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Tarih 3909 9 pikir 26 Mamyr, 2023 saghat 15:10

Stalindik újymdastyru - qazaqty qúrtudy kózdedi

Stalindik kýshtep újymdastyru bastalghangha deyin qazaqtyng 94 payyzy auylda túryp, mal sharuashylyghymen ainalysty. Alty payyzy ghana qalada túrghan. Áriyne, jartylay kóshpeli audandar da boldy. Olar eptep tary ekti. Biraq, qazaqtardyng negizgi tamaghy – et bolatyn.  Et dayyndau nauqandarynda «Soyzmyaso», «Moskvamyaso» siyaqty birlestikter qazaqtyng malyn sypyryp aldy. Iship otyrghan asyn tartyp alghan son, qazaqtar jappay asharshylyqqa úshyrady. Sol kezdegi biylikting qazaqtardan etti qalay tartyp alghany jayly Mәskeudegi Reseyding ekonomikalyq arhiyvinde saqtauly túr. 1928 jyly qazaqtyng eng iri baylaryn kәmpeskeledi.

Stalindik újymdastyru qazaqtyng kózin jonggha baghyttaldy. Stalin qazaqqa maldyng artynda jýrgen jabayy halyq dep qarady. Qazaqty artta damymay qalghan halyq dep sanaghandyqtan, oghan últ retinde qaramaghan.

Újymdastyru boyynsha alghashqy әreketter revolusiyadan keyin bastaldy, újymdastyrudy bastau turaly sheshim 1927 jyly bolishevik kommunistik partiyasynyng 15-shi sezinde qabyldandy. Újymdastyru úiymdastyrudyng basty sebepteri mynalar edi:

1. KSRO-ny industriyalandyru ýshin investisiya qajet boldy;

2. 1920-shy jyldardyng sonyndaghy «astyq jinau daghdarysymen» kýresudi qolgha almaq boldy.

1932 jyldyng aqpan aiyna deyin Qazaqstanda kolhozdardyng 87% jәne jeke qojalyqtardyng 51,8 % mal basynan aiyryldy. 1933 jyldyng 1 qantarynda elimizding shyghysy ­- iri mal sharuashylyghy bazasy bolyp sanalatyn aimaqta újymdastyru qarsanynda 40 million bas iri qara maldan  4 million bas qaldy. Múraghattyq derekterdi saraptap otyryp, Stalin sayasatynyng asa qatigez, adamshylyqqa jatpaytyn iydeyadan qúrylghanyn týsindim. Stalin sayasaty ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan últtyq mentaliytet pen minezimizdi búzyp, «gomo-sovetikus» nemese «sovok» degen adamdar tobyn qalyptastyrdy.

Ol býkil kenestik jýie pen onyng ekonomikalyq jýiesining qúly boldy, 20 ghasyr 80-shi jyldarynyng ortasynda Kenesti ekonomikalyq daghdarysqa úshyratty.

Ghylym әleminde újymdastyrudy tanymal amerikalyq tarihshylar Robert Konkvest, Marta Olkot jәne basqalar ýlken jauapkershilikpen zerttedi. Qazaqstanda halyqtyng tragediyasy turaly alghash ret tanymal tarihshylar Manash Qozybaev, Júldyzbek Ábilhojiyn, Maqash Tatimovtar jazdy.

1992 jyly Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Jogharghy Kenesining Prezidiumy janynan qúrylghan komissiya asharshylyqtyng mәn-jayyn jәne sebepterin zertteude ýlken júmys atqardy. Kóptegen zertteuler orys jәne qazaq tilderinde jaryq kórdi.  2012 jyldyng mausym aiynda Astana qalasynda asharshylyq qúrbandaryna arnalghan eskertkish ashyldy.

Asharshylyq kezinde 2 580 000 qazaq qaza bolyp, 800 myny basqa elderge bosyp ketti. Respublika túrghyndarynan 11% ukraindar, 6% orystar, 8% ózbekter, 13% úighyrlar, 10% tatarlar, 11 % nemister ashtyqtan kóz júmdy.

Ghylym komiyteti Memleket tarihy institutynyng diyrektory B. Ayaghan 1926 jyly respublikadaghy qazaqtardyng sany - 3 628 000 adam bolghanyn, 1939 jyly halyq sanaghynda qazaqtyng 1 300 000 qyrylyp qalghany anyqtaldy. Ghalymnyng aituynsha, 1929 jyldan 1931 jylgha deyin, Qazaqstanda kenes ýkimeti men onyng jýrgizgen újymdastyru sayasatyna qarsy 372 kóterilis bolyp ótken, oghan 80 mynnan astam adam qatysty.

Ashtyq 1938-1939 jyldargha deyin sozyldy.

B. Ayaghan bylay dedi: «Búl qayghynyng auqymdy bolghany sonshalyq, biz múny genosid sayasatynyng kórinisi retinde belgiley alamyz. Múnday mәlimdeme genosid qylmysyn boldyrmau jәne jazalau turaly halyqaralyq konvensiyada bekitilgen halyqaralyq qúqyqtyng qatang normalarynan tuyndap otyr.

Stalindik újymdastyru, Qazaqstanda, Ukrainada  t.b. jerlerde bolghan asharshylyq, 1937-1938 jyldardaghy sayasy qughyn-sýrgin sayasaty HH ghasyrdyng birinshi jartysynda bizding halyqtardyng tәuelsiz memleket boluyna ýlken kedergi jasady.

HH ghasyrdyng basynda qazaqstardyng da, ukraindardyng da últtyq-patriottyq intelliygensiyasy men últtyq-demokratiyalyq sayasy partiyalary bolghan edi. Alash partiyasy 1918-1920 jyldarda azamattyq soghystyng qiyn kezenderinde búl partiya qazaq halqynyng mýddesin mýmkindiginshe qorghaugha tyrysty. Biraq Stalin men onyng ainalasyndaghylar últ qaymaqtaryna ayamay repressiya jýrgizdi.

Múnyng bәri Stalinning Kremli taghyna otyru ýshin imperlyq, úlyderjavalyq sayasatyn jýzege asyrghanyn kórsetedi jәne dәleldeydi.

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