Jeksenbi, 5 Aqpan 2023
Tarih 1149 8 pikir 14 Qarasha, 2022 saghat 11:59

Altaylyqtar – jonghardan qalghan Oirattar

Óz uaqytynda, Ortalyq Aziya elderin shapqynshylyqqa úshyratyp, qily zamangha týsirgen, dәuiri jýrip túrghan kezde, kýndey kýrkiregen Jonghar imperiyasynyn  kóshpendileri keyinnen qytaydan qyrghyn tauyp, әupirimdep aman qalghan qaldyqtary Altay tauyna baryp panalap, sol arada ornyghyp qalady. Úzaq ghasyrlar kóleminde orystar búlardy «altay tatarlary» dep atap kelgen.

Altaylyqtar (Oyrattar) Hakas pen Qyrghyz tilining aralyq tiline úqsaytyn, týrki elderining qataryna kiredi. (Jalpy, Resey Federasiyasyndaghy týrkilerge: Tatar men bashqúrt, sonday-aq, yakutpen birge  altay dep atalatyn oirattar men hakastar da kiredi.) Qazirgi qasymyzdaghy qyrghyzdar da, altaylyq oirattar da, sonymen qatar, hakas júrty da óz zamanyndaghy Enesay (Eniysey) boyyn qatar jaylaghan  tútas qanattas elder deuge bolady. Taghy aitarymyz, Qyrghyz ben Oirat (qazirgi Altaylyqtar) kóshpendileri, sonau XIII ghasyrdyng basynan, qazirgi Tuva (Tuba) aumaghynan beri jyljyghandar. (tipti, elimizben shekaralas  qonghan úighyrlardyng ózide, kezinde Enesay qyrghyzdarynan kýirey jenilip, (Úighyr qaghanaty) aqtaban shúbyryndygha úshyrap, jan saughalap, qazirgi Shynjan aumaghyna kóship kelgender).  

Oyrat - Altaylyqtardyng jalpy senimi (dini) shamandyq bolghanymen, keyinnen orystardyng bodandyghyna týsken son, búlardy kýshpen hristian dinine engizedi.

Sonau, 552 jyldary osy Altay týrkileri, yaghni, oirattar óz memleketin qúryp, astanasyn Orhongha kóshiredi. XIII ghasyrdan bastap, Shynghys han qúrghan  Úly týrki qaghanatyna baghynyp, imperiya qúramyna kiredi. Al, XVII ghasyrdyng ayaghynan bastap, sonau alys zamanda Enesay (Eniysey) boyynan Alatau bauyryna kelip, qonystanghan  qyrghyzdyng kóshpeli taypalarymen birigip, Jonghar handyghyn qúrady. Sóitip, oirattar úlanghasyr aumaqty jaulap alyp, tarihta Jonghar handyghy atalghan imperiyanyng negizin qalaydy. Degenmen, osylardyng ýnemi shapqynshylyghynan, tonauynan yzasy sheginen shyqqan shýrshitterding bir retki joyqyn joryghynan (Qytaylyq general Pu Dening armiyasynan) keyin, búl handyq tastalqan bolyp qyiraydy jәne eli orasan zor qyrghyngha úshyraydy. 

Eger, Jonghar eli turaly qysqasha aitar bolsaq («qalmaq» sózi, «tatar» degen sóz sekildi jalpylama atau ghana); 1635 jyly osy Oirattyng Batur (Batyr)  qontayshysy negizin qúrghan Jonghar handyghy dýniyege keledi. Ol, qazirgi Qazaqstannyng ontýstik-shyghys jaghyna ornalasady. 1640 jyly jongharlar, yaghni, oirattar «Dalalyq jarghy» degen atpen әskery jәne azamattyq zandar jinaghyn shygharady. Taghy bir eskerterimiz, osy, qúrylghan  Jonghar handyghynyng irgesindegi  qyrghyzdar da búlargha әskery jasaq retinde kirip, qol biriktiredi. Tarihy enbekterge ýnilgenimizde, sol kezdegi Jonghar handyghynyng sarbazdarynyng sany jýz mynnan asyp jyghylady eken. Olardyng alpys myng jauyngeri qontayshynyng túraqty әskeri bolghan.

Jonghar handyghy elining ruhany birligin qamtamasyz etude Tiybet lamalary da eleuli ról atqardy.

Alayda, oirattar qúrghan Jonghar handyghyn qoya túryp, biz, әri qaray qazirgi Altaylyqtar dep atalghan oirat eline oralayyq .

XVIII – XIX ghasyrda Resey imperiyasynyng otarlyq ezgisinde bolady. Tónkeris kezinde, yaghni, 1922 jyldary Resey qúramyndaghy Oirat avtonomiyalyq oblysy bolyp qúrylady.  Degenmen, 1948 jyly búlar, Resey qúramyndaghy Tauly Altay avtonomiyalyq oblysy dep atalyp, ózgertiledi. 1990 jyly Tauly Altay avtonomiyasy óz tәuelsizdigin jariyalap, Resey Federasiyasy qúramyndaghy Altay Respublikasy bolyp qúrylady.

Oyrat – Altaylyqtardyng dәstýrli kәsibi: Mal baghu, egin salu, sonday-aq, ústalyqpen ainalysady jәne syrmaq basu, alasha, kilem toqu, teri iyleu, zerleu búlardyng ata kәsibining biri deuge bolady. Altaylyqtardyng kóneden kele jatqan bay auyz әdebiyeti bar. Ony jyrlaushylardy qayshy dep ataydy. Osy auyz әdebiyetining núsqalary XIX ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynan bastap qaghaz betine týsirile bastady. Keyingi jyldary osy elding  epos ýlgilerining jeti tomy – «Altay batyrlary» jaryq kórdi. Sonau, ótken ghasyrdyng 1922 jylynan bastap oirat tilinde «Altaydyng cholmony» (qazaqshalaghanda «Altay sholpany») gazeti shyghyp keledi.

Altay Respublikasy Resey Federasiyasy qúramyndaghy últtyq – memlekettik qúrylym. Joghary zang shygharushy organy – Ál (El) Qúryltay, ol tórt jyl merzimge saylanatyn jiyrma jeti deputattan túrady. Joghary atqarushy organy – Ýkimet, ony tóragha basqarady.  Ortalyghy  Tauly Altay qalasy. Respublika aumaghy – 92902 shaqyrym. Halqy – 201,6  myng adamnan túrady. Resmiy tilderi – orys, qazaq,  jәne oirat tilderi.  Respublikanyn  31 %payyzy oirattar, 62% payyzy orystar, ózgeleri qazaqtar. Respublika on audannan túrady.

Sonymen, sonau bir ghasyrlarda Jonghar handyghy dep atalghan auqymdy imperiyanyng negizin qúrghan jәne onyng algha qaray ósip, damuyna mýmkindiginshe ter tógip, enbek sinirgen, sonday-aq, imperiyany biraz uaqyt kýndey kýrkirep ústap túrghan, zamanynda daqpyrty alysqa ketken azuly oirat taypasynyn, kezinde qytaydyng qyrghynynan aman qalghan, kishigirim bóligi osy – Altaylyq týrkiler. Búlar týrki tilinde ósip-ónip, tirshilik keship jatqan elding biri.

Beysenghazy Úlyqbek,

Qazaqstan Jurnalister Odaghynyng mýshesi

Abai.kz

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