Sәrsenbi, 25 Mamyr 2022
Qogham 8531 0 pikir 17 Qarasha, 2014 saghat 11:25

QAZAQTYNG JANY QANDAY?

Qazaqtyng jany  júmbaqqa toly, óitkeni, qazaq últynyng ózindik erekshelikteri óte kóp. Ol erekshelikter ghasyrlar boyy qazaqtardyng túrmys-tirshiligi ótken geografiyalyq orta men tabighat qúbylystaryna (klimatqa), ómir sýru salty men sharuashylyq jýrgizu әdisterine, diny nanym-senimderine, mәdeniyetine, salt-dәstýrine, tarihyna, kórshiles elderding tiygizgen әserine qaray qalyptasyp, birte-birte damydy. Olay bolsa, osy faktorlardyng qazaq janyna qalay yqpal etkenin taldap kóreyik.

Eng aldymen, qazaq janyna geografiyalyq faktordyng tiygizgen yqpalyna toqtalsaq, qazaq últynyng geneziysi (shyghu, payda bolu tegi, qalyptasu kezeni) bolghan ru-taypalardyn  túrmys-tirshiligi ghasyrlar boyy Euraziyanyng ken-baytaq dalasynda ótti. Qazaq elining jer auqymy qanday keng baytaq bolsa, qazaq últynyng jan-dýniyesi de sonday ken. Qazaqtardyng jany erkindik pen kenshilikke qúmar boluy sondyqtan. Dala demokratiyasy da qazaq janynyng ashyqtyghyna negizdeldi, erkindik pen jariyalylyqty qazaqtyng jany sýiedi. «Bas kespek bolsa da, til kespek joq» degen qazaq sóz bostandyghyn ejelden qasterley bilgen. Tipten, «Dat, taqsyr» dep, kәduilgi qarasha da, ólim jazasyna kesilip bara jatqan aiyptalushy da, talap-tilegin nemese aqtyq sózin basqa emes, Hannyng ózine de aituyna qúqyghy bolghan. Qazaq әdiletti әri aqylmen aitylghan sózge toqtay bilgen halyq. Europalyq sot instituty qazaq jerine kelmey jatyp-aq, «Esim hannyng eski jolyn», «Qasym hannyng qasqa jolyn» ústanghan qazaqtarda búrynnan biyler soty bolghan. By atanu ýshin adamnyng boyynda әdildikpen qatar úshqyr oi, sheshendik, batyldyq, ótkirlik, kóregendik, danyshpandyq siyaqty asyl qasiyetter keshendi týrde boluy tiyis. «Biy» ataghy eshqashan múragerlikpen berilmegen, halyq biyding harizmatikalyq («Qúday bergen», yaghni, tumysynan beriletin erekshe qasiyet, daryn, qabilet) biyligin ózi moyyndap, legitimdi (zandy) týrde «Biy» degen asqaq atau bergen. Dau-damaylardy biyler әdil sheshken, «Qara qyldy qaq jarghan» tura biylerding jasaghan bәtuasyna jýginushi taraptar әrqashan rizashylyqpen moyynúsynghan. Kompensasiyany da qazaqtar erteden qoldanyp, Áz-Tәukening «Jeti jarghysy» negizinde qún tóleudi, er men jer dauyn, jesir dauyn әdil әri mәdeniyetti týrde sheshe bilgen. Qazaq dalasynda zyndan, týrme siyaqty adamdy bostandyghynan aiyratyn tar qapastar bolmasa da, qazaqtyng jany әdildik pen tendikke, zandy saqtau men tәrtipke baghynugha әuel bastan-aq iykemdelgen. 

