Sәrsenbi, 1 Aqpan 2023
Alasapyran 2394 4 pikir 8 Mausym, 2022 saghat 13:57

Tayvani mәselesin sheshuge uaqyt qajet

Basy: Den Siyaopinning últtyq birlik strategiyasy

Jalghasy: Qytay - bir partiya biylegen diktatorlyq memleket

Jalghasy: Gonkongty qaytaru jәne Margaret Tetcher

Jalghasy: Gonkong: Biyleu qúqyghy - iyelik qúqyqtyng naqty kórinisi

Den Siyaopin Gonkong mәselesining ontayly sheshilui Tayvanigha ýlgi bolar dep ýmittengen bolatyn. Biraq jaghday ol kýtkennen basqasha boldy. Gonkong modeli qanshalyqty tartymdy bolghanymen, Tayvani taraby sonshalyqty peyildi bola qoyghan joq. 1980 jyly  Qytay memlekettik kenesi Tayvanida óndirilgen tauarlargha kedendik salyqty alyp tastaghanymen, Tayvani әkimshiligi jeke saudagerlerding úly qúrlyqpen sauda jasauyna qatang tyiym saldy, tipti, jazalau sharalaryn qoldandy. 1981 jyly býkil qytaylyq halyqtyq qúryltayy túraqty komiytetining tóraghasy   Ie Jianing Tayvanigha baghyttalghan  9 tarmaqty sayasatyn jariyalady. 1983 jyly memlekettik sayasy kenesting tórayymy bәrin de kenesip sheshuge bolady degen pikirin bildirdi. Biraq Tayvani taraby oghan selt etken joq. 1986 jylgha deyin Tayvani tarabynan aitarlyqtay qozghalys bayqalmady.

Tayvani tarabynyng kelissóz ýsteline asygha qoymauy Den Siyaopinning tózimin tauysty. Bir qyrynan ony da týsinuge bolady. Jasy kelip qalghan adam, tughan Otanynyng birtútastanghanyn kózi tirisinde kórip ketkisi keledi. Búl mәselening bir qyry bolsa, Tayvaninyng derbestelui osylay sozyla berse, aqyry jaqsylyqqa aparmaydy. Tayvani HIH ghasyrdyng sonynan bastap Japoniyanyng otaryna ainaldy. Al ekinshi dýniyejýzilik soghystan keyin ýsh-aq jyl úly qúrlyqpen birtútastanghanymen, úly qúrlyqtan irgesin aulaq salghanyna 90 jyl ótipti. Búl aimaq Gonkongpen úqsamaydy. Qazir búghazdyng eki jaghyn baylanystyrghan nәrse  ata-babalarynyng aruaghy ghana. Odan qala berdi, QKP men Gomindang partiyasynyng biylikke talasqan qym-quyt tarihy. Sol kezde biylik basynda otyrghan Gomindang partiyasy úly qúrlyqqa qayta oralamyz degen sayasattan bezingen joq. Búl ortalyq ýkimet pen jergilikti ýkimet dep bólip, bir memlekette eki týrli týzim arqyly biriktiruge jasalghan eng ýlken kedergi. Biraq, onyng bir paydasy is jýzinde Tayvanidy derbestikke sýireytin sayasy kýshterdi tejep otyr. Eger kýnderding kýninde Tayvani biyleushileri úly qúrlyqqa qosylamyz degen armanynan bezinetin bolsa, onda eki jaghalaudy tútastyratyn tek qana últtyq sezim ghana qalady. Biraq sezim degen qúrghyr da ainyghysh bolady. Jalyndaghan mahabbat ta birtindep shoqqa ainalyp, aqyryndap sónip kýlge ainalyp úshyp ketui de mýmkin. Osy kýnde kónening kózi bolghan, sýiegimdi úly qúrlyqqa aparyp jerlender deytin otanshyl, sayasy túlghalardyng qatary siyrep barady. Ekinshi úrpaq, ýshinshi úrpaq adamdar ata-babasy úly qúrlyqtan barghanymen ózderi Tayvani topyraghynda tuyp-erjetkender. Olardyng atadan bala oiy ózge boluy mýmkin. Ol kezge barghanda  «bәrimiz de Yandy men Huandiyden taraghanbyz, bir shanyraqtyng astynda ómir keshuge tiyispiz» desen, jat bauyr bolyp ósken úrpaqtyng qanshasy tynday qoyar eken? Búghazdyng eki jaghy bir-birine at izin salyspaghaly neshe ondaghan jyldar ótipti. Endi aralaspasa, barysyp-kelispese, aradaghy paryq jat pighyl sezim odan sayyn úlghaya beretindigi haq.

