Júma, 19 Shilde 2024
Mәiekti 18235 1 pikir 14 Shilde, 2014 saghat 12:20

QAZAQSTANDAGhY DÁSTÝRLI EMES ISLAMY AGhYMDAR

Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng 70 payyz halqy ózin músylman dep tanyghan qogham ýshin Islam dinining býgingi kelbeti kókeykesti mәsele bolyp tabylady. Osy maqalada býgingi tanda Islam dini ishinde oryn alghan dәstýrli emes diny aghymdar turaly mәsele qozghasam dep otyrmyn. Eng әueli Islam dinining Qazaq jerine kelip qalyptasuy men odan әri damuy turaly qysqasha toqtalghan jón.

Islam dinining qazaq jerine keluining bir, eki jýz jyl emes mynjyldyq tarihy bar. Islam dini ata-babalarymyzdyng mәdeniyetine, salt-dәstýrine tipti qanyna sinip, atadan balagha jetken din ekenin úmytpauymyz qajet.

Tarihymyzgha ýnilip qaraytyn bolsaq, Islam dinining qazaq jerine kelgennen beri, ata-babalarymyz ghasyrlar boyy tek islam dinin ústanghan.

         Islam dinining Qazaqstan men Orta Aziya jerine kelui ataqty Kuteyba ibn Muslimning Mauerennahr jerine enuimen baylanysty.751 jyly músylman әskeri Talas manynda Tang imperiyasynyng әskerin jengennen keyin Islam dini birjola qazirgi Qazaqstan jerinde nyq ornygha bastaydy.

         Islam dinining keluimen qala mәdeniyeti, ghylym, bilim, sauda, óner salalary órkendedi. Ontýstik Qazaqstan jәne Jetisu jerinde medreseler men meshitter boy kóterdi. Qarahan memleketi Islam dinin memlekettik din dep qabyldaghan alghashqy memleket boldy.

Islam dinining keninen taralyp, qalyptasuy beybit týrde jýzege asty. Islam dinining keluimen birge Islam әlemining jaryq júldyzdary Ábu-Nasyr әl-Farabi, Ábu Ibrahim Ishaq әl-Farabi, Ghalamaddin әl-Jauhari, Qoja Ahmet Yassaui, Múhammed Haydar Dulati, Hussam Addin As-Syghanaqy syndy islam mәdeniyeti men ghylymyn әlemge pash etken ghúlamalar payda boldy.

         Qazaq jeri patshalyq Reseyding bodanyna ainalghan tústa patsha ýkimeti islam dinining tolyqqandy damuyna kedergiler jasady. Otarshyl sheneunikter islam dinining yqpalyn barynsha shekteuge tyrysty. Múnyng shekten shyqqan mysalynyng biri retinde jergilikti halyqty shoqyndyru baghytyndaghy ashyq is-әreketin aitugha bolady. Alayda, halqymyz otar jaghdayynda ata-baba dinine adaldyghy men beriktigin saqtap, kelesi úrpaqqa jetkize bildi. Bizge jetken qújattar boyynsha HIH ghasyrdyng 60 jyldary Týrkistan qalasynda 20-gha juyq meshit, 2 medrese bolghan. 1917 qazan tónkerisine deyin Aqtóbe aimaghynda 200-dey, Jetisu ólkesinde 269, Bókey handyghynda 78, Áulie ata qalasynda 15 meshit bolghan.

         1921 jyly qúrylghan Kenes ýkimetining túsynda Islam ghana emes, jalpy aitqanda dinning ózi nadandyq pen qaranghylyqtyng qaynar kózi dep esepteldi. Ateizm memlekettik túrghyda nasihattala bastady. Din qyzmetkerleri men qoja-moldalar qughyngha úshyrady. Diny ghimarattar men medreseler jappay jabyla bastady. Osyghan qaramastan Kenes biyligi túsynda shamamen 38 meshit boy kóterdi. Tәuelsizdik qarsany aldynda 60-tan asa meshit bolghan.

         1990 jyly Tashkenttegi Orta Aziya jәne Qazaqstan músylmandar diny basqarmasynan bólinip, Almaty qalasynda ótken Qazaqstan músylmandarynyng I qúryltayynda Qazaqstan Músylmandar diny basqarmasy qúrylady.