Jany erkindikti sýietin qazaqtardyng aqyryp tendik súraghan últ-azattyq kóterilisteri de tarihta kóp bolghan. Bәrin tizip aitpasaq ta, Resey imperiyasy men Hiua, Qoqan siyaqty Ortalyq Aziya handyqtarynyng otarshyl ozbyrlyqtaryna qarsy halyq kóterilisterin bastaghan Syrym Datúly, Kenesary Qasymúly, Aghybay batyr, Isatay Taymanúly men Mahambet Ótemisúly, Bayzaq Datqa, Janqoja batyr Núrmúhamedúly, Eset batyr Kótibarúly, Amankeldi Imanúly t.b., Qytay otarshyldaryna qarsy kýresip,  «Ýsh aimaq» kóterilisin bastaghan Demejan, Bóke, Zuha, Ospan, Elishan, Ákbar, Seyit, Býrkitbay, Súlubay, Dәlelhan t.b. batyrlar, Kenes Odaghy kezinde «qyzyl terrordyn» 1928-1934 jyldary aralyghyndaghy zobalanyna qarsy shyqqan Aday, Batpaqqara, Sozaq, Yrghyz, Bostandyq jәne t.b. jýzdegen irili-úsaqty kóterilisteri, Shúbar-Balqash-Shoqpar narazylyqtary, 1986 jylghy Jeltoqsan kóterilisi  qazaqtyng janynyng erkindik sýigish jәne kýreskerlik qasiyetterin dәleldeydi.

Qazaq jany – batyr, erlik jasau – qazaqqa tәn sapalardyng biri. «Nar tәuekel!» qazaqtyng jaqsy kóretin sóz tirkesterining biri. «Batyrlar jyryn» sәby kezinen úiyp tyndap, jatqa aitqan jas qazaq óse kele, namysy órekpigen, batyldyghy men kýsh-qayraty tasyghan er azamatqa ainalatyn bolghan. Al, batyr atanu ýshin er azamat Otany ýshin otqa týsip, jaumen soghysqanda erjýrektigimen, qaytpas qaysarlyghymen, әdildigimen, tapqyrlyghymen kózge týsip, batyrlyghyn is jýzinde dәleldeui kerek. «Biy» siyaqty, «Batyr» ataghy da eshqashan múragha berilmegen, naghyz er batyl is-әreketi arqyly erligin dәleldese ghana ony «Batyr» dep, dýiim júrt moyyndaghan. Sondyqtan, qazaq halqynda әri batyl, ótkir de tapqyr, qajyrly da qayratty adamgha «batyr» degen qúrmetti ataq berilgen. Tarihshylar qazaqtyng arghy tegi sanalatyn saq (skiyf, massaget, haomavarga, tigrahauda) jәne ghún taypalarynyng erjýrek bolghanyn jazady. Saqtar Eskendir Zúlqarnayynnyng Aziyagha jasaghan basqynshylyq joryghynyng betin qaytarsa, Tomiris hansha soghysqúmar parsy patshasy Kirding әskerin talqandap, qanisherding basyn alghan. Al, ghún taypalary bolsa, Europany biylegen: ghúnnyng Rua patshasyna Shyghys Rim imperatory Feodosiy II salyq tólep túrsa, Edige patsha (Atilla) Qara jәne Jerorta tenizderinen bastap Reyn ózenine deyingi aimaqty biylegen. Kóne tarihty qazbay-aq, qazaq tarihyndaghy belgili batyrlardy aitqannyng ózinde, Er Tóstik,  Alpamys, Qambar, Qobylandy, Er Targhyn, Edil, Qarakerey Qabanbay, Qanjyghaly Bógenbay, Shapyrashty Nauryzbay, Qarasay dep úrpaqtan úrpaqqa jalghasyp kete beredi. Erekshe aita keterlik mәsele – qazaqtyng batyrlary týrli rudyng ókilderi bolyp tabylady, sóite túra, «U ishsen, ruynmen» degen qaghidany búzyp, qazaq batyrlary atameken el-júrty ýshin syn saghatta kýsh biriktire bilgen. Sol iygi dәstýrdi HH ghasyrdaghy ekinshi dý­niyejýzilik soghysta qazaq jauyngerleri jalghastyryp, nemis fashisterine qarsy kýreste eren erlikterimen kózge týsken: 96 qazaq Kenes Odaghynyng batyry atanyp, 30 últ ókilderining ishinde 6 oryndy iyelengen. «Batyr anghal keledi» demekshi, beybit kýnde qazaqtan  momyn jan joq bolar. Aqiqaty sol, birigip, tize qossa, batyr qazaqtyng jenbeytin jauy joq, qazaqqa qashanda keregi – últtyq birlik.