Tayvani Gonkongpen úqsamaydy. Osynday ýlgi-modelimen ghana ony ózine ýiirip әkete almaysyn. 1986 jyly Den Siyaopin Amerikalyq jurnalist Mayk Uolleske bergen súhbatynda  AQSh-tyng Tayvanidyqtardy úly qúrlyqpen barys-kelis jasaugha ýgittep, kóndiruin ótingen bolatyn. Múnda beyýkimettik ýsh týrli barys-kelis jasaudyng jolyn úsyndy:

  1. Sauda qarym-qatynasy.
  2. Áue joldaryn ashu.
  3. Pochta, hat-habar alysugha mýmkindik beru.

Osy arqyly ózara barys-kelis jasap, búghazdyng eki tarabyndaghylardyng bir-birin týsinuine, sol arqyly ortaq biriguding shart-jaghdayyn talqylaugha jaghday jaratudy kózdegen bolatyn. Ýsh týrli barys-kelis jayly úsynys Tayvani tarabyndaghy qart adamdardyng úly qúrlyqtaghy tughan topyraqqa degen saghynyshyna erekshe qozghau saldy. Ózi kindik kesip, kir jughan tughan ólkesin tiri kezinde bir baryp kórudi kim armandamaydy deysin?! Ata-babasynyng basy qalghan mekenge tauap etip, ziarat jasau әrkimning armany bolatyn. Tayvani, qansha aitqanmen, demokratiya men bostandyq saltanat qúrghan aimaq qoy. Halyqtyng múnday kýshti talaby men arman-tilegine Tayvani biyligi qarsy túrugha qauqarsyz boldy. 1987 jyly Tayvanidyqtardyng úly qúrlyqqa tuysshylaugha arnalghan shekteui kýshin joydy. Úly qúrlyq taraby da Tayvaninan kelgen qandastaryna qúshaghyn aiqara ashyp, ótken-ketkendi quyspay, erekshe iltipatpen qabyldap jatty. Ýkimet taraby da Tayvanidyq bauyrlaryna erekshe qamqorlyq kórsetip, jayylyp jastyq, iyilip tósek boldy. Mysalgha, poezd beketterining kýtu zaldarynda Tayvanidyq qandastaryna arnalghan әskeriylermen birdey kezekshi biylet satatyn terezeler ashyldy. Alghashqy birneshe dýrkin kelgen úly qúrlyqqa qonys audarushylargha ay sayyn arnauly túrmystyq qarajat berip túrdy. Sol arqyly sosialistik Qytaydyng jat bauyr bolyp ketken qandastaryn eshqashan jatyrqamaytyndyghyn әigileuge baryn saldy.