Búl Islam dinining elimizde qalyptasqan әdet-ghúryptarymyzdyn, dәstýrlerimizdin, dilderimizding erekshelikterin sinire otyryp, tereninen ornyqqandyghyn qórsetedi. Qazaq eli islam dini qazaq jerine kelgennen bastap, qúlshylyqtary men ghibadattaryn Imam Aghzam Ábu Hanifa mazhaby jәne imam Maturidy diny senimi mektebi negizinde atqardy.

Ókinishke oray, Kenes ýkimeti túsynda Islam dinin tereninen oqyp jastargha aqiqatty jetkizetin sauatty qoja-moldalar sany tómendedi. Kenes dәuiri túsynda dýniyege kelgen balalar ateizm ruhyn sinirip ósti. Osynyng barlyghy qazaq halqynyng ruhany mәdeniyetining tómendeuine jәne salt-dәstýrleri men әdet-ghúryptarynyng úmytyluyna deyingi keypine alyp keldi.

Kenes ýkimeti qúlaghannan keyin, Qazaqstan naryqtyq ekonomikagha negizdelgen, qoghamdyq ómirding barlyq salalaryn demokratiyalandyru jolymen jýretin әleumettik, azamattyq qogham qúrushy zayyrly memleket bolyp qalyptasty.

Qazaqstan óz tәuelsizdigine qol jetkizgennen keyin qogham ómirining barlyq salalarynda derlik teren, týbegeyli ózgerister oryn aldy. Búl óz kezeginde din men diny qúbylystardyn  ózinde de tereng ózgeristerge alyp keldi.

Jetpis jyl boyy Kenes ýkimetining jýrgizgen iydeologiyalyq sayasatynan arylyp, diny bostandyqqa qol jetkizgennen keyin qazaq halqy ústanghan Islam dinine bet búra bastady.

          Sol uaqyttaghy qazaq jastary Islam dinin tereninen oqu maqsatynda Saud Arabiya, Egiypet, Liviya, Siriya, Pakistan sekildi arab elderine attandy. Diny sauattaryn ashyp kelgen jastar Islam dinin taratu jolynda auqymdy júmys jýrgizip, últaralyq kelisim men sayasy túraqtylyqty nyghaytugha ýles qosa bastady. Ókinishke oray, Qazaqstan músylmandar qauymdastyghy ýshin dәstýrli emes bolyp sanalatyn islamy baghytta bilim alghan jastar da boldy. Olar qazirgi Qazaqstanda keng óris alghan «Uahabiyler» (sәlәfiyler), «Hizb-ut-Tahriyr», «Tablighy Jamaghat», «Qúranshylar» basqa sol siyaqty ózge de dәstýrli emes aghymdardyng negizin salushylar.

         Dәstýrli Islam dini – memleket jәne qogham tarapynan resmy tanylghan, naqty qoghamda  әleumettik-mәdeny ýstemdikke iye, sonday-aq tarihy jәne etno-mәdeny negizi bar bolatyn bolsa, dәstýrli emes islamy aghymdar bizding memleketimizding aumaghynda úzaqqa sozylghan tarihy deregi joq.

          Sonyng biri – sәlәfiyler. Sәlәfiylikislam aghymy «әs-Sәlәf әs-Sәliyh», yaghni, «bizding zamanymyzdan búryn ómir sýrgen izgi babalar» týsinigimen, olar amalgha asyrghan is-әreketterdi sol qalpynda qabyldaudy maqsat tútqan diniy-sayasy baghyt. Múhammed (s.gh.s) óz sahih hadiysinde: «Eng qayyrly buyn – mening zamandastarym. Odan keyin olardyng sonynan ergender. Sosyn búlardan keyin kelgender» degen. Hadistegi «eng hayyrly buyn» degen atqa ie bolghan alghashqy ýsh buyn ókilderin «sәlәf-us-salihiyn» atauymen ataghan.

Elimizde songhy 10-12 jyldyng ishinde ózderin biz «sәlәfpyz» dep bóletin dәstýrli emes aghym payda boldy. Olar Allanyng birligine shaqyru, islam dinin biydghat (Islam dinine janadan engizilgen janalyqtar) amaldardan tazalau, dinimizdi Payghambarymyzdyng (s.gh.s.) zamanyndaghyday qalpyna qaytaru, arab әlemin biriktiru siyaqty maqsattardy kózdeydi.

         Búl aghymdy HVIII ghasyrda Saud Arabiyasynyng Nәjd ólkesinde Riyaz qalasy manyndaghy Úyaayna eldi mekeninde dýniyege kelgen Múhammed ibn Ábdәl-Uahhab ibn Sýleymen qúrghan. Aghym osy kisining atymen uahhabiylik dep te atalady.

