Beysenbi, 18 Shilde 2024
Altyn Orda 2038 12 pikir 5 Mausym, 2023 saghat 12:56

Rusiti qúlatqan Batudyng soqqysy

  ...Odnim slovom, nikakkogo «obshenarodnogo soprotivleniya» kipchakam tak y ne poluchilosi – poskoliku Rusi sostoyala iz prevelikogo mnojestva knyajestv, smotryashih drug na druga volkami, u vseh byly svoi, mestnye interesy, y ny o kakom takom «obshenasionalinom» interese eshe y rechi ne shla, togdashnie ludy poprostu ne ponyaly by, chto eto takoe.

Pora ponyati, chto nashih dalekih predkov nichuti ne unijaet tot fakt, chto mnogie knyaziya polubovno dogovorilisi s Batyem y priznaly sebya ego vassalami, i, bolee togo, russkie iz samyh raznyh knyajestv prespokoyno vstupaly v voyska stepnyh kipchakov.  Sie vovse ne sviydetelistvuet o kakoy – to «iskonno russkoy usherbnostiy». 

Vse togda jily po zakonam feodalinoy epohi. Ponyatiya «nasionalinoe gosudarstvo» poprostu ne sushestvovalo.

V.Demiyn

«Tayny Evraziiy»

Orys ghalymdary men jazushylary Altyn Ordanyng soqqysyn osylay jumsartyp jazady. Negizinde, búl shyndyqqa onshalyqty jaqyn kelmeydi. Orystyng әrbir knyazidyqtary bodandyqtan qashyp,   kóshpeli qypshaq imperiyasyna qatty qarsylasyp, ayanbay soghysqan. Ony, osy  Úly joryqtyng tarihyn ýnile zerttep, zerdeley qaraghanymyzda, anyq  angharasyn.

Batyl han (Batu) 1235-36 jyldary Shynghys hannyng taghyna otyrghan Ýgedeyding jarlyghymen, batysqa joryqty bastaudy naqty qolgha alghan edi. Kezindegi Jolshynyng úly (Joshy) Batyl Alakólding boyyndaghy qonysyna ózining býkil Deshti Qypshaq jerindegi әskerin jinaudy jәne Shaghatay úlysynyng da qalyng sarbazdaryn osy aragha shaqyryp, tize qosugha jaushylaryn jiberdi.