«Keng bolsan, kem bolmaysyn» deytin qazaq janynyng taghy bir sapasy kenshil, aghyl-tegil molshylyqty jaqsy kóredi. «Qúlasan, nardan qúla» dep, qazirgi qazaqtar da qolynan kelse, ayanyp qalmauda: toy jasap, as bere qalsa «Aq týiening qarny jarylghanday» as ta, tók qylyp, shashylady, ýy salsa patshanyng sarayynday etip, kólikting de eng ýlkenin, eng qymbatyn minuge qúlshynady.  Múnday kezde qayran qazaq ynsap, ysyrap, obal, qanaghat degen úghym­dardy úmytady. Sonymen qatar, arqany kenge salyp, jaybaraqat jýru, kenistik pen uaqytty ózgeshe mólsherleu (kenistikke qatysty iyek astyndaghy jer, qozy kósh, atshaptyrym, tayaq tastam jer dese, uaqytqa qatysty sýt pisirim, et pisirim t.b., yaghni, naqtylyq joq) de qazaqtargha tәn qasiyet. Qangha singen әdet bolghandyqtan, qazaqtar әli kýnge deyin jaybaraqat: «Asyqpaghan arbamen qoyan alady», «Asyqqan shaytannyng isi» dep, uaqytpen de, hal-ahualmen de sanaspaytyn kezderi kóp. Úly Abay atamyz aitqanday, qazaq qolyn kesh sermep, ýnemi keshigip jýredi. Osynysynan qansha opyq jese de, eshbir qaytpaydy, asyqpaydy-au shirkin, asyqpaydy.

Altay men Atyraudyng arasyn qamtityn qazaq jerinde san-aluan geografiyalyq beldeuler bar: asqar taular men úsaq shoqylar, qúmdar men taqyrlar, orman-toghaylar, ózender men kólder, úlan-ghayyr Betpaq dala men Sary arqa, Qart Kaspiy men Aral tenizderi jatyr. Meken etken jerining tabighaty qayshylyqqa toly bolsa da, qazaqtar ejelden-aq tabighatpen de, qoghamdyq bolmyspen de ózara ýndestikte ómir sýruge tyrysqan. Qazaqtardyng kiyiz ýiining eshbir búryshsyz, dóngelek formada boluy tegin emes. Geometriya zan­dylyghyna say, búrysh boluy ýshin eki týzu syzyq qayshylasuy tiyis, yaghni, búrysh qay­shylyqty. Al, dóngelengen syzyq eshbir qayshylaspastan ýzdiksiz jalghasa beredi. Qazaqtar ózderining túrghyn ýilerin adamnyng kózi jeter kókjiyekting dóngelengen formasyna, keng dalanyng kók aspanyna qaray otyryp, dóngelek formada jasaghan. Kiyiz ýy dóngelengen әlemning shaghyn modeli ispetti: shanyraq kiyiz ýiding tóbesinde, dәl ortada ornalasyp, aspan men kýn siyaqty kórinse, shanyraqqa ainala shanshylghan uyqtar beyne bir jan-jaqqa taralyp, shuaghyn shashqan kýnning sәuleleri siyaqty bolyp keledi de, dóngelene qúrylghan keregemen jaghasyp ketedi. Qorshaghan ortamen ýndestikte ómir sýrudi qalaytyn qazaqtyng jany erteden beybitshilikke beyim. Qazaq qazaq bolghaly kórshiles elde­rine basqynshylyq soghys ashqan emes, basqa últtarmen jaulasyp, janjaldasqan da kezi joq. Kerisinshe, kórshiles elderding basqynshylyq soghystarynan, otarlyq ezgisinen qazaqtar qanshama qayghy-qasiret shekti. Qazirgi Qazaqstandaghy beybit ómir­ding úitqysy bolyp otyrghan qazaqtar ekeni dausyz, memleket qúrushy qazaq últynyng kenpeyildigi men sabyrlyghy elimizdegi beybitshilikting kepiline ainalyp otyr.

