Seysenbi, 21 Qyrkýiek 2021
Janalyqtar 2190 0 pikir 6 Jeltoqsan, 2011 saghat 05:25

Nәdir Dәulet. Últ Mәjlisi

Tatar-bashqúrt tarihynyng az zerttelgen taqyryptarynyng biri - ishki Resey men Sibir músylman týrki-tatarlardyng Últtyq Mәjlisi taqyryby. Últ Mәjlisi әzirlegen "Edil-Oral Dәuleti" jobasy qanday jaghdayda júmys isteuge tura kelgen, búl parlament nege sәtsizdikke úshyraghan, bolishevikter últtyq azshylyqtardy qalay ózderine tartyp alghan degen súraqtargha әli de qanaghattanarlyq jauap berilmegen.

Burjuazdyq iydeya dep tamghalanghan últtyq avtonomiya, tatar bolisheviktary qúrghysy kelgen Tatar-bashqúrt Sovet Respublikasy - Edil-Oral aimaghy halqynyng óz dәuletin qúru tilegining shaghylysy bolghan. Alayda búl jerlerde jasaushy týrki halyqtyng maqsatyna jete almady. Nәtiyjesinde Edil-Oral boyynda demografiyalyq jәne basqa da kórsetkishter boyynsha ýsh kishirek kólemdi respublika qúryldy - Tatar, Bashqúrt hәm Chuvash Sovet Sosialisttik Avtonomiyalyq respublikalar. Bolishevistik tónkeris jaqsy úiymdastyrylghan edi jәne onyng nәtiyjesi - óz iydeyalaryna nyq berilgen azshylyqtardyng kópshiligin ózine boysúndyru.

Tatar jәne bashqúrttyng kópshiligi týrli sosialisttik toptardy hәm, aiyryp alghanda, bolishevikterdi  jaqtap shyqqan joq. Ziyalylardyng bir bóligi ghana qyzyldardyng bergen uәdelerine senip, aldanghanyn tym kesh týsindi. Proletariat diktaturasy esimi astynda Sovet ókimeti týgil, shynynda Mәskeu ókimeti ornady.

Tatar men bashqúrttyng tilek-maqsattary basynda birge bolsa da, uaqyt ótken sayyn jer mәselesi olardy aiyrdy. Sovet zamany tarihshylary kerisin rastaugha tyryssa da, tatar-bashqúrttar bolishevikttik tónkeriske qatyspady, ýitkeni olarda shyn maghynasynda júmysshylar taby bolghan joq. Tatar-bashqúrtta "krestiyandar" halyqtyng kópshiligin qúrghandyqtan, proletariat diktaturasy oghan eshbir payda әkelmeytinin halyq týsingen. Basqa últtyq azshylyqtar siyaqty, týrki halyqtary da patsha rejiyminen qútylyp әdil sharttarmen júmys jasaugha úmtylghan. Búl úmtylys 1917 jyldyng 1-11 mamyrynda Mәskeude jiylghan Býkilresey músylmandary qúryltayynda kórinis tapty. Sodan bastap әr týrki qauym kuresti ózi túrghan jaqqa alyp baryp bastady. Edil-Oral elinde de solay bolyp, sayasy hәm qaruly kýres jalghasyn tapty.

Edil-Oral aimaghynyng jaghrapiyalyq ereksheligi, demografiyalyq jәne qoghamdyq jaghdayy, tatar halqy ishindegi synyptar, týrli pikirler hәm sayasy әreketterine nazar audarayyq.

Jaghrapiyalyq erekshelik

Orta Edil hәm Kýngey Oral ólkesindegi týrki halyqtar ( tatarlar, bashqúrttar, chuvashtar) Sovet kezinde qúrylghan Tatarstan, Bashqúrtstan, Chuvash, Mary hәm Udmurt avtonomdyq Respublikalarynda jәne olargha kórshiles Orynbor, Chiylәbe, Uliyanovsk (Simbir), Samara, Kirov (Vyatka), Permi ólkelerinde túrady. Patshalyq Reseyde búl jaqtyng halyqtary jeke respublikalaryna ie bolmay, týrli guberniyalargha taralyp ómir sýrgen. Sovet ókimeti sharttarymen guberniyalardyng keybirleri (nemese olardyng bir bóligi) búrynghy esimderin saqtady yaky kórshiles últtyq respublikanyng qúramyna kirdi, ekinshilerding esimderi ózgertildi. Guberniya sózin oblasti sózi almastyrdy.

Belgili bolghanday, búl ózgerister nәtiyjesinde aimaqtyq birlikterding kólemi de ózgergen. Eger Qazan guberniyasyn alsaq, patshalyq Resey dәuirinde onymen shektes ólkeleri retinde týn jaqta Vyatka, kýn jaq-batysta Simbir, kýn jaq-shyghysta Samara, shyghysta Ufa guberniyalary bolghan. Ufa guberniyasyn týn jaqtan Permi, kýnjaq-batystan Samara, kýn jaqtan Orynbor guberniyalary tirep túrghan.

Demografiyalyq jaghday

1897 jylda ótkizilgen halyq sanaghy nәtiyjelerine qaraghanda, Qazan guberniyasynda 675 myng tatar jasap, guberniya halqynyng tek 31%-in qúraghan (búl sangha qazirgi uaqytta tatar atauy astynda birlesken kryashen, miyshәr hәm teptәrlar kirmeydi). Tatarlar kóptep shoghyrlanghan taghy bir jer - Orta Edil boyy aimaghy, yaghny Simbir, Samara, Sarytau jәne Penza guberniyalary. Múnda olar orys, chuvash hәm mordva halyqtary arasynda túrghan. Orta Edil boyynda jәne Astarhan guberniyasynda barlyghy 560 myng tatar eseptelingen.

