Sәrsenbi, 21 Aqpan 2024
Bilgenge marjan 2533 15 pikir 4 Tamyz, 2023 saghat 13:09

Joshy hannyng ólimi

Oghyz memleketining negizin qalaghan, oghyzdardyng tәuelsizdigin tatar qauymynyng basshysy Kýltegin qahannan qorghap qalghan, Qiyat ruynyng qolbasshysy Dobyn bayan turaly biz «Dombauyl nemese Dobyn mergen» atty maqalada jazghan bolatynbyz. Dobynnyng auylynan, yaghny Ortaqtan (Úlytaudan), Belgibay, Baghanaly jәne niruundardyng (aru túqym) ýsh babasy – Búqa-qatyq, Bosqyn-jalshy jәne Býtinjar taraydy. Beseui eseygende eng kishisi Býtinjargha aghalary eshtene bermey, inilerin renjitip, onyng jat jaqqa kóship ketuine sebepshi bolady.

Keyin Býtinjardy Búqa-qatyq izdep tauyp alady. «Bizdiki dúrys bolmady, ashuyndy bas, elge qayt» degenge, Býtinjar: «Joq. Aghayyn arasynda múnday әdiletsizdik bolmauy tiyis»,- dep Ortaqqa qaytudan bas tartady. Amal qalmaghandyqtan Búqa-qatyq inisimen qaludy jón kóredi. Sol VIII ghasyrdan bastap Búqa-qatyq pen Býtinjardyng úrpaqtary býgingi Shynghyztau, Búqtyrma, Kóksu aumaghyna taraydy. Býgingi tobyqtylardy qiyattar dep ataytyny sodan. Rashit ad-Dinning «Jamigh at-Tauariyh» atty kitabynyng 2018 jylghy qazaq tiline audarylghan núsqasynda Yesýkey bahadýr men kereyding Toghyryl qany Kóksu ózenining boyynda kórshi túrghany turaly jazylghan.

H ghasyrdyng ayaghynda, dala kenistigine qúrghaqshylyq týsuine baylanysty, dala elderining arasynda ýrey payda bolyp, kiygiz tuyrly taypalar jayylym ýshin talasty bastap ketti. Jayyqtan bastap Búghylytau men Ystyqkólge deyin jaylaghan oghyzdardy batys pen soltýstikten jyljyghan qypshaqtar men kiymekter týstikke qaray yghystyra bastady. Nәtiyjesinde, Borsyqqúmdaghy eski Qaraqorymda qiyat-baqanalar (baghanalylar) qaldy da, qayylar, bayattar, bayandýrler qazirgi Týrkmenstangha, keyin Kishi Aziyagha, al bayattar men qiyattardyng bir bóligi jәne qoralastar men dýrbitter shyghysqa bet aldy.

1206 jyly Temirshyng Shynghyz qahan dәrejesin alyp, qandardyng ýstinen әmir etetin úly qahan bolyp saylandy. Búl oqigha kiygiz tuyrly týrk qauymynyng eki bóligi (yýzligi) tatar men múnghyl elderining bir býtin bolyp birigu jolynda ýlken isting ayaqtaluynyng nýktesi boldy. Búl is tatar qauymynyng eng iri memleketi – Nayman qandyghynyng baghyndyryluymen bitti.

Derekterge kóz salsaq, Shynghyz qahan әskery satyn kóne týrk dәstýri boyynsha ýsh qanattan jasaqtady: Basty orda, Barynghar (ong qanat) jәne Zýýnghar (sol qanat). Býgingi qazaq jeri – Barynghar, Mongholiya – Zýýnghar, al Qazaqstannyng shyghys aumaghyndaghy Shynghyztau, Búqtyrma, Kóksu ózeni jәne Ertisting joghary aghysy – Qaraqorym ornalasqan Basty orda boldy.

Kelesi jyly Shynghyz qahan túnghysh úly Joshygha «toghay elderin» baghyndyrudy búiyrdy. Úrsúttar, eniysey qyrghyzdary, búrjattar, t.b. óz syilyqtaryn alyp kelip, Joshygha baghynbaq týgili, ony ózderining qany qylyp saylap, aq kiygizge kóterip jiberdi. Úlynyng búnday qadamyn әkesi ózine jasalynghan sayasy yqpal retinde qabyldady. Ishinde payda bolghan sayasy qyzghanyshqa qaramastan, Shynghyz qahan «túnghyshymnyng alghashqy derbes joryghy sәtti ótti, qanshama taypalardy qantógissiz baghyndyrdy» dep, Joshygha qúrmetti әskery búqa shenin tabys etti. Oghan qosa, baghyndyrylghan elderdi úlynyng enshisine berdi.