Qazaq janyna klimattyng da tiygizgen yqpaly zor. Euraziya qonyrjay klimatty endikte ornalasqan, múny basqasha «kýrt kontiynentaldyq klimatty aimaq» dep te ataydy. Múnday klimattyng ereksheligi – aua-rayynyng qúbylmaly boluy, qystyng suyqtyghy da, jazdyng ystyqtyghy da qyryq-elu gradustyng ol jaq, búl jaghynda, bir shekten ekinshi shekke shyghyp ketedi. Sol siyaqty, qazaqtyng jany da birde ystyq, birde suyq. Bir nәrseni jaqsy kórsek, kózsiz jaqsy kóremiz, jek kórsek, itting etinen jek kóremiz. Maqtasaq asyra silteymiz, jamandasaq, jer-jebirine jetemiz. Maqtansaq, isip-kebemiz, úyalsaq, jerge kirip kete jazdaymyz. Ansha-múnshagha ýndemeymiz, al, ashulansaq qiyn, qoparyp-tónkeremiz. Oryssha ýirensek, orystan ozyp, qazaq tilin úmytyp ketemiz. Ótken ghasyrda ghana ateizmge úrynsaq, býgin mine, diny fanatizm men ekstremizmge dushar bolyp otyrmyz. Qazaqtyng jany bir shetten ekinshi shetke, úshqarydan úshqarylyqqa qaray alasúrady da jatady. Buyrqanghan qazaqtyng minezi de qúbylmaly, jylqynyng minezi ispetti, «At erding qanaty» deytin qazaqtyng minez-qúlqy da Qambar atanyng tóline úqsap ketkendey. 

Tabighattyng qatal minezine әbden kóndikken qazaqtyng jany kónbis. «Mandaygha jazghandy kóremiz» deytin fatalizm qazaq janyna jaqyn, tipti, keyde qazaqtyng tózimdiligi týpsiz, shydamdylyghy sheksiz siyaqty kórinip ketedi. «Sabyr týbi sary altyn» deytin maqal qúddy bir momaqan qazaq janyna arnalghanday. Áriden oilasaq, moyynúsynu men baghynugha qazaq jany sәbiylik jastan bastap ýirenetindey-aq: besikke bólenip, besik baumen tas-týiin tanylghan sәby týisiktik dengeyde mәjbýrleu men baghynudyng ne ekendigin sezinedi. «Allanyng zandaryna baghynu, moyynúsynu» degen maghyna beretin Islam dinin ústanyp, músylman atanghaly beri, búrynnan kónbis, shydamdy qazaq ózin kýndegenge jәbir kórsetpeytin, Alla Taghalanyng qamqorlyghyna layyq bolu ýshin zúlymdyq pen qysymshylyqqa sabyr saqtap, tәube etetin, patshasyna hidayat-taufiq peyil, qanaghat-ynsap tilep, biylikke lәm-mimsiz baghynatyn mýmiyinge ainaldy. Qanshama ghasyrlyq shapqynshylyqtar (oyrat-qalmaq, qy­tay, arab, hiua-qoqan t.b.) men orys­tyng otarlyq ezgisine shydauy – J. Mol­da­ghaliyev jyrlaghanday, «Myng ólip, myng tirilgen» qazaq janynyng kónbistigin kórsetedi.

  Qazaqtyng janyna óz әserin tiygizgen erekshelikterding biri – túrmys-salt. Qazaq jerining ken, tabighatynyng qayshylyqty, aua-rayynyng aumaly tókpeli boluy qazaqtardyng kóshpendi mal sharuashylyghyn ústanuyna yqpal etushi faktorlar boldy. Sóitip, әlemdik tarihta tendesi joq, kóshpendi halyq mәdeniyeti tuyndady. Kóshpendilik ómir-salty qazaqtyng janyna da, tәnine de óz әserin tiygizdi: әdet-ghúrpy men salt-dәstýri, nanym-senimi, dili, mәdeniyeti, әdebiyeti, halyq sharuashylyghy, kiyimi, tamaqtanuy t.b. jer betindegi basqa halyqtardan ózgeshe. Otyryqshy mәdeniyettegidey tabighatty ózderine «baghyndyrugha» kýsh salmay-aq, qazaq halqy jaylau, kýzdeu, qystau, kókteu dep, jyldyng tórt mezgiline say, tabighatqa beyimdele otyryp ómir keshuge әbden daghdylandy. Osydan kelip, qazaq janynyng taghy bir qasiyeti – beyimdelgishtigi kelip shyghady. Qazaqtar shynymen-aq, qorshaghan ortagha da, qoghamdaghy ózgeristerge de tez beyimdele ketedi. Alysqa barmay-aq, shiyrek ghasyr búryn totalitarlyq jýiede kommunist bolghandar, tәuelsizdik alyp, demokratiyalyq jýiege ótkeli beri shetinen demokrat. Josparly ekonomikadan naryqqa ótip edik, sauda-sattyqty jappay mengerdik: osy kýni bizde satyl­maytyn eshnәrse qalmady… Búryn kórshi ózbekti «saudager sart» deytin qazaq býginde sol ózbekti on orap ketken siyaqty. Auyl halqy stihiyaly bolsa da, urbanizasiyagha tartylyp, qalalyq mәdeniyetke beyimdelude. Ghalamdanugha da barynsha beyimdelip baramyz, beyimdelgen sayyn qazaqy janymyz da bógdelenip, batystanyp bara jatqanday…