Bir aigha jeter-jetpes uaqytta úshy-qiyry joq mol әsker Tarbaghatay tauy men Alakól jaghalauyna jaqyn jatqan Ile Alatauynyng shetki silemderining aralyghyna lyq toldy. Milliongha tayau qalyng sarbaz osy arada sap týzep, joyqyn soghysqa dayyndalyp, kóp úzamay joryqqa attandy. Búl úly joryqqa búrynghy Shynghys han imperiyasynyng tuyn kótergen jalayyr, nayman, kerey,  qonyrat, qiyat, basqa da kóptegen taypalarmen qatar sol kezdegi qazaq jerindegi ýisin, sary ýisin, arghyn, dulat, qanly taypalarynyng sarbazdary týgelimen tartyldy. Batyl han óz qasyna  kenesshi jәne ózinen keyingi qolbasshy etip, Shynghys hannyng búrynghy әsker basy Sýbetay (Sýbedey) batyrdy ertip aldy. Soghysty jýrgizuding býkil әdisteri men tәsilderin bes sausaqtay biletin úly batyr әli tyng edi.  Áskerding moldyghy sonshalyq, salmaghynan qara jer qayysqanday, qúlaq túndyrghan dybysy alty qyrdyng astynan estiletin. Sodan Batyl han bastaghan qypshaqtyng qalyng әskeri Saryarqany basyp ótip, Jayyq pen Edilding eki aralyghyn bir demde jaulap aldy. Búlghariya (qazirgi tatarlar) eshqanday qauqar kórsete almay, eriksiz berildi.  Batyl han Sýbetay batyrmen ýnemi soghys bastar aldynda kenesip otyratyn bolghan. Edil men Jayyqtyng aralyghyn tolyq jaulap alghan son, han ózine Sýbetaydy shaqyrtady. Sol kezdegi qypshaq әskerlerining asa moldyghy slavyan  eline  birneshe tústan soghys jýrgizuge shamasy jetetin edi. Batyldyng qol astyna sol tústa orys knyazdikteri men Kavkaz, Qyrymnyng әli kire qoymaghan kezi. Han búlardy mýmkindiginshe kópke sozbay tez jaulap aludy josparlaghan bolatyn. Osyny eskergen Batyl han Sýbetaydan: «Rusi pen Kavkazdy bir uaqytta talqandap ótuge bola ma, әlde eki baghyt ashyp, oraqtay iyilip ortagha alyp soghys jýrgizgenimiz jón be?» - dep súrady. Búlghar qalasynda ayaldap jatqan búlar dýrk kóterilip, 1237 jyly kýzde eki baghytpen joryqqa attandy. Mónkening әskerin Kavkaz jaqtan jiberip, ózi (Batyl han) orys knyazidikterine oida joqta basyp kirdi. Birinshi soqqydan keyin-aq Pronsk, Ryazani, Vladimiyr, Kolomna qalalarynyng kýl-talqany shyqty. Batyl endi Mәskeuge bet aldy. Búl 1238 jyl bolatyn.  Knyazi Vladimir Vsevolodovich orys knyazidikterining birinen song biri berilip jatqanyn estip, qashyp ketti. Qypshaq әskerleri tek qalalardy ghana emes, býkil jolynda kezdesken eldi mekenderdi typ-tipyl etken edi. Reseydi ýrey jaylap alghan bolatyn. «Torghay bolyp úshyp ketpesen, aman qaluyng eki talay» degen mәtel sóz el arasynda tarap ketti. Mәskeuding bekinisi qansha myqty bolghanymen, ainalasyna or qazyp, su jýrgizip qoyghanyna qaramay, dalanyng qúryshtay berik sarbazdaryna qarsy túra almady. Aqyry Mәskeu da alyndy. Sonymen qatar Kolomna, Torjok, Kozelisk,Tveri qalalary da jaulap alyndy. Búl kezde Mónke Soltýstik Kavkaz ben Qyrymdy attarynyng túyaghymen taptap, kezdesken jaularyna des bermey, jaypap ótken uaqyt bolatyn. Batyldyng aldyndaghy endigi myqty bekinis Novgorod edi. Búl qalagha nebәri 150-200 shaqyrym jer qalghan-dy. Jylnamashylardyng aituynsha, kóktem aiy bolghandyqtan, ainala kól-kósir bolyp erip, sarbazdardyng jәne at-arbalardyng jýruine kóp qiyndyq keltirdi. Sonday-aq, azyq-týlik aza­y­­yp, qalyng әsker ishinara auyra bastaghan.Týmen basshylarymen kenes qúrghan Úly han kóktemning qary men suyghy ketkenshe dalagha bet alyp, demala túrghandy jón kórdi. Biraq, mynday sadaqshyny bólip alyp, qalanyng týbine jaqyndatyp, otty jebelermen Novgorodty órtep jiberudi Qalqan týmenge myqtap tapsyrdy. Jarlyq  tolyqtay oryndaldy. Qamaldy búzbaghanymen, qala ishi tútastay órtenip ketti. Ottyng jalyny men budaqtaghan týtin alystan kórinip túrdy. Demalyp, biraz sergigen qalyng әsker kezinde Sayyn han, - dep úly babasy Shynghys hannyng ózi ataghan  Batyldyng jetekshiligimen, endi ontýstik slavyan qalalaryn: Pereyaslavlidi, Uglichti, Chernigovty, Vladimiyr-Suzdali, Smolenskini kóp qiyndyqsyz jaulap aldy. Alda tek slavyan júrtynyng ortalyghy sanalatyn Kiyev qana qalghan bolatyn. Batyldyng sarbazdary men Rusiting soltýstigin baghyndyryp kelgen Mónkening әskeri qosylyp, endigi meje Kiyevti basyp alugha dayyndala bastady. Qalyng qosynnyng aldynda jarqyrap Kiyev túrdy. 