Seysenbi, 18 Qantar 2022
Aqmyltyq 2577 4 pikir 17 Qarasha, 2021 saghat 15:37

Qytay armany. Ýshinshi qarar qayda bastaydy?

Qarashanyng 8-i men 11-i arasynda  Pekin qalasynda HKP-nyng 19-siezining 6-y plenumy jabyq jaghdayda ótti. Osy plenumda HKP-nyng 20-sezining uaqyty belgilenip, kompartiyanyng jýz jyldyq tarihyndaghy manyzdy tarihi, sayasy mәselelerdi qortyndylaghan ýshinshi qarar qabyldanyp, maqúldandy.

Júqpaly indet taraghaly eki jylgha tayau uaqyt bolyp, әlemning qalypty qarym-qatynasy óz yrghaghynan janylyp, adamdar sanasyn ýrey biylegen myna alasapyran zamanda atalmysh qarardyng joldanuy әlem sarapshylarynyng nazaryn erekshe audardy. Onyng ýstine Qytaydyng ishki-syrtqy jaghdayy da tym shirkin-ay emes. AQSh pen aradaghy sauda soghysy dialogqa kelse de әli teke-tires jaghdayynda túr. Jyljymaytyn mýlik naryghynyng qúldyrauy Qytay ekonomikasyna zil-zalanyng dýmpuinen belgi berdi. Óitkeni el ishki ónimining 60 payyzyn mýddeli klandargha arqa sýiegen osy jyljymaytyn mýlik naryghy ústaydy. «Qyzyuy» kóterilgen osy naryqtyng bәseyui qalay bolady? Ol jaghyn eshkim dóp basyp aita almaydy. Tayvani jәne sany az últtar mәselesi, Gonkong dauynan keyingi oqighalar Batys pen Qytaydyng qarym-qatynasyn tipti de kýrdelendire týsti. Qytay dәl qazir toghyz joldyng torabynda túrghanday. Syrtqy qysym, ishki daghdarys dendep túrghanda ýshinshi qarardyng dýniyege keliu týrli joramaldar men topshylaulardyng túzdyghy boldy. Osy qarar qabyldanady degennen bastap biylikke tәueldi aqparat qúraldary jaghynan toqtausyz týsinikteme berilip, nasihattalsa, shetelge auyp ketken ózgeshe oilaytyn demokratiyalyq kýshter men Batys mediyalarynyng syn sadaghyna ilindi.

Jogharyda aitqanymyzday búl Qytay kompartiyasynyng ghasyrlyq tarihyndaghy ýshinshi qarar. Birinshi qarar 1937 jyly  Zhang, Yang syndy eki genaral sol kezdegi el basshysyn kepilge alghan «Xi’an oqighasynan» keyin Sovet, Qúrama shtattyng ara aghayyn boluymen, ishki soghysta on jyl jan berip, jan alysqan eki partiya ymyragha kelip imperalizmge qarsy birtútas últtyq maydan qúryp jenisting shuaghy kórine bastaghanda,  yaghny 1945 jyly 21mamyrda Yan’an-da kompartiyanyng 7-sezinde dýniyege kelgen. Osy qúryltayda alghy shepten oralghan qolbasshylar men sayasy komissarlar, әr aumaqqa jauapty túlghalar bir aigha juyq partiya qúrylghannan bergi sayasy oqighalardy, sheshimderdi saraptan ótkizip, talqygha saldy. Qortyndy shyghardy. Mәskeu kórip, qyzyl alannyng auasymen tynystaghan Wang Ming, Bo Gu, Zhou Enlai siyaqty serkeler qatang syngha úshyrap, bezbenge týsti. Armiyada Zhang Guotao bastaghan Maomen kózqarasy kelispegen ózge taudyng búghylary shettetilip, esep berdi. Jalpy bayandama jasaghan Maonyng jerlesi әri jaqyn serigi Liu Shaoqi túnghysh ret Marksizm, Leninzm men Maoizmdi qatar atap, halyqaralyq komunizm qozghalysyna qosylghan ýles әri tyng qúbylys dep baghalady. Sonymen partiya ishinde Maonyng avtoriyteti teoriyalyq  jaqtan naqtylanyp, qalyptasty. Búl bayandama keyin «kommunisterding aqylaghy» degen kitap bolyp shyghyp, kóp tirajben tarady. Sonymen Maonyng partiya men armiyadaghy orny, bedeli myzghymastay bolyp qalyptasyp, qashan kóz jýmghansha eshkim bet kelmedi. Qiys ketkenderdi der kezinde alastap otyrdy. Áskeri, sayasi, iydeyalyq jaqtan bir tanymgha kelip, Maonyng avtoritarlyq biyligin tolyq qabyldaghan kommunister keyingi ishki soghysta qarsylastaryn múhit asyryp jiberdi.