         Búl aghym belsendileri shashy men saqalyn ósirip, balaghy tobyqtan joghary shalbarmen jýredi. Ózderining daghuaty ýshin ózderi mәzhab ústanbaghanmen jetekshisi imam Ibn Taymiyanyn, Múhammed әl-Qayim әl-Jauziyding kitaptaryn qoldanady.

         Allah razylyghy ýshin Qúran oqyp, baqilyq bolghandargha baghyshtaugha, mazargha barugha, tәspi qoldanugha bolmaydy, sonday-aq dúghalarda perishtelerdin, әuliyelerding esimderin aitu – kóptәnirlikting belgisi. Meshitterge sadaqa beruge tiym salady. Payghambarymyzdyng (s.gh.s.) tuylghan kýni, mәulit kýnin atap ótuge bolmaydy dep sanaydy.

         «Hizb-utTahriyr» (Azattyq partiyasy) – beyresmy diniy-sayasy partiya. Onyng tolyq atauy «Hizb-ut Tahrir әl-islamiy». Negizin qalaushy Mysyrda dýniyege kelgen palestinalyq sheyh Tahuddin Nabbahaniy.

         Onyng tújyrymdarynyng mәni – memlekettik shekara degen úghymdy músylmandar moyyndamauy kerek, yaghny músylmandardyng barlyghy bir Islam memleketinde, bir halifting basqaruynda ómir sýruleri kerek degen iydeyagha kelip tireledi. Atalmysh iydeya kele-kele arab elderi aumaghynan shyghyp, Batys Europagha tarady. Partiyanyng bólimsheleri keyin Mysyr, Ýrdin, Tuniys, Kuveyt jәneTýrkiyada ashylyp, yqpal etu aumaghy birshama keneydi.

         Kenes odaghy ydyrap, onyng qúramyndaghy Ortalyq Aziya elderi men Qazaqstan egemendigin alghannan keyin Hizb-ut Tahrir óz belsendilikterin sol aimaqta da jýrgize bastady.

         Búl partiyanyng kózdegen basty maqsaty – músylmandar arasynda iydeologiyalyq júmysty jan-jaqty jandandyru arqyly músylman ýmmetinin, qajet dese ózge dinning jaqtastarynyng sana-sezimderine tónkeris jasau jәne sol arqyly sayasy biylikke qol jetkizu.

         «Tabligh jamaghaty» - Qazirgi kezde elimizding barlyq aumaqtaryna tarap, tanymal bolghan «Tabligh jamaghaty» dep atalatyn top payda boldy.

         «Tabliygh» sózining maghynasy «jetkizu, habarlandyru, eskertu» degen maghynalardy anghartady. Tabligh jamaghaty ózderining osylaysha ataluynyng sebebin «Sahih Ál-Búhariy» kitabyndaghy Abdulla ibn Omar (r.a.) keltirgen hadistegi Payghambarymyzdyng (s.gh.s.):

         «Menen bir ayat bolsa da (adamdargha) jetkizinder»!- degen sózime baylanystyrady. Sóitip: «Hadiste Payghambarymyz (s.gh.s.): «jetkizinder», yaghny «tabligh jasandar»- dep әmir etken. Endeshe, Allagha shaqyrushy әrbir adam «mýbәlliygh» – «jetkizushi» bolyp tabylady. Mine osydan bizding jamaghatymyz «tabligh jamaghaty», yaghny «ayattardy jetkizushilerding jamaghaty» dep atalady.

         «Tabligh jamaghaty» eldi mekenderdi aralap jýrip daghuat jasaydy, olar múnday daghuattaryn «bayan»  nemese «hútba» dep ataydy. «Bayan» kezinde adamdardy daghuat tyndaugha jinap, olardy birneshe topqa bólip, onyng әrbirine jetekshi taghayyndap, olargha Fatiha men birneshe qysqa sýreler ýiretiledi. Osylaysha, birneshe kýn ótkennen keyin, sol adamdardy ózderimen birge «daghuatqa» shyghugha mindetteydi.         Sodan әrbir adam ózining shamasyna qaray olarmen birge 1 kýn, yaky 3 kýn, jylyna qyryq kýn, ómirinde tórt ay daghuatqa shyghuy qajet bolady. Tabliyghshylar múnday daghuatqa shyghudy «huruj» deydi.