1240 jyldyng kýzinde, qatqaq jermen Batyl men Mónkening qaraqúrym  әskeri Kiyevting týbine kelip jetti. Batyl han súlu Kiyevti eshqanday soghyssyz alghysy kelip edi jәne múny Mónkege eskertken bolatyn. Biraq, Kiyev túrghyndary qalany óz erkimen bergisi kelmedi. Batyldyng negizgi kýshteri qalany qorshaugha alghanda, boyyn ýrey biylegen Kiyev biyleushisi Mihayl Vsevolodovich Majarstangha qashyp ketti. Basshysyz qalghan qala qorghaushylarynyng kórsetken qatty qarsylyghyna Batyl han qayran  qalghan edi. Degenmen, qala qorghany kýshti bolghanmen ýsh aidyng ishinde qalalardyng qalasy atanghan Kiyev oiran boldy. Yza kernegen han qalany tútastay órtep jiberdi. Sonymen qatar, әskerining biraz kýnge demaluyna rúqsat berdi. Sýbetay men ózge әsker basshylaryn jinap alyp, ózining joryqtyng aldynda bergen tapsyrmasynyng qalay oryndalyp jatqanyn súrastyryp tekserdi. Sýbetay batyr úly joryq bastalar aldynda Batyl hangha Shynghys han babasynyng myna bir әdis-tәsilin aitqan bolatyn. «Shynghys babang jýz myngha tolar-tolmas әskerimen múhittay kerilip jatqan Qytaydy shapqanda, soghys bastalar aldynda býkil týmen basshylaryn shaqyryp alyp: «Sender sarbazdarynnyng ol jaqta qytaydan  әielin aluyna qarsy bolmandar, sarbazdar kýndiz soghysady, týnde solarmen bolsyn. Soghysta shyghynsyz bolmaydy jәne birneshe aigha  ketip bara jatqan joqpyz. Men biraz qypshaqtyng qyz-kelinshekterining jasaghyn qúryp, birge alyp bara jatyrmyn. Biz qytay әielderinen tughan balalardy solardyng qolyna tapsyratyn bolamyz. Olar әlgi balalardy elge әkelip, әrbir ýige bir-eki baladan kirgizip  otyrady. Ógey balalar  úl-qyzdarymyzben bite qaynasyp ósip, biraz jyldardan song opat bolghan sarbazdardyng ornyn toltyrady.  Sonda ghana  bir uys qúmday halqymyzdy joghaltyp almay tolyqtyryp, saqtap qalamyz. Osyny esterinde myqtap ústandar», – dep jarlyq bergen edi. Batyl han da býkil әsker basylaryn jinap alyp, әrbir sarbazgha osy eskertudi myqtap aitqan edi.  Búdan song Batyl han Galich-Volyn jerine ayaq basty. Múnda alty qala bar edi. Biraq múndaghylar hannyng ayaghyna jyghylyp, aitqandaryn týgeldey oryndady. Sondyqtan, eshqanday qaqtyghys bolmady. Sonymen, býkil Rusi Batyl men qypshaq әskerining aldynda tizesin  býkti.  Qys aiynyng sonyna taman kәri qúrlyqqa joryq bastaldy. Áueli Polisha men Siyleziya jerin basyp aldy. Polyaktar men nemisterding birikken kýshin, temir sauytty rysarlaryn týrli ailamen tastalqan etti. 1241 jyldyng kókteminde Europanyng elderi birinen song biri qúlay bastady. 1242 jyldyng qarasha aiynda Batyl hannyng týmenderi Sloveniya men Horvatiyany jaulap alyp, Zagrebke at basyn tiredi. Qypshaq әskerleri Europanyng biraz qalalaryn baghyndyryp, Venagha jetip, ony da alady. Serbiya, Bolgariya jerine kelgende, arttan jaushy kelip, Ýgedey hannyng qaytys bolghanyn jetkizedi. Búghan qaramay búl elderdi de tize býktirdi. Osydan keyin, eriksiz at basyn keri búrugha tura keldi. Basyp alghan jerlerining bәrine óz adamdaryn basshylyqqa taghayyndap (basqaqtar), alym-salyq jinap túrugha jarlyq berdi.  Qandy joryqtan son, 1243 jyly búlar jaziraly keng ólke, suy jalpaq, tirshilikke óte qolayly Edilding boyyna kelip toqtaydy. Osy arada ózining qúrghan qaghanatyn  Altyn orda dep atap, basyp alghan jerlerin, memleketterin, qalalaryn Altyn ordagha tikeley baghyndyrady. Qala saldyryp, biylik jýrgizudi qolgha aldy.   Edilding jaghasyna kelip, aq boz atyn sugharyp bolghan son, attyng aldynghy ayaghyn kóterip, túyaqtarynyng  myndaghan shaqyrym jer jýrse de, kemirilmegenine qayran qaldy. Ústany shaqyrtady. – Myna ay túyaqty kórding ghoy, kemirilmegen. Men әdeyi joryq aldynda tagha qaqtyrmaghan edim. Arghymaqtyng túyaghy joryq uaqytyna shydar- shydamasyn bilgim kelgen. Osy ay túyaqqqa úqsatyp, qaghanattyng mórin jasaysyn, úqtyng ba, – dep búiyrady. Sonymen, týrki  qypshaqtardyng  ay túyaqty móri bar ekinshi imperiyasy (Shynghys hannan keyingi) osylay dýniyege kelgen bolatyn.

Beysenghazy Úlyqbek,

Qazaqstan Jurnalister odaghynyng mýshesi

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