Tayvanidyqtardyng tuysshylay kelui búghazdyng eki jaghyndaghyldardyng aralasuynyng birinshi qadamy bolatyn. Birinshi qadam bolghan son, ekinshi qadamgha da tabighy jol ashyldy. Sebebi ýsh týrli qarym-qatynas strategiyasy Tayvanidyqtargha aitarlyqtay ekonomikalyq tabys әkeldi. Mýmkin keybireulerge memleketting tútastyghy qyzyq emes te shyghar, biraq olardyng aqsha tauyp, banggha degen yntyzarlyghy osynday barys-keliske beyjay qaratpaytyn. Arty-artynan kelip jatqan tuysshylaytyndargha ilesip, Tayvaninyng ónerkәsip-sauda salasyndaghy qaltaly kәsipkerler de úly qúrlyqqa aghylyp, tabys kózderin izdey bastady. Memlekettik kenes te oraydy paydalanyp, Tayvanidyq qaltaly azamattardyng úly qúrlyqqa investisiya qúiyna baylanysty arnauly qauly dayyndap, Tayvani men úly qúrlyqtyng tek qana sauda-sattyqpen emes, investisiya qúigha da mol mýmkindigining bar ekendigin pash etti. Búl, shyntuaytynda, eki jaqqa da tiyimdi sayasat bolatyn. Tayvanidyq kәsipkerlerding úly qúrlyqtyng alyp bazaryna bolghan qyzyghushylyghy shet el kapitalisterinen kem týspeydi eken. «Týiege mingen Qúdaygha bir taban jaqyn» nemese «Alystan arbalaghansha, jaqynnan dorbala» degendey, úly qúrlyqtaghylargha әiteuir investisiya kerek. Onday mýmkindikti óz qandastarynan nesine ayaydy?! Qaydaghy bir jat elding kapitalisterine Qytay bazarynan kýrep tauyp jatqan aqshasy emes pe?! El qazynasyn toltyratyn eleuli iske Tayvani biyleushileri de beyjay qaray almady. Sonymen eki jaq resmy týrde ózara tiyimdi ekonomikalyq barys-kelisting kókjiyegin keneytuge uaghdalasty. 1990 jyly Tayvani biyligi resmy týrde Tayvanidyq kәsipkerlerding úly qúrlyqqa investisiya salyp, kәsiporyndar ashuyna jol ashty. Sonday-aq, úly qúrlyqtan keletin tauarlargha birtútas kedendik baqylau ornatu jóninde qauly qabyldady. Búghazdyng eki jaghy sodan bastap barys-kelisti zandy arnagha qaray búra bastady.

Tayvanidyq qandastarynyng tuysshylay kelui, Tayvanidyq kәsipkerlerding úly qúrlyqqa qarjy saluy, eki jaqtyng sauda-ekonomikalyq baylanysynyng artuy búghazdyng eki jaghalauyndaghy baylanystyng damuynda belsendi ról atqardy. Múnda, eng aldymen, eki taraptaghy halyqtardyng ortaq últtyq sana-sezimin oyatyp, tuystyq baylanysty bekemdey týsti. Tayvani taraby da ózining ómir sýru kenistigin keneytudi armandaytyn. Sebebi QHR qoldanghan diplomatiyalyq sayasaty Tayvaninyng tynysyn kýn ótken sayyn tarylta týsken bolatyn. Olar ózderining ómir sýru aumaghyn keneytu arqyly teng qúqyly sayasy kýsh retinde Beyjinmen barys-kelis jasaugha, al Beyjindegiler Tayvaninyng derbes boluy men shet eldikterding Tayvanigha qol súghuynan saqtanu ýshin ylghy da ózderimen resmy diplomatiyalyq qatynas ornatqan memleketterge qoyatyn alghysharty retinde bir ghana Qytaydy moyyndauyn, Tayvanidy Qytaydyng bir bóligi retinde qarastyryp, Tayvanimen eshqanday da resmy gumanitarlyq qatynas jasamauyna uaghdalasatyn. Búlay jasau, sóz joq, Tayvaninyng Beyjinge degen jaulyq pighylyn arttyra týseti edi. Búghazdyng eki jaghyndaghylardyng belsendi sauda-ekonomikalyq baylanysy men tuysqandyq barys-kelisting arta týsui bir qyrynan osy jaqtaghy kemistikti tolyqtyrghanday boldy. Taghy bir qyrynan, Qytay ýkimetining búlay isteui qasaqana Tayvanidy oqshaulap, ony qúrtu ýshin ghana jasalmaghandyghyn, tek qana Tayvanidy úly qúrlyqqa jaqyndata týsu ýshin jasalghandyghyn әigiledi. 1989 jyly AQSh pen Europa elderi arty-artynan Qytaygha sanksiya salyp, Qytaydan teris ainalghanda Tayvanidyq kәsipkerler osy oraydan paydalanyp, atalghan kenistikti tez toltyrugha kýsh saldy. Resmy mәlimet sol jyldary Tayvanidyq investisiyanyng auqymy aitarlyqtay óskendigin kórsetedi. Tayvanidyq qandastardyng qiyn kezde Qytaygha qol úshyn berui úly qúrlyqtyng batystyng sanksiyalarynan shekken zardaptaryn óz әlinshe jenildetkendey boldy. Tayvanidyq kәsipkerler de paydasyz qalghan joq. Onyng ýstine, jilikting mayly basy óz qandastarynyng qolyna tiydi. Múnday qarym-qatynastan eki jaq ta qomaqty paydagha kenelgendigin aiqyn sezindi. Múndaydy qytaylar «Qan qashan da sudan qoy bolady» deydi.