Mao qaytys bolyp mәdeniyet tónkerisinde Maonyng qoldauymen biylikke kelgen nauqanshyl toptar, klandyq tepe-tendik saqtau ýshin biylikke kelgen Hua Guofeng men saqa kommunister jaghynan sayasy tónkeris arqyly sayasat sahnasynan alastatylghan son, birtindep әskery biylikti qolyna alghan Dyn atyshuly mәdeniyet tónkerisinde qysymgha, ziyankestikke úshyraghan qart kommunisterding qoldauyna ie boldy. Sonymen 1981 jyly kompartiyanyng 11-sezining 6-y plenumynda Deng, Chen Yun, Hu Yaobang ýshtigi birlese otyryp «QKP ortalyq partiya komiyteti memleket qúrylghannan bergi partiyanyng birneshe mәseleleri turaly qarary» degen qújat qabyldady. Osy qarar negizinde partiya Maonyng tarihy ornyna bagha berip, kemshilikterin atady. Partiya tarihyndaghy «onshyldyqqa qarsy túru», «zor sekirip ilgerleu», «mәdeniyet zor tónkerisi» syndy oqighalargha bagha berilip, teriske shygharyldy. Partiya men memleketting negizgi nysanasy taptyq kýresti arqau etuden ekonomikalyq qúrylysqa audaryldy. Syrtqy sayasatta ózge elge «tónkeris tasymaldau» toqtap, ozbyr bolmau, bar elmen dostyq qarym-qatynas ornatu basym oryngha shyqty. Syrtqa esik ashyp, investisiya tartu ekonomikalyq qúrylystyng ózegi boldy. Reforma jemisin berdi. Otyz jylda Qytay әlemdegi ekinshi eng quatty elge ainaldy.

Mao 81 jas jasap, 41 jyl kompartiyany jeke dara biylegende 11 retki sayasy baghyt nemese taq talas kýresinde óz qarsylastaryn jenip shyqty. Osy barysta eshkimdi ayaghan joq, әsirese ózi múrager dep belgilegen eki qandy kóilek joldasy memleket tóraghasy Liu Shaoxi men Maogha erip vzvod komandiyrinen marshallgha deyin jetken Lin Biaodyng sayasy ghúmyrlary tragediyamen ayaqtaldy.

Álem jan sanynyng 1/5 bóligin qúraytyn, 90 million mýshesi bar partiyanyng ishki qayshylyghy – mýdde qaqtyghysy da óte ýlken ekenin bayqaymyz. Dese de «myltyqtan әkimiyat tuady», «qúralgha partiya ghana komanda bere alady» degen Mao sózine jýginsek, kim armiyagha ie bolsa, sol býkil partiyada sheshushi sózdi aita alady eken. Ekinshi qarardan keyin Qytay reformasynyng atasy Dyn Mao belgilegen múrageri men óz shekpeninen shyqsa da, yrqyna kónbegen partiyanyng eki bas sekretaryn joghary biylikten yghystyrdy. 1991 jyly Ontýstik Qytay saparynda «kim reforma jasamasa, sol biylikten ketu kerek» degen sózin aldymen әskery komiytetting talqysyna salyp, aqsaqaldardyng qolayyna jaqqan sol kezdegi bas sekretari Jiang Zemingha eskertu berdi. Reformator Zhu Rongjidi bas premier etip taghayyndady.