Kóshpendi ómir qalyptastyrghan salt­­tardyng biri – «Qúdayy qonaq bolu». Úlan-baytaq qazaq dalasynda alys jolgha shyqqan jolaushy jolay kezdes­ken kez-kelgen auylgha toqtap, qalaghan ýiine kelip, qonaq bolyp, qonyp, ózi de, astyndaghy aty da demalyp, tamaqtanyp, esin jinaghan son, qaytadan jolgha shyghyp, saparyn jalghastyratyn bolghan. Asyly, «qonaq» degen sózding týbiri de «qon», «qonu» bolsa kerek. Oilamaghan jerden keletin múnday qonaqty qazaqtar qúdaydyng jibergen qonaghy bolar degen oimen «Qúdayy qonaq» dep ataghan, «Qyryqtyng biri qydyr» dep, syi-qúrmet kórsetken. Múnday qúdayy qonaqqa ýy iyesi qonaqjaylyq tanytyp, týsinistikpen qaraghan, óitkeni, әrbir qazaq kýnderding kýninde ózi de alys jolgha shygha qalsa, qúdayy qonaq bolaryn bilgen. Kóshpeli ómir aralas-qúralas túrmys-tirshilikke negizdelgen, osynyng barlyghy jinalyp kelgende qazaq janynyng ashyq, meyirban, qonaqjay  boluyna ózindik iygi yqpalyn tiygizgen. Qazaq janynyng qonaqjaylyghy arqasynda taghdyr tauqymetimen jer auyp kelgen qanshama jat júrttyq qazaqtyng jomart qolynan dәm tatyp, jayly qonysqa ie boldy, qanshama ózge últtardyng ókilderi elimizge qúdayy qonaq bolyp kelip, toqtap, túraqtap, Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng azamattaryna ainaldy.

Bótenge qonaqjay bolghanymen, qazaq jany keyde maqtau sýigish, keyde ózderi tanyp-biletin jandargha qatysty ishi tar kórseqyzar: qazaqtardyng arasynda kóre almaushylyqtyng kóp bolatyny bәrimizge mәlim. Reseyge bodan bolghanda patsha biyligi Sibir, Orynbor general-gubernatorlaryna qúpiya tapsyrma berip, qazaqtardyng bir-birin kóre almaushylyghyn barynsha óz mýddelerine say paydalanudy, qaz­aqty ózara shaghystyryp, ishten iritu arqyly otarlau qajet dep aqyl aitqan. R.Núrghaliyevtin  bas redaktorlyghymen 1995 jyly shyqqan «Ayqap» Ensiklopediyasynda II Ekaterina patshanyng Orynbor general-gubernatoryna joldaghan qúpiya jarlyghynda: «1) Qyrghyz-qazaq halqynyng bir ru basshy­laryn ekinshi ru basshylarymenen araz etip, biri menen birin qas etip, birining etin biri jeuge sebep bolynyz; 2) Súltandardyng biri menen birin araz qylyp, biri menen birin ittey tartystyryp, birining etin biri jeuge sebep bolarday is qylynyz; 3) Qyrghyz-qazaqtyng basshy adamdaryn súltandarymen araz qylyp, súltandaryn óz qol astyndaghy aqsaqal adamdarymen araz qylynyz. Arasyna ot týsken ua­qytta janyp keterdey kókir-sókir dayarlay beriniz. Osylaysha arasyna ot tútatyp bereke-birligin alsaq, ózara azyp, tozghandyghynan qazaq-qyrghyz júrty bóten patshalyq qol astyna kóship keter­ge dәrmeni bolmas. Óz-ózderi qyryq pyshaq bolyp, qyrylysyp, jenilgen jaghy jengen jaghynan ósh alar ýshin, kýsh alar ýshin Rossiya patshalyghyna ja­qyn­dar ua patshalyqqa qorghalar. Sol uaqytta Rossiya hýkimeti aralaryna tóre bolyp, tórelep, retine qaray ya anasyna, ya mynau jaghyn quattap túru kerek. Týrli amalmenen súltandarynyng kýshin ketirsek, ózimizden ozyp eshqayda kete almas. Keletin, ketetin jeri ózimiz bolyp, tilegenimizshe qaqpalap jortarmyz» dep kórsetilgen. «Altau ala bolsa, auyzdaghy ketedi» degen osy bolar. Qazaqtyng janyn jegidey jegen múnday jymysqy sayasattyng nәtiyjesi M.Áuezovtyng «Abay joly» romanynda sheber surettelgen. Negizi, qazaqtyng jany bәsekege qúmar, qazaqtyng últtyq sportynda da bәs tigip bәige shaptyru, kókpar tartu, kómbe alu, qyz quu, kýresu, kýsh synasu siyaqty bәsekeler kóp. Sol siyaqty, qazaqtyng kýndelikti ómirinde de bәseke toqtausyz jýredi. Bәsekege shyday almaghan keybireuleri qyzghanysh pen pasyqtyqqa úrynyp, I.Jansýgirovtyng «Qúlager» poemasynda bayandalghanday tragediyalyq is-әreketterge barghan. Kóre almaushylyq, qyzghanysh qazaq janynyng eng jaghymsyz qasiyetteri. Kenes Odaghy túsynda shala sauatty sholaq belsendilerding qyzghanyshy men qara niyet ishitarlardyng domalaq aryzdy qarsha boratuynan qazaqtyng qanshama ardaqty azamaty qughyn-sýrgin kórdi. Búl 1930-1937 jyldardaghy sayasy repressiyagha qazaqtardyng kóp úshyrauynyn, betke ústar ziyaly qauymynan aiyrylyp, anyrap qaluynyng da bir sebebi boldy.

