghy qara­payym adamdardyng ómirin, ýmitin, seni­min nanymdy týrde suretteydi. Shygharmanyng basty oqighasy – audan­dyq ýkimetting ýndeuimen usarymsaq ekken diqandardyng satylmay qalghan ónimderin shiritip alyp, audandyq ýkimetke basyp kirui, ashynghan halyq­tyng audan basshysynan esep alugha ýn qosuy, sonyng saldarynan «Usarymsaq oqighasy» tuyp, ainalany dýrliktirui. Mo Yannyng aituynsha, búl oqigha shynayy ómirde bolghan eken. Romannyng songhy sózinde ol: «On toghyz jyldyng aldynda, real ómirde mynaday bir súm­dyq boldy. Myndaghan dihandar óz mýddeleri ayaqqa taptalyp, zardap shekkenderi ýshin ózdikterinen toptasyp, audandyq ýkimetke basyp kirip, kense qúrylghylaryn syndyryp, órtedi. Sóitip, býkil eldid ýrliktirgen «Usarymsaq oqighasy» payda boldy. Men qatty tolqydym, enjarlyq tanyta almadym. Aqyry «Áulet» atty tuyndymdy jazudy toqtata túryp, 35 kýn enbektenip, osy romandy jazyp shyqtym», – deydi.

Romanda bas keyipkerlerding kýr­deli taghdyrlary arqyly mahabbat, ghadauat, izgilik pen jauyzdyq, ýmit pen ýrey parellelidi týrde surettelip, sheber bayandalady. Jemqor basshynyng ezgisine qarsy kýresken auyl dihanda­rynyng senimi esh seyilmeydi.

Mo Yannyng keyipkerleri kezdesken san týrli tosqauyldargha qara­mas­tan, sýiispenshilikti saqtaugha tyrysady, izgilikke úmtylady.

Basty keyipkerler – soqyr qyzy jәne jang atughan balasy bar Gao Yan, mahabbattoryna shyrmalghan GaoMa men Jinjýy jәne onyng keregharlyqqa toly otbasy. Áriyne, basty taqyryp – ýkimetting qabiletsizdigi men sybaylas jemqorlyq jәne onyng songhy zardaptary turaly. Eger osy romandy bir auyz sózge jinaqtaugha tura kelse, «Manday ter», «Kózjasy» jәne «Qan» der edik. Romandaghy oqighanyng tútas qúrylymy osyghan sayady. Enbekshil dihandardyng taban et, manday teri kózjasyna úlasyp, shygharma sony «qanmen» ayaqtalady. Keyipker Gao Yang qanshama azap kórse de, «Men jylap jatqan joqpyn…» – dep ózin-ózi sendirdi.

Mo Yannyng sheberligi sonda, әr oqighany kishkentay bólshekterge bólip aityp beredi, oqyrmandy ayaghyna deyin ústaydy. Kir-qojalaq sayasattyng iyisi mýnkip, ashu men ashy aiqaydyng artynda kirshiksiz mahabbat jәne otbasylyq ómir kýtip túrghanyn aitqysy kelgen búl roman bizge kishkentay adamdar ómirine, úiymdastyrylghann ekege, mahabbatqa, eginshilikke qatysty aqparattardy da bere alady. Mo Yan qoghamnyng eshkim nazar audara bermeytin qalta­rysyndaghy oqighalardy, jaghymsyz jәne jiyirkenishti tústardy sózben bey­neleuge asa sheber qalamger.

Nekesiz jýkti bolghan keyipker Jinjýy basyna auyr kýn týskend eishtegi nәrestesimen «tildesedi».

– Ana, syrtqa shyghayynshy, men dóp-dóngelek ot shardy kórdim.

– Balam, ol kýn ghoy.

– Onda men sol kýndi kóremin.

– Balam, oghan qaraugha bolmaydy, ol janyp túrghan ot, anannyng eti men terisin kýidirip jiberedi.

Jazushy, mine, osylay ómirge kelmegen adam men ómir sýrip jýrgenmen, qiyndyq keshken taghdyrly adamnyng arasyna dialog tastaydy. Ótkenning jәne býgingi kýnning zúlymdyqtaryna qarsy әdilettilik ýshin kýresting aiqyn kórinisteri osy shygharmada keninen aitylady.

Roman eng sonynda «Usarymsaq oq­ghasyna» qatysqan keyipkerding enbekpen ózgertu lagerinen qashyp bara jatqan jolda jonynan oq tiyip, jan tәsili mboluymen ayaqtalady. Bir adamnyng taghdyry – myng adamnyng ómirimen birdey ekenin aitqysy kelgen avtor: «Búl shygharmada jazghanym – ózime tanys keyipkerler, ózime tanys orta. Romandaghy tóreshil auy lbastyghynyng kóligi basyp óltirgen tórtinshi aghaydyng prototiypi – mening tórtinshi aghayym edi. Bәlkim, keyipkerler men orta ózime tanys bolghandyqtan, búl tuyndy derekti әdebiyet arnasyna qosyludan aulaq boldy. Búl – bir hikayat. Ondaghy oqighalar tek shygharmadaghy keyipkerlerdi matastyrghan kógen ghana. Jyldar jyljyp ótti, «Usarymsaq oqiy­ghasy» úmyt bola bastady. Biraq ondaghy keyipkerler ómirden әli de óship ketkeni joq», – deydi.

Osy sýiekti shygharmany oqyp bolghan son, aluan týrli oigha qaldym. Mo Yan ayaday ghana audanda oryn alghan qarapayym oqighany arqau etip, osynday keremet tuyndy jazyp, qytay halqynyng auyr taghdyr men qiyn-qystau kezderdi bastan ótkizgenin әr elding oqyrmanyna jetkize aldy. Basty nazar audaratyny­myz, romandy nebәri otyzshaqty kýn­de jazyp shyghuy. Salystyrmaly týrde aitsaq, 1986 jylghy «Jeltoqsan oqighasy» biz ýshin – tas tariyh. Al biz әli kýnge deyin osy Jeltoqsan oqighasy turaly jibi týzu kólemdi roman jaza almay kelemiz. Tek Túrysbek Sәuketaevtyng «Ay qaranghysy», Núrjan Quantaydyng «Qaraózek» romandary men Amanghazy Kәripjanovtyng estelikterinen basqa osy oqighany keninen surettegen, shynayy derekter arqyly sóileytin kórkem shygharmany oqy almadyq.

Mo Yannyng shygharmasyndaghy «Usa­rym­saq oqighasyna» qaraghanda bizding elde bolghan «Jeltoqsan oqighasynyn» auqymy ken, zardaby auyr boldy emes pe? Onyng artynda alyp derjavanyng kishkentay halyqty ezgige salghany, qor­lyqqa kóndirgisi kelgeni, armanshyl elding jastarynyng laulaghan ýmiti men jigeri túr emes pe? Al otyz jyldan astam uaqyt boyy osynday oqighany arqau etip, roman jaza almay kele jatqanymyzgha ne kedergi? Mo Yan ózi Qytay elinde túryp jatsa da, osy shygharmasynda Qytaydyng sayasy partiyasynyng keybir únamsyz tústaryn, atap aitqanda, jeng úshynan jalghasqan jemqorlyq sayasatyn ayamay syngha alady. Real oqighany real týrde jaza­dy. Al biz she? Mende qazir «Biz qa­shan «1986» degen roman jazamyz?» degen úly súraq bar. Jauabyn kim bererin Qúday bilsin!

Dýisenәli Álimaqyn

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