1216 jyly, Yrghyzdyng boyyndaghy qypshaqtardy panalaghan merkitterdi birden tamyrymen joy maqsatynda, Shynghyz qahan Joshyny taghy da ózin ghana jeke joryqqa attandyrdy. Joryq sәtti ótti, merkitter joyylyp, qalghandary jan-jaqqa shashyrady. Jenisti toylap otyrghan Joshynyng jasaghyna Sartauyldyng biyleushisi Múhammet Horezmshahtyng 40 myng әskeri tap boldy. Joshynyng 10 myng qolyn tang atqannan kesh batqangha deyin soghysugha mәjbýr etken shah múnghyl sarbazdarynyng qolyna týse jazdap, úly Jәlel ad-Dinning tapqyrlyghynyng arqasynda әzer aman qaldy. Sonday sәttilikke qaramastan, týn jamylghan kezde Joshynyng jasaghy shayqas alanynan ketip qalady. Búl kezdeysoq úrys Horezmshahqa qatty әser etti. Múnghyldardyng erligi men әskery tәrtipke tanqalghan ol, keyin, 1219 jyly, Sartauylgha kele jatqan Shynghyz qahannyng 15 týmen әskerine qarsy 450 myng әskerin ashyq alangha shygharugha batalmaydy.

Keybir derekterge sәikes, Joshy sol 1216 jyldan bastap-aq Úlytau ónirine at basyn tirep, jergilikti jastaryn biriktirip alghan. Onyng dәlelin biz Shynghyz qahannyng Sartauylgha jasaghan soghysta, Ýrgenishti alu kezinde bolghan oqighamen baylanystyramyz. 1219 jyly Joshy, Jaghatay jәne Oqtaygha 50 myng әsker berip, úly qahan olargha Otyrardan bastap Seyhunnyng (Syr) boyyndaghy qalalardy aludy búiyrdy. 1221 jyly Ýrgenishti alu kezinde Joshy men Jaghataydyng arasynda qalany alu tәsili boyynsha kelispeushilik tudy. Joshygha qala únap, bolashaqta ordasynyng qysqy qonysy retinde qarastyryp, ony asyqpay, qiratpay, túrghyndardy ózderi berilgenshe qamaugha aludy úsyndy. Biraq, Jaghatay oghan kónbey, qalany dereu, barlyq kýshti salyp, әskerding shabuyl tәsilderin qoldanyp aludy algha tartty.

Búl jerde Joshy ózining ýlkendigin joghary ústap, әskery bedeline arqa sýiep otyrghany týsinikti. Ol әrqashanda әkesining tapsyrmalaryn abyroymen oryndap, qolbasshylyq talantyn kórsetip, kýlli múnghyl әskerining aldynghy shebinde jýrip, shayqastarda kózge kórinip otyrghan. Jaghatay bolsa, әkesining kózi tirisinde Joshy tym sayasy biyiktep bara jatqanyn moyyndaghysy kelmedi. Sol sebepten, olar Shynghyz qahangha habarshy jiberip, kenes súraudy jóng kórdi. Úly qahan úldarynyng arasynan Oqtaydy tandap, «ol ne aitady, sony oryndandar, daulasudy qoyyp, qalalardy tezirek alyndar» dep ýkim shyghardy.

Búl habardy estigen Joshy qatty qapa bolyp, Seyhunnyng tómen jaghynda ornalasqan qalalardy alghan son, ózine qarasty qoldyng at basyn Úlytaugha búryp alyp ketedi. 1222 jyl boyy ol Úlytauda bolady. Osy kezende әkesi men ýlken úldyng arasy suyp, eki jaq ta óz renishin osynday qadamdarmen kórsetip, Joshy ózining sayasy bedelin baghalamaghan ýshin alpauyt memleketke qarsy jýrgizilip otyrghan soghys alanyn tastap ketuge deyin bardy.

Shynghyz qahannyng qadamy qanday bolmaq degen Joshynyng ainalasy әkesi men túnghyshy arasynda soghys bastalyp keter me degen boljamdy da joqqa shygharghan joq. Biraq, qahan basqa sayasat tәsilin qoldandy. Sartauylyna qarsy soghysqa kelgende qahannyng bәibishesi Bórte aq sarayda qalyp, qasyna toqaly, merkitting qyzy Qúlan hatundy ertip әkeldi. Qúlan, qahannan tapqan jalghyz úly Kýlqannyng enshisine Ortaq pen Qypshaqty ýles qylyp bólip berudi qayta-qayta aityp azghyrghan edi. Sol sәtti paydalanyp, Shynghyz qahan toqaly men túnghyshynyng sayasy qarsylastyghyn ózining biyligining paydasyna qoldanudy sheshti.

