Dýisenbi, 21 Mausym 2021
2623 24 pikir 26 Sәuir, 2021 saghat 13:34

Atom azabynan qútqarghan Azattyq!

Qazaqstan atom bombasynyng azabyn әbden shekken el, al qazaq urannyng uyna әbden ulanghan halyq. Álemde yadrolyq qarudyng zardabyn qazaqtay shekken últ joq. Hirosima men Nagasaky halqyna tastalghan ajal otynan myng ese quatty qaru týrleri bizding sayyn dalamyzdy sarghaytyp, ókpemizdi ulap, qyryq jyl boyy qan týkirtti. Azattyqtyng arayly tany atqansha qazaq dalasy synaq alanyna ainaldy. 1991 jyldyng 16-jeltoqsany tek qana tәuelsizdikti bekitken kýn emes, sonday-aq atom uynan azattyqty mәngi alghan kýn retinde de tarihta qalady.

Alghash ret qazaq dalasynda yadrolyq qaru 1949 jyly synaldy. Kenes biyligi AQSh-tyng quatty qarugha ie bolghanyn kórgennen keyin, jappay qarulanu bәsekelestiginde artta qalmau maqsatynda yadrolyq qarudy jyldam jasap, Qazaqstandy synaq alanyna ainaldyrdy. 1949 jyly 29-tamyzda 22 kilotondyq yadrolyq bomba Shyghys Qazaqstandy dýr silkindirdi. Abay tughan ólkening azapty da ajaldy kezeni solaysha bastaldy. Semey yadrolyq synaq alany elimizding soltýstik-shyghys ólkesinde ornalasyp, 18000 myng sharshy shaqyrymdy alyp jatty. Yadrolyq synaqtardyng 40 jyl ishinde Semey synaq alanynda 460 jarylys jasaldy. Yadrolyq jarylystardy jasaghan әskeriyler men ghalymdar әr synaqty auqymdy әri kólemdi etip jasaugha mýddeli boldy. Sondyqtan synaqtar auada, jer betinde, jer astynda ótip jatty. Myndaghan adam onyng zardabyn bilmesten, dәl synaq alanynyng qasynda kýg keshti. ;Ghalymdar Shyghys Qazaqstannyng radiasiyalyq ulanuy aldaghy myng jyldyqta da kete qongy ekitalay degen pikir bildirude. Sebebi 55 auadaghy jәne 169 jer astyndaghy synaqtardyng radiasiyasy barlyq kenistikke tarap, sugha, topyraqqa sinip qalghan. Bomba qúramyndaghy ziyandy zattar myndaghan jyldar boyy saqtalatyn qasiyetke iye. Yadrolyq qarudyng orasan zor zardaby jayly kópshilikke aitylmady. 50-jyldardyng ortasynda elimizding shyghysy men soltýstiginde obyr dertine shaldyqqandar sany kýrt artty. Balalar ómirge mýgedek bolyp kele bastady. Soghan qaramastan kenestik biylik shyndyqty jasyryp qaldy. Al synaq júmystary 1989 jylgha deyin jalghasa berdi.

Yadrolyq synaqtardy toqtatugha qatysty belsendilik 80-jyldary óz bastauyn aldy. Alghashqylardyng biri bolyp kórnekti ghalym Sayym Balmúqanov top bastady. Onyng ghylymy enbekterine tyiym salu, ghylymy júmysyna kedergi keltiru, qarsylyq bildiru, partiya tarapynan qudalau júmystary jýrgizildi. Sayym Balmúqanov Qazaqstandaghy yadrolyq qarudyng synaghyn, 1950-jyldardaghy synaqtyng keri әserin ghylymy túrghydan zerttep, kópshilikke aita bastaghan bolatyn. 1989 jyly elimizde әigili «Nevada-Semey» natiyadrolyq qozghalysy qúryldy. Onyng basynda belgili jazushy Oljas Sýleymenov túrghan bolatyn. Oljas myndaghan halyqtyng aldynda: «Biz, Qazaqstan jәne Nevada shtatynyng túrghyndary, óz tarapymyzdan alandaushylyq bildirip, yadrolyq synaqtardy jýrgizuge qarsy ekenimizdi aitamyz. Qazirgi jәne keleshek úrpaqtyng saulyghy ýshin, biz yadrolyq synaq alandaryn jabugha shaqyramyz. Biz yadrolyq qaru jasau maqsatyndaghy óndiristerdi toqtatudy talap etemiz» dep úrandady. Qozghalys әlem boyynsha ýlken qoldaugha ie boldy.