Qazaqy ómir salty qazaq janyn beyimdelgish etip qana qoyghan joq. Kóshpeli mal sharuashylyghy qazaq janyn shydamdylyq, eptilik, tabighatty sýi siyaqty tolyp jatqan jaqsy sapalarmen de, erinshektik, jalqaulyq, qyzyq qúmarlyq, toyshyldyq, maqtanshaqtyq siyaqty әdetterge de úryndyrdy. Óitkeni, qazaqtardyng mal baghuy jyl mezgilderine say, nauqandyq sipattaghy sharuashylyq bolatyn: negizinen kóship-qonu, kóktemde tól alu saqmany, jazghytúrym jýn qyrqu men sauyn, kýzgi kýiek, qysta qystaugha qonu, soghym soi siyaqty. Al, tórt týlik mal­dy jayylymgha jayyp baghumen malshy­lar qauymy ainalysyp, olardyng basty qyzmeti maldy iyt-qústan, úry-qarydan qorghau men óristegi maldyng baghyt-baghdaryn baqylaudan túrdy. Ózen angharlaryna jaqyn ornalasqan jataq auyldar bolmasa, qazaqtardyng deni eginshilikpen ainalysa qoymaghan. Kóshpeli ómir bolghandyqtan, ýy salugha degen qajettilik asa bolmay, qúrylys damymady. Sondyqtan, nauqandardyng aralyghynda auyldaghy halyqtyng basym bóligining qoly úzaryp, toy toylaugha, kónil kóteruge keng mýmkindikter tuyndaghan. Búl dýniyede toylaytyn toylary eng kóp halyq qazaqtar bolsa kerek: shildehana, besik toy, túsau kesu, sýndet toy, syrgha salu, qúda týsu, qyz úzatu, kelin týsiru, betashar, ýilenu toyy, mereytoy, qonys toyy, nauryz meyramy, qyz quu, kókpar, bәige t.s.s. jalghasyp kete beredi. Beyne bir, shyr etip dýniyege kelgen sәtten bastap, qazaqtyng ómiri toy toylaumen ótetindey kórinedi. Toylaudy jany sýietin qazaqtyng danghazalyghy, auyr enbekting beynetinen qashatyn jalqaulyghy osydan kelip shyghady. Áli kýnge deyin solay, auyldarda jappay júmyssyzdyq bolsa da, toy toylaudan qazaq aldyna jan salar emes. Zauyt-fabrika ashpaymyz, onyng esesine toyhana, meyramhana, oiyn-sauyq ortalyqtary kóbeygen ýstine kóbeyip barady. Toy jasau tútas industriyagha ainaldy: syi-siyapaty men kiyis-kiyiti, dastarhan mәzirinen bastap, toyhanasy, aspazy, kýtushisi, limuziyni, әrtisi, әnshi-biyshisi, asabasy bar… qaysy birin aitasyz, qysqasy ne kerek, qazaqy toy biznes qyzyp túr. Jana qazaqtar toy jasaudan ózara jarysyp, sәn-saltanatpen bәsekelesetin boldy. Qazaq jany maqtanghandy, maqtaghandy únatady. Búl turaly Abay jiyrma birinshi Qara sózinde: «maqtanshaq degen bireui «demesin» demeydi, «desin» deydi. Bay desin, batyr desin, qu desin, pysyq desin, әrdayym ne týrli bolsa da, «desin» dep azaptanyp jýrip, «demesindi» úmytyp ketedi. Úmytpaq týgil, әueli is eken dep eskermeydi. Múnday maqtanshaqtardyng ózi ýsh týrli bolady. Bireui jatqa maqtanarlyq maqtandy izdeydi. Ol – nadan, lәkin nadan da bolsa adam. Ekinshisi óz elining ishinde maqtanarlyq maqtandy izdeydi. Onyng nadandyghy tolyq, adamdyghy әbden tolyq emes. Ýshinshisi óz ýiine kelip aitpasa, ya auylyna ghana kelip aitpasa, ózge kisi qostamaytyn maqtandy izdeydi. Ol – nadannyng nadany, lәkin ózi adam emes» deydi. Al, endi, toyshyl qazaqtyng erin­shektigin qaranyz. Elimizde myndaghan qazaqtar júmyssyz jýrse de, «gastarbayter» atalatyn ózbek, qyrghyz, tәjik aghayyndar Qazaqstangha kelip, qúrylysshy bolsyn, eginshi ne malshy bolsyn, tandap-talghamastan, týrli júmystargha jaldanyp, nәpaqalaryn tauyp jýr. Sonda qalay, gastarbayter istegen júmysty qazaq istey almay ma? Istey alady, biraq erinedi, sebebi, qazaq az beynetpen kóp pay­da tabatyn «myqty» júmys izdeydi. Qaz­ekemning kóbi jandaryn qinap, bastaryn auyrtqysy kelmeydi. Qazaqtyng jany keyde bir osynday ayankes.