30 jylda Qytay kisi tanymastay bolyp ózgerdi. Kommunisterding ekinshi, ýshinshi úrpaqtary arasynan «qyzyl kapitalister» shoghyry qalyptasty. Kompartiya sayasy qyzmette armiya men komsomoldargha iyek sýiese, el basqaruda kәsipodaq, әielder birlestigi, jastar birlestigi, búrynan kele jatqan, biraq sayasy baghyttary mýlde ózgergen atalmysh demokratiyalyq partiyalar men sheteldegi múqajyrlardyng qoghamdyq úiymdary men qozghalystaryna arqa sýieydi. Úzaq jylghy qordalanghan tәjirbie negizinde olardyng arasyndaghy qarym-qatynastary men baylanystardy mýltiksiz rettep, baghyttap otyrady.

2012 jyly Qytay qoghamyndaghy Jiang Zemin toby, Hu Jintao bastaghan komsomoldar toby, bekzadalar toby jәne basqa sayasi, qarjylyq toptardyng úzaqqa sozylghan yrghasuy, saudalasuy nәtiyjesinde Siszinipini biylikke keldi. Sy alghashqy bes jylda búrynghy premier ministr Zhu Rongjidyng iydeyalas shәkirti Wang Qishanmen birlese otyryp, korrupsiyagha qarsy soghys ashty. Nәtiyjesinde ortalyq sayasy buronyng bir buro mýshesi, ortalyq әskery komiytetting eki orynbasary, Hu Jintao kezindegi ortalyq apparattyng búrynghy mengerushisin qamtyghan 430-dan astam lauazymdy túlghalardyng qolyna kisen saldy.

IYdeologiya salasynda Jiang Zemin zamanynan kele jatqan bas iydeolog Wang Huminggha kóbirek arqa sýiedi. 19-sezde ortalyq sayasy buronyng 7 mýshesining qataryna qosyp, alghashqy qadamdaryn QHP-nyng dýniyege kelgen jeri Shanhaydaghy muzeyge baryp tәu etip, «әuelgi armanymyzdy úmytpay, paryzymyzdy este saqtayyq» dep sayasy programmasyn jariyalady. Osy sezde partiya jarghysyna ózgeris jasalyp, «Siszinipinining jana dәuirdegi qytaylyq erekshelikke ie sosializm iydeyasy» búrynghy-songhy kósemdermen qatar ataldy. Memleket tóraghasynyng biyliktegi merzimi shektelmeytin boldy. Hu Jintao kezinde shashyrap ketken biylikti qaytadan ortalyqqa shoghyrlandyryp, «Sy sentrizm» iydeyasyn jerine jetkizip dәriptedi. Ekinshi qarardan keyin kóp aitylatyn, «bir bólim adamdar aldymen bayyp, jalpy halyqqa bastamashy bolu kerek» degen Dynnyng iydeyasyn tolyqtyrghany ma, әlde keri jaghy ma, «ortaq baiy teoriyasy» partiya men halyqqa úsynyldy. Memlekettik korporasiyalardyng esebinen jýgensiz ketken oligarhtardyng artynan qonyrau taghylyp, basqan qadamdary esepke alynuda. Jyljymaytyn mýlik naryghyndaghy Shanhay, Shenijeni, Beyjin, Guanchjou siyaqty jetekshi qalalardaghy kompaniyalargha salyq salu mәselesi kýn tәrtibine qoyyldy. Kompartiyanyng asqaldarynyng biri sanalatyn Siyding әkesi Xi Zhongxun «partiya tarihynda solshylyqtan kórgen zәbirimiz onshyldyqqa qaraghanda óte kóp» dey kele, jeke basqa tabynu sindromynan qútylu joldary turaly kóp ósiyet qaldyrghan. Biraq Batystyng adamzatqa ortaq qúndylyqtary men Shyghystyng dәstýri men mentaliyteti kóbinde bir qazanda basy pise bermeydi. Ony qazirgi Singapurdyng jetistigi men Aughan, Iran, Siriyadaghy daghdarystar men qantógister dәleldep otyr. Sy jәne onyng komandasy osynday kýrdeli jaghdayda ýshinshi qarardy ortagha tastady. Qazirgi Qytay búrynghy Qytay emes, ótkenge ainalghan eki qarar Qytaydyng ishki isi sanalsa, myna internet zamanynda óz yqpalyn qalaghanynsha jýrgizetin superderjavagha ainalghan Qytaydyng әr qadamy kórshilerin oilandyrmay qoymaydy.