1222-1223 jyldardyng qys ailarynda qahan Samarqanda ótkizip, kóktem su aghyny toqtar-toqtamastan Joshygha adam jiberip, «dalanyng andaryn quyp әkel, angha shyqpaqpyn» dep búiyrady. Sartauylyna qarsy soghystyng sәtti ayaqtaluyn eskere otyryp, әkesining oljaly bolghanyna tәnti bolghan Joshy, әni-mini basty әsker Ortaqqa kelip, til almaghan onyng basyn keser dep otyrghan sәtte, әkesining jibergen adamyn kóre, onyng auzynan shyqqan sózinen tatulasu niyetin angharyp, óte qatty quanyp ketti.

Eki jyl boyy Teris-Kendirlikting sol jaghalauynda ornyqqan Joshy orda-sarayyn kózge jasyryndy jerde, babasy Dobyn-mergenning qasyna saldy. Tórt jaghy qyrattarmen jabylghan, býgingi Qyzyltúmsyq dep atalatyn manda, ózenning jaghasynda enseli saray boy kóterdi. Joshynyng tórt noyany men uәzirleri búl әreketin ong baghalaghanymen, úly qahangha qarsylyq jasaghanyn ishtey qúptamady. Shynghyz qahannan elshi kelgende olardyng yiyqtarynan jýk týskendey boldy.

Joshy olarmen aqyldasa otyryp, keng daladaghy qúlan, búlan, kiyik, jayrandardy aldyna salyp alyp, oghan qosa, әkesine tartar syilyq retinde 100 myng jylqy aidap alyp bardy. Onyng 20 myny – kók, 20 myny – súr, 20 myny - tory, 20 myny – kýren, 20 myny – shúbar jylqy.

Shynghyz qahan úldary Jaghatay, Oqtay jәne Tolaydy ertip, býgingi Maytóbe dep atalatyn Úlytau silemining týstigindegi eng aqyrghy biyik nýktesining baurayyna týsti. Joshynyng alyp kelgen syilyghyn kórip, úly qahan quanyshyn jasyra almay riza boldy. Tilin almay әsker qatarynan qolyn alyp, Ortaqqa ketip qalghan túnghyshy osynday qúrmet kórsetkeni әkesinen keshirim súraghany dep týsindirtti.

Búl úly oqigha osydan tura 800 jyl búryn oryn alghan. Úly qahan úldarymen ang aulap, qúryltay qúryp, ózining ósiyetterin aitty. Bәibishesi Bórte hatunnan tughan tórt úlyna biriktirgen úlan-ghayyr memleketin enshilep bólip berdi.

- Men babam Oghyz qahannyng elin azat etip, qayta qalpyna keltiru jolynda biraz ter tóktim, týn úiyqtamadym, shól dalanyng azabyn kórdim. Biraq, men mәngi emespin, taghdyr maghan qansha ghúmyr bergenin bir Tәnirim biledi. Isimiz әli ayaqtalghan joq. Aldymyzda Tinening (Don) arghy jaghynda jatqan Qypshaq, Rus, Bashqúrt, Búlghar, Sherkes, azat etudi kýtip otyrghan Baghdat, Sham jәne Mysyr bar. Tanghyttyng Altyn qany da boy kórsete bastady. Babamyzdyng jer betin tynyshtyrudaghy iygi isti jalghastyratyn endi sender. Men azat etilgen jerlerdi tórteuinning qaramaghyna berem, soghan ie bolyndar - dep, Shynghyz qahan úldaryna memleketin bólip berdi.

Joshynyng enshisine kýlli barynghar, yaghny shyghysta Búghylytau men Balqashtan, týstikte Seyhunnan bastap, batystaghy múnghyl attarynyng túyaghy tiygen jerlerge deyingi dala ótti. Onyng ordasyna, kóz bolsyn dep, Shynghyz qahan ózining toqaly Qúlan hatundy jiberdi. Qúlan Úlyq-Baqyrlyqta (Jezqazghan) óndirilgen altyn, kýmis, mys ónimderin satu arqyly týsken qarajatqa ie boludy óz moyynyna aldy. Múnymen úly qahan Joshygha ózining әmirligin sezindirudi menzedi, óitkeni Úlyq-Baqyrlyqta mys óndeu isi ýlken olja edi jәne kez kelgen biyleushining armanyndaghy enshilik bolatyn.