Qazaq ejelden ru-taypalyq ómir keshkendikten, qazaq jany újymdasyp ómir sýruge beyimdelgen. Jeke jýrip, daraboz bolu qalyng qazaqtyng ishindegi jýregining týgi bar, batyr túlghalaryna ghana tәn, al, jalpy, qarasha qazaqtyng jany jaltaq. «Bólingendi bóri jeydi» dep, top jaryp shyghuy qiyn. «Janghyzdyng dausy shyqpas, jayaudyng shany shyqpas» demekshi, ishinara bas kóterip, elim dep eniregen, júrtym dep shyryldaghan qazaqtyng nar qasqalaryna halyqtyng qoldauy jetispey, opyq jep, opat bolghany qanshama. Biz tarihtan sabaq ala biluimiz qajet, tarihty túlghalar jasaytyny, bir ghalymnyng ashqan janalyghy barsha adamzattyng taghdyryn ózgertetinin úmytpayyq. Jeke adamdy, onyng ishinde, talantty, naghyz intellektualdardy damytugha jaghday jasauymyz qajet. Intellektualdy últ boluymyz ýshin intellektual jeke adamdarymyz kóp boluy shart. Alayda, «U ishseng ruynmen ish» deytin qazaq újymdasyp ómir sýrudi qalaydy, óitkeni, ne bolsa da, ym-jymdary ishinde. Sondyqtan bolar, sybaylas jemqorlyqqa qazaqtar belshesinen batyp, keybir biyleushi elita ókilderi «komanda», «klan», jershildik, rushyldyq siyaqty újymdasudyng jaghymsyz týrlerin qangha singen әdettey tez arada iygerip aldy. Memlekettik dengeyde de újymdasugha barynsha kýsh salyp jatyrmyz. Kenestik dәuirde újymdasyp ómir sýrip edik, KSRO ydyraghaly beri de újymdyq qauipsizdik pen ekonomikalyq yqpaldasudyng (TMD, ÚQShÚ, Shanhay úiymy, SVMDA, EurAzEQ, Keden Odaghy t.b.) bastamashysy Qazaq eli. Euraziyalyq odaq qúru iydeyasyn úsynushy da bizding Elbasymyz. 2015 jyldyng basynan bastap Elbasy iydeyasy shynayylyqqa ainalyp, Euraziyalyq ekonomikalyq odaq naqty qúrylyp, óz júmysyn bastamaq. Osylaysha, tәuelsiz Qazaq eli Resey, Belarusi, Armeniyamen újymdasyp, bolashaqqa birge qadam jasamaqshy. Búghan qosa, Dýniyejýzilik sauda úiymyna kirmek oiymyz taghy bar. Toq eterin aitsaq, rulyq-taypalyq ómir sýruden beri újymdyq ómir sýrudi qazaqtyng jany únatady.