Qozghalystyng belsendiligin kórgen basshylar naqty sheshim qabyldady. 1991 jyldyng 29-tamyzy kýni Núrsúltan Nazarbaev Semey yadrolyq synaq alanyn resmy týrde jabu turaly jarlyqqa qol qoydy. Artynsha dәl osy kýn BÚÚ tarapynan moyyndalyp, әlemde yadrolyq qarudy taratpau turaly kýn retinde atalyp ótude. Qazaqstan óz aumaghyndaghy yadrolyq qarudan bas tartyp, 1995 jylgha deyin tolyq joygha mýmkindik aldy.

Qazaqstan yadrolyq qarudan bas tartsa da, yadrolyq synaqtardyng ziyany әli de milliondaghan adam zardabyn shegip keledi. Radiasiyanyng saldarynan resmy derek boyynsha 3 mln adam zardap shekken. Al beyresmy derekter ondaghan million degen aqparatty kórsetude. Sebebi radiasiya kórshiles memleketterge de tarap ketken.

Qazaqstan azamattaryn yadrolyq synaqtar ghana emes, jat jerdegi jarylys ta radiasiya uyna túnshyqtyrdy.

1986 jyly 26 sәuirde adamzat tarihyndaghy beybit atomdy iygeru salasynda alapat apat boldy. Chernobyli AES-inde jarylys bolyp, radiasiya auagha tarap ketti. Sarapshylar búl apatty adamzat tarihyndaghy eng auqymdy on apattyng qataryna jatqyzady. Apattyng shynayy sebebi men onyng zardabyna qatysty tolyq mәlimet әli kýnge deyin berilgen joq.

Chernobyli AES-ning alghashqy blogy 1970 jyly salyna bastady. AES júmysshylaryna arnap Pripyati qalasy túrghyzyldy. 1977 jyldyng 27 qyrkýieginde alghashqy energiya blogy iske qosyldy. Artynsha taghy ýsh blok salyndy. 1986 jyldyng 26 sәuirinde 4-shi blokta jarylys boldy.

Tikeley jarylystan bir adam qaza tapty. Ol operator Valeriy Hodemchuk bolatyn. Al jarylys saldarynan denesin kýiik shalghan injener Vladimir Shashenok bir kýnnen song kóz júmdy. 27 sәuirden bastap AES-ke jaqyn aimaqtyng halqyn qauipsiz aimaqqa kóshiru júmystary bastaldy. Alghash bolyp 47 myng halqy bar Pripyati qalasy kóshirildi. 1986 jyldyng mamyr aiynda AES manyndaghy 188 eldi-meken halqy qauipsiz aimaqqa kóshirilgeni belgili, olardyng jalpy sany 116 myng adamdy qúraydy.

Jarylys saldarynan bastalghan órtti sóndiru qiyngha soqty. Qyzyl jalyn 10 kýn boyy órt sóndirushilerge baghynbay, auagha auqymdy kólemde radiasiya shashty. Radiasiyalyq lastanugha shamamen 200 myng sharshy shaqyrym aumaq úshyrady. Onyng 70% territoriyasy Ukraina, Belorussiya men Reseyge tiyesili bolatyn. Bir apta ótkennen keyin Chernobylidyng radiasiyasy odaqtyng basqa elderinen de anyqtaldy. Keyinnen radiasiyalyq lastanugha KSRO-nyng Arktikalyq bóligi, Norvegiya, Finlyandiya men Shvesiya elderi úshyraghany belgili boldy.