Oral aimaghyna kelsek, ol Kama ózeninen bastalyp, kýn jaqta Orynbor qalasyn jәne әri qaray Oral taularyna deyin jatqan jerlerdi óz ishine alghan. Búl ólkege Ufa, Orynbor jәne Permi guberniyalary kirgen. 1897 jylghy halyq sanaghyna qaraghanda, Oral guberniyasynda tatarlardyng sany 495 myngha deyin jetip otyrghan. Jalpy sangha Peterbur, Kiyev, Mәskeu, Baku siyaqty qalalardaghy, Qazaqstan hәm Orta Aziyadaghy tatarlar (731 myn) eskerilmegen. Olardy qosqanda, tatardyng sany 2 mln 600 myngha deyin jetken. XIX ghasyrdyng sonynda Edil-Oral aimaghynda jasaghan tatardyng ýlken kópshiligin, әriyne, auyl halqy qúraghan. Tatarlardyng salystyrmaly týrde kóp jasaghan qalalary búl  - Qazan, Orynbor, Astarhan jәne Ufa. Álbette, Sankt-Peterbor, Mәskeu, Qyrymdaghy Simferopoli (Aqmeshit), Sevastopoli jәne Odessa qalalarynda da tatarlar túrghan.

1918 jyl maghlúmattary kórsetkendey, Qazan guberniyasynda tatarlar sany biraz ghana artqan. Din jaghynan hristian, til jaghynan týrki bolghan chuvashtar guberniya halqynyng 25%, fiyn-ugor halqy - mariyler 5.6% (155 myn) qúraghan. Sóitip, gubernadaghy týrki jәne finugor túqymdary barlyq halqynyng 64% dәrejesine jetip, orystardan eki ese artyghyraq bolghan. Búl jerde bir nәrseni úmytpau kerek: orystar Qazan guberniyasynda resmy azshylyq bolsa da, biyleushi últtyng ókilderi bolghandyqtan asa ýlken kýsh pen yqpalgha ie bolghan.

Tatarlar kóptep shoghyrlanghan taghy bir aimaq - Ufa guberniyasy. Olar bashqúrttarmen birge guberniya halqynyng jartysynan kóbin qúraghan. Ufa guberniyasynda tatar-bashqúrttan tys, kryashender (340 myng - 12%) hәm chuashtar (90 myng - 3%) túrghanyn esepke alsaq, demek týrkiler ýlesi 60%-ten (1.717 myn) asqan degen nәtiyjege kelemiz. Búlargha taghy mary (95 myng - 3.2%) jәne basqa da orys bolmaghan etnik toptardy qossaq, olardyng jalpy sany 2 milliongha tolyp, guberniyadaghy orystardan eki ese kóp bolghanyn kóremiz.

Tatar-bashqúrttyng demografiyalyq haldaryn kezinde Ghalymjan Sharaf ta teksergen. Ol zemstvo, volosttardyng ortalyq statistika burosynyng maghlúmatataryna hәm Ufadaghy Músylman diny basqarmasynyn, músylman halqymen baylanysty tirkeu qújattaryna tayanghan. Sharaftan kórgenimizdey, Resey imperiyasyndaghy tatar-bashqúrttyng 4 million 140 myny (82%) ózderining tarihy jerlerinde, yaghny Ufa, Qazan guberniyalary men olargha kórshiles Vyatka, Permi, Simbir, Samara hәm Orynbor jerlerinde jasaghan. Qysqasy, tatarlar Edil-Oral aimaghynda 4 millionnan artyq bolghanymen, kóp әkimshilik birlikter (guberniya, uezd, volosti) arasynda shashylyp, eshbirinde de basym kópshilikke ie bolmaghan. Olar orystar jәne basqa últtyq azshylyqtarmen aralasyp jasaghan. Shamamen bir million tatar ózderining tarihy aimaqtarynan qashyq túrghan, yaghny orys tenizinde jýzgen araldar halinde bolghan. Búrynghy handyq zamanyndaghy Qazan XVI ghasyrdyng ortasynan bastap orys qalasyna ainaldyrylghan.

Sóitip, últtyq azattyq ýshin kýreskende, tatarlar búl faktylardy esepke alu mәjbýrliginde qalghan. Qazan tatarlary 1917 jylda barlyghyna kelgen sayasy mýmkindikterdi paydalanugha niyettep túrghanda, quatty demografiyalyq negizder bolmaghandyghyn eskere otyrugha tiyis bolghan. Sebebi - tatarlardyng tarihy otanyna XVI ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynda orystyng sayasy basqarushylary, әskeri hәm kóship kelushileri aghyla bastady, nәtiyjesinde kóptegen tatar otbasylary ortalyqtan shetke kóshuge mәjbur boldy nemese túrghan jerinen sýrildi. Qysqasy, demografiyalyq faktor tatar ýshin jaqsy bolghan joq.

El jetekshiligi SSSR zamanynda da orystandyru sayasatyn jalghastyrdy. Sol sebepten, býgingi kýnde de, Edil-Oral aimaghyndaghy týrki halyqtar ýshin teris demografiyalyq ahual saqtaluda. 1991 jyldan son tәuelsizdik alghan týrki elderding kóbinde orystar azshylyqqa ainalsa, Edil-Oralda jaghday basqasha boldy.

(Jalghasy bar)

Tatar tilinen audarghan - Aslan Egizbay
azatliq.org
«Abay-aqparat»

0 pikir