Batys sarapshylary ýshinshi qarardy Sy jalghasty biylikte otyruynyng dayyndyghy, Dyng zamanynan qalghan biylik almasu mehanizmning búzyluy dep sanaydy. «QHK ortalyq partiya komiyteti partiyanyng ghasyrlyq kýresining ýlken jetistikteri men tarihy tәjiribie turaly qararda» kompartiya dýniyege kelgen bir ghasyrdy bólshektemey, bir tútas qarastyrady. Otyz jylgha tayau uaqytta ishki soghys, Japongha qarsy soghys jәne ishki soghysty bastan ótkergen kompartiya «ýsh ýlken taudy» audaryp, Tayvaninan basqa tútas Qytaydy birlikke keltirip, birneshe bes jyldyq jospar arqyly jalpy Qytaydyng industriyalyq aumaghyn qalyptastyrdy. Osy arada ekinshi qararda teriske shygharylghan «onshyldyqqa qarsy túru», «zor sekirip ilgerleu», «mәdeniyet zor tónkerisi» siyaqty oqighalargha bagha bermey, tek «izdenis jolyndaghy irkilister» dep sipay qamshylap óte shyghady. Mao basshylyq etip Qytaydy ornynan túrghyzsa, Dyng bastaghan reformalar Qytaydyng esin jighyzyp, esiktegi basyn tórge shyghardy. Jiang, Hu bastaghan kózi tiri kósemderding enbegi de atausyz qalmaghan, tiyisti baghasy berilgen. Endigi tarihy missiya Sigha jýkteledi. 2012 jyly ainalysqa engen eki ghasyr jobasy, 2013 jyly ortagha qoyylghan tenizdegi, qúrlyqtaghy «bir jaghalau – bir jol» jobasy boyynsha dini, tili, territoriyasy tútastanghan Qytay әlemdegi eng qúdiretti elge ainalady. Mine búl Qytay armany.

El ishi-syrtyndaghy qarar turaly әrtýrli pikirlerge ýnilgenimizde, kókeyge týigenimiz osy boldy. Shynynda shyghystaghy kórshimiz san aluan qayshylyqtyng qazanynda qaynap jatyr. Alyaska, Tianjing kelisiminen keyin AQSh-Qytay sauda soghysyndaghy negizgi nysanagha ainalghan Huawei korporasiyasynyng qúryltayshysynyng qyzy, korporasiyanyng qarjy jónindegi jauaptysy Meng Wanzhou hanym Kanadadaghy myrza qamaqtan bosap, eline oraldy. Sol janjalda Qytayda tútqyngha alynghan Kanadanyng ýsh azamaty da aman-sau eline jetti. Klimat boyynsha Úlybritaniyada joldary týiisken ýlken jetilikting bas qosuyna Sy barmasa da, taraptardyng kelisimge kelgeni turaly habar tarady. Biraq Londonda ótken úighyr soty, Pragada ótken dýniyejýzi úighyr kongresining qúryltayy, Tayvanidaghy shiyelinisken jaghdaylar әli de bolsa bәsekelestik pen tay-talastyng ayaqtalmaghandyghyn aighaqtaydy. Al Qytaydaghy jyljymaytyn mýlik pen energetika daghdarysyn sarapshylar jarysa jazuda. Qytay taghy bir tandaudyng kezenine dóp kelgendey. Sondyqtan ýshinshi qarar dýniyege keldi, nәtiyjesin uaqyt kórseter.

Omarәli Ádilbek    

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