Osy atalghan dәstýrli emes islamgha jat aghymdardan tuatyn ýlken bir mәsele ol  Islam dinin jartylay jәne qate týsinip, ózderin ústaz symaq sanaghan adamdardyng aitqanyna erip, psihologiyalyq túrghydan óz ómirlerin qiigha dayyndyghy. Islam dinin dúrys týsinbeushilik mәselesi diny fanatizmge alyp kelude. Mysaly, eger diny bilimning jәne tәjiriybening tolyq joqtyghy ózimshilding jәne amoralidyq siyaqty ekstremizmning bir týrine әkelip soqtyrsa, al jartylay, ýzindi diny bilim qarama-qarsy nәtiyjege agressivtik radikalizmge әkeledi. Siriyadaghy soghysqa bala-shaghalarymen attanghan qandas bauyrlarymyz osy aghymdardyng yqpalyna týskendigin atap ótken jón.

Osy atalghan aghymdardyng negizgi maqsaty:

  • Qazaqstanda Halifat qúru maqsatynda jәne barlyq zandargha «Shariattyn» basshylyq etui ýshin, memlekettik qúrylymdy jon;
  • Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng shekaralaryn әlsiretu;
  • Memlekettik resurstardy jaulap alu jәne jergilikti túrghyndargha tolyq yqpal etu;

Jogharyda aitylghandy eskere otyryp, Memleket tarapynan atalghan mәselelerding aldyn alu ýshin, sonday-aq elimizde qalyptasqan dәstýrli Islam dinining rólin nyghaytu jәne dinaralyq kelisimdi kýsheytu maqsatynda auqymdy júmystar atqaryluda.

Sonyng biri 2005 jylghy 28 nauryzda Astana qalasy sotynyng sheshimimen Qazaqstan aimaghynda Hizb-ut-Tahriyr» úiymynyng qyzmetine tiym salynuy, sonday-aq 2013 jylghy 26 aqpanda Astana qalasynyng Saryarqa audandyq sotynyng sheshimimen «Tablighy djamaghat»úiymy qyzmetining toqtatyluy.

Sonymen qatar, eldegi ýilesimdi konfessiyaaralyq qarym-qatynasty qalyptastyrugha jәne nyghaytugha, halyqtyng diny sauattylyghyn arttyrugha jәne diny ekstremizm men terrorizmning aldyn alugha baghyttalghandin mәseleleri jónindegi aqparattyq-nasihattyq toptar (ANT) qúryldy. ANT qúramyna dintanushy-mamandar, teologtar, ghalymdar, ýkimettik emes úiymdardyng ókilderi, zangerler, psihologtar, jergilikti atqarushy jәne qúqyqqorghaushy organdardyng qyzmetkerleri endi.

Qúrylghan ANT óz júmysy barysynda túrghyndardyng maqsatty әleumettik toptaryn qamtyp, olargha dinning shynayy adamgershilik bastaularyn jetkizip, dәstýrli ruhany qúndylyqtardy siniredi jәne radikaldy, destruktivti diny qauymdardyng qataryna ótu qauipteri turaly eskertedi.

Atalghan dәstýrli emes islamgha jat aghymdardyng bizding qoghamgha yqpalyn jong maqsatynda Qazaqstan Respublikasy Din isteri agenttigining bastamasymen 2013 jyly diny mәseleler boyynsha aqparattar qabyldau men azamattargha konsulitasiyalar beru Ortalyghy qúryldy. Onyng bazasynda tәulik boyy tegin qyzmet atqaratyn – «Qauyrt jeli - 114» qyzmeti úiymdastyryldy. Qauyrt jeli qyzmetining mәni – azamattardy din mәselesi boyynsha tәulik boyy tegin aqparattandyru men din salasyndaghy zandardyng búzyluy turaly mәlimetterdi jinaqtau men olardy qúqyq qorghau organdaryna joldau bolyp tabylady.

Sonymen qatar, 2013 jyly dәstýrli islam negizderin týsindiru men Internet kenistiginde ekstremizm profilaktikasyn jýzege asyru ýshin sapaly aqparattyq-aghartushylyq «E-islam» Internet-portaly qúryldy.

 

Zeynolla Abdumanapov,

Qazaqstan Respublikasy Din isteri agenttigi

Mәdeniyetter men dinderding halyqaralyq ortalyghynyn

bas sarapshysy 

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