Chernobyli apatynan tikeley qaza tapqandar sany 31 adamdy qúraydy. Apat saldaryn joygha 600 myng adam qatysqan, onyng ishinde 32 myny qazaqstandyq. Sarapshylardyng aituynsha 8,4 million adam radiasiya zardabyn shekken. Chernobyli zardabyn joigha qatysqan 32 myng qazaqstandyqtyng qazirgi tanda tek qana 7 mynnan astamy tiri. Apat zardabynan milliondar obyr dertine shaldyqqan deydi ekologtar, alayda resmy Mәskeu ol faktilerdi moyyndamay keledi.

Resey men Ukraina biyligi Chernobyli jarylysyna qatysty qújattardy qúpiya saqtauda. «KGB-nyng Chernobyli boyynsha isi. Qúrylystan jarylysqa deyin» atty kitapta búl jayynda tolyq jazylghan. Kitapqa engen 229 qújattyng ishinde jarylysqa qatysty boljamdar, biylik ókilderining pikir almasuy, zardabyn jasyrugha qatysty núsqaulyqtar engen.

Qazaqstan atom zardabyn eng kóp shekken memleket. Elimizde 1949 jyldan bastap KSRO qúlaghangha deyin 500-ge juyq yadrolyq bombany synaqtan ótkizu iske asty. Jarylys saldarynan milliondaghan qazaqstandyq zardap shegip, mýgedek bolyp qaldy. Elimizding shyghys bóligi әli kýnge deyin obyr dertinen kósh bastap túr. Artynsha Chernobyli zardabyn joygha taghy 30 mynnan astam qazaqstandyq qatysty. Olardyng kópshiligi radiasiyalyq sәulening zardabyn shekti. Sondyqtan qarapayym qazaqstandyqtardyng týsiniginde atom energiyasy qasiret, indet sózimen sinonimdes ekeni jasyryn emes.

Songhy jyldary Resey tarapynan Qazaqstangha AES salu boyynsha úsynystar jii týsude. Mysaly 2021 jyldyng 10 aqpanynda Resey elshisi: «Qazaqstangha әlemdegi basqa elder siyaqty taza energiya qajet. Osy saladaghy eng tiyimdi sheshimderding biri - atom elektr stansiyalary. Elektr energiyasynyng tapshylyghyn eskere otyryp, AES salu Qazaqstan ýshin ózekti taqyrypqa ainaluda. Rosatom zauyttyng qauipsizdigi men ekologiyalyq tazalyghyna kepildik bere otyryp, búl jobany qabyldaugha dayyn. Keybir aqparat qúraldarynda taratylghan orys atomy turaly fobiyalardyng shyndyqqa janaspaytynyn atap ótkim keledi. Reseylik AES-tarda qoldanylatyn eng zamanauy tehnologiyalar qúrylys kezinde de, osy obektilerdi paydalanu kezinde de qauipting bolmauyn qamtamasyz etedi. Sonymen qatar, AES jobasy elektr energiyasynan basqa Qazaqstan ekonomikasynyng kóptegen salalaryna serpin beredi, bilikti júmys oryndaryn ashady jәne yadrolyq fizika salasyndaghy joghary bilim sapasyn arttyrady»,- degen edi.

Resey elshisi Mәskeuding Qazaqstangha AES salynuyn qalaytynyn qylqyldap, tyqpalauyn toqtatqan emes. 2021 jyldyng 20 sәuirinde Resey elshisi Aleksey Borodavkiyn: «Qazaqstan atom elektrstansiyasyn salu turaly sheshim shygharsa, Resey salugha dayyn»,- dep taghy da mәlimdedi. Alayda Qazaqstan halqy AES-ke óz qarsylyghyn bildirip keledi. AES-ke qatysty el preziydenti Qasym-Jomart Toqaev 2019 jyly Qazaqstanda atom elektrstansiyasyn salu josparda joq ekenin, AES salu qajet bolsa referendum arqyly halyq sheshetinin aitqan edi.

Qazaqstandy atom azabynan qútqarghan azattyq atty bagha jetpes qúndylyq. Biz kez kelgen yadrolyq ónimge ýlken jauapkershilikpen qarap kelemiz. Tipti beybit atomnyng ózine de. AES salu boyynsha mәseleni de sol baghytta anyqtaugha mýddelimiz.

 

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