Ekonomika – sayasattyng negizi. Sauda-ekonomikalyq baylanys sәtti jolgha qoyylghan son, sayasy qarym-qatynasqa da jol ashylady. QKP men Gomindang partiyasy tarihta san-mәrte qyrqysyp, bitispes jaugha ainalghan sayasy toptar bolatyn. Otyz jyldan astam uaqyt beteki maydandaspasa da, jaulyq pighyldan ainymaghan edi. Osynday jaghdayda, eng aldymen, bir-birine degen senimdi qalyptastyrudyng ótpeli dәuiri qajet bolatyndyghy dausyz. Olargha birden kelissóz ýsteline kele qalyp, memleketti biriktiru mәselesin aqyldasayyq, ýshinshi mәrte istestik ornatayyq desen, olar birden qabylday almauy mýmkin. Búghazdyng eki jaghynda ýsh týrli barys-kelisti jolgha qong asa sezimtal sayasy mәselelerdi ainalyp ótip, qarapayym halyqtargha mýmkindik bergendikten, sayasy qarym-qatynastardyng alghyshartyn jasaudyng alghashqy mýmkindigi tudy degen sóz. Den Siyaopinning oiynsha sayasy mәselelerde kelispeushilikterdi qazirshe sóz etpey túrugha da bolady. Keyin, asyqpay, jata-jasana aqyldassa da kesh emes. Aldymen sauda jasayyq, kólik qatynasyn jolgha qoyayyq, sәlem-sauqyt jiberip, hat-habar alysayyq. Aldymen – ekonomika, sonynan – sayasat degendey, eng aldymen, eki jaq halyqtarynyng tabighy qajettiliginen, adamy faktorlardan bastalghan qarym-qatynasqa Tayvani әkimshiligi de qarsy bola qoymaydy. Tipti, qarsy bolghan kýnning ózinde, demokratiyalyq qaghidalardy búzyp, qasarysyp otyryp alu olargha da abyroy әkelmeydi dep boljady.

Jaghday Den Siyaopin boljaghannan alysqa ketken joq. Tayvani biyligi amalsyzdan «Bauyrlastar qoryn» qúryp, úly qúrlyqpen qarym-qatynasqa halyqtyq sipat bere bastady. Úly qúrlyqtaghylar da dereu sәikesip, «Bauyrlastar qoghamyn» qúra qoydy. Endigi kezekte biyliktik sipat alatyn, qoghamdyq úiym atyn jamylghan atalghan qúrylymdar resmy biylik qúrylymdarynyng qyzmetin jýzege asyra bastady da, búghazdyng eki jaghyndaghylardyng tikeley qarym-qatynasyna mol mýmkindik jasay aldy. 1992 jyly «Bauyrlastar qoghamy» men «Bauyrlastar qorynyn» eng jogharghy basshylary Singapurda kezdesip, tórt týrli kelisimge qol qoydy. Búl búghazdyng eki jaghyndaghylardyng 40 jyldan keyingi eng jogharghy kezdesui edi. Sodan bastap, eki qoghamdyq úiym ara-aghayyndyq ról oinap, eki el qatynasynyng damuyn belsendi jýrgizip keledi. Tayvani men úly qúrlyq esi ketip, jany shyqqanda tildesuge mýmkindik aldy. Tek aty aitargha «qoghamdyq úiymdardyn» baylanysy delinip jýr.