Qúryltay bitip, úly qahan men Oqtay, Jaghatay jәne Tolay shyghysqa bet aldy. Teris-Kendirlikting jaghasyndaghy ordasyna kelgen Joshy ashuyn jasyra almady, óitkeni әkesimen tatulasqanymen, basty qarjy kózinen aiyryluy - onyng biyligining tukke túrmaytynyn anyq belgisi.

1226 jyly Shynghyz qahan Tanghút eline әsker jiberip, ózi Qaraqorymda, Bashqúrt, Búlghar, Rus, Sherkes elderine joryq úiymdastyru maqsatta, qúryltay shaqyrmaq boldy. Sol qúryltaygha, joryqty basqaru ýshin, arnayy Joshy da shaqyryldy. Biraq, ol, syrqattanyp qaldym dep, jol jýruden bas tartty, al ainalasyndaghylargha bylay dedi:

- Mening әkem esinen auysty. Ári qaray qyra bergisi keledi, joya bergisi keledi. Sol ýshin men ony óltirmekpin.

Búl sózdi estigen uәzirler sayasy teke-tires shekten shyqqanyn jәne múnday sózdi jariya etuimen túnghyshy әkesine soghys ashqanmen birdey ekenin týsindi. Olar Qarajarda otyrghan Qúlan hatungha adam jiberip, Joshynyng jariya sózin jetkizdi. Osynday qolayly sәtti kýtip otyrghan Qúlan dereu Jaghataygha adam jiberip, súmdyq habardy úly qahangha estirtuge asyqty, óitkeni múnday sayasy әreket Joshynyng mansabyna balta shabudyng taptyrmas mýmkindigi edi.

Joshynyng sózin estigen Shynghyz qahan ashugha batyp, Jaghatay men Oqtaygha әsker jinatyp, túnghyshyn óltiruge búiryq berdi. Eki úlynyng әskeri Jetisudan Ortaqqa qaray bet alghanda, aldyn ala, Joshynyng ordasyndaghy kisilerding kóz qarasyn bilu ýshin, jasyryn elshiler jiberiledi. Olar Qúlan hatunnyng júrtyna týsip, mәn-jaghdaydy súrastyrghanda, ordanyng dәulettileri Jaghatay men Oqtaydyng әskerimen soghysqysy kelmeytinin, aghayyndar arasyndaghy qantógis eshkimge kerek emes ekenin jәne úly qahannyng búiryghyna baghynatynyn birden ashyp aitty.

- Olay bolsa, búl isti ózdering ayaqtandar. Tek aghamnyng maghan bergen bir serti bar edi. Eger menimen alysyp jenilse, maghan bir qolyn kesip berem dep uәde bergen. Ol óltirilgenning dәleli retinde maghan onyng bir qolyn kesip әkep berinder. Tek sonda ghana biz әskerdi keri qaytaramyz - dep, elshiler Jaghataydyng sózin jetkizdi.

Sheshim qabyldanyp, bir sәtte biylik Qúlan hatunnyng qolyna ótti. Oghan keyin «ana» dәrejesi berilgeni de sodan. Kelisim boyynsha Joshynyng tórt noyany Qúlangha baghynyp, olargha hanzadalardyng qauipsizdigin qamtamasyz etu jәne atalyq qyzmetin atqaru mindetteldi. Oghan qosa, tórt noyan Qúlannyng baskeserleri isti oryndau sәtinde kedergi jasamaytynyna uәde berdi jәne olargha ordanyng esigin ashyp, qarauyldardy alyp tastau mindetteledi.

1227 jyldyng aqpan aiynda bir top jasaq qazirgi Qyzyltúmsyqtaghy Joshynyng sarayyna basa kóktep kirip, patsha túqymyn nayzamen nemese jebemen shanshyp, qanyn shygharyp óltiruge bolmaytyndyqtan, qandy shoqparmen úryp óltirdi. Keyin bir qolyn kesip alyp, Jaghataygha jiberdi. Sol sәtte Jaghatay men Oqtaydyng әskeri keri qaytyp, Joshynyng ólgeni turaly habardy Qaraqorymgha jetkizdi.

Úly qahangha qara habardy ordagha jaqyn uәzir Úlyq Jyrshy aitady. Jyrshynyng sózin estigen Shynghyz qahan:

Qúlyn alghan qúlanday qúlynymnan aiyryldym.

Ayyrylyshqan aqquday er úlymnan aiyryldym, - dep jyrlaydy.

Ol sózderdi estisimen ordada bolghan kýlli әmirler men noyandar túryp, dәstýrge sәikes kónil aityp, joqtau joqtaudy bastaydy.

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