Tayvanidyq әigili jazushy Lii Shiujiyn: «Búghazdyng eki jaghyndaghy sayasy baylanystar qansha qúbylghanymen, Tayvanidyq kәsipkerler úly qúrlyqtyng ghalamat bazarynyng qol búlghauymen búghazdyng eki jaghynyng sauda-ekonomikalyq baylanysy endigәri keri búrugha kelmeytin baghytqa bettep barady» -  dep jazdy.  1994 jylgha jetkende, Tayvanidyq kәsipkerlerding úly qúrlyqqa salghan investisiya kólemi 3 mlrd 700 mln AQSh dollaryna jetip, 10305 kәsiporyn tirkelgen. Búl Gonkongtan keyingi ekinshi ýlken investisiya aghymy  bolatyn. Búl bir qyrynan  úly qúrlyqtyng shet el investisiyasyna bolghan tәueldiligin aitarlyqtay jenildetip qana qoymay, Tayvani men úly qúrlyqtyng ózara tәueldiligin bekemdey týsti. 1994 jyly Tayvaninyng syrtqy saudadaghy ong salidosy tolyqtay úly qúrlyqpen aradaghy saudadan týsipti. Mamandar aldaghy bolashaqta  Tayvaninyng úly qúrlyq bazaryna tәueldiligi AQSh bazaryna tәueldilikten  asyp týsedi desedi. Búl, ariyne, Den Siyaopin jobalaghan ýsh týrli barys-kelisting nәtiyjesi bolatyn. Tayvani biyleushileri Tayvani halqynyng túrmys-óresi, jan basyna shaqqandaghy jalpy ishki ónim kólemi úly qúrlyqtaghylardan әldeneshe ese kóp. Sol sebepti QKP-men kelissóz jasaugha asyqpaymyz degendi jii qaytalaydy. Biraq, ýsh týrli barys-kelis olardy óz qúighanyna birtindep tartyp әketip barady. Ne isteydi? «Bidaydyng barar jeri – diyirmen» degen siyaqty, sayasattyng barar jeri de – ekonomika. Atap aitqanda, ýidegi qiyaldy bazardaghy naryq biyleytin zaman.

Den Siyaopinning «Tayvani mәselesin sheshuge uaqyt kerek, asyghystyqtyng qajeti joq»  degen sózi ómir shyndyghyna ainalyp kele jatyr. Býgingi kýnde eki jaqtyly qarym-qatynas aitarlyqtay damyghan. Búrynghyday at izin salyspaytyn, araz kórshiler emes, ayaq-tabaq aiqasyp, kýndelikti barysyp-kelisip túratyn tatu tuystar siyaqty. Halyqtyq barys-kelisting kókjiyegi kýn ótken sayyn keneyip keledi. Qazir eki arada sauda kemeleri aghylyp, túraqty әue kemeleri ýzdiksiz úshyp-qonyp túrady. Den Siyaopin armandaghanday, birlesu jayly kenes qúratyn zaman kýnderding kýninde keledi. Aldymen, sauda-ekonomikalyq, mәdeny jәne tuystyq qarym-qatynastar jolgha qoyylsa, sayasattyng auyly alys emes siyaqty. Biraq, osynday ong ýderister men izgi armandardy sayaz oilaytyn әperbaqan sayasatshylardyng auyq-auyq býldirip ketetini jaman.

Sony.

Raqym Ayypúly

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