Qazaq elining batys pen shyghys órkeniyetterining arasynda oryn tebui qazaq janyn әri-sәri kýige týsirip, onyng boyyna eliktegishtik, ksenofiliya, toleranttylyq siyaqty qasiyetterdi darytty. Qazaq dalasyn Úly Jibek jolynyng basyp ótui Qytay men Europa arasyndaghy sauda keruenderimen birge jýrgen týrli dinnin, mәdeniyettin, últtyng ókilderining qazaqtarmen qarym-qatynas jasauyna iygi yqpal etti. Qazaq jerinde búdan bólek arab shapqynshylyghy, Islam dinining taraluy, Shynghyshannyng joryqtary, jonghar soghystary, Reseyding bodanyna ainalu, kenestik kezendegi industriyalandyru, tyng iygeru siyaqty týrli tarihiy-sayasy prosester sapyrylysa jýrip, shartaraptan jinalghan týrli mәdeniyetter tayqazandaghy etting sorpasynday býlkildep qaynap, qoyyrtpaqqa ainaldy. Osylaysha, qazaq jany shyghys pen batystyng ózara ýnqatysuyndaghy (dialog) ruhany dәnekerding rólin oinady. Múnday jaghdayda basqagha elikteuding oryn aluy zandylyq. Qazaq jany elik­teuding arqasynda ózge mәdeniyetterden jaqsyny da, jamandy da boyyna sinirip, gibridti (aralas) kýige týsti. Tanqalarlyq týgi joq, qazaqtyn  jany da, tili men mәdeniyeti de, dini men dili de gibridti. Qazaq janynyng eliktegish boluy ksenofiliyagha (kseno – bógde, filiya — sýi) úlasyp, qolynda bardyng qadirin bilmey, bótendikine qyzyghudy, ózinikine qaraghanda ózgenikin artyq kórushilikti tuyndatty. Keybir qazaqtar naghyz ksenofilge ainalyp, ana tilinen góri shet tilin ardaqtaytyn, tól mәdeniyetine qaraghanda bótenning mәdeniytetin dәripteytin, beytanys dindi ústanatyn ruhany dertke shaldyqty. Gibridti jan tolerantty keledi (týsinistikpen tóze bilu, yaghni, adamgershilik túrghyda últy, tili, dini, dili basqalargha týsinistikpen qarau). Qayghy-qasiretti, azap beynetti, otarlyq ezgini kóp kórgen qazaq jany basqa últtardyng basyna týsken auyrpalyqty bólisuge, olardyng últtyq erekshelikterin saqtauyna kómektesuge  qashanda dayar. Qay el Qazaqstan halqy assambleyasy siyaqty arnayy sayasy institut qúryp, diasporalardyng ókiletti biyligine ashyq jol berip otyr? Múnyng bәri qazaq jany men memlekettik biyligining toleranttylyghy arqasynda iske asty. Tolerantty qazaq basqalargha «Mynauyng qalay?» – dep, shekeden qaraudy bilmeydi. Tipten, el men jerding qojayyny ózi bola túra, keybir bógde pysyqaylardyng esikten kirip, tór meniki deytin esirgen qúqayyna da, yn-shynsyz, jylystap enip alyp, ishten shalatyndargha da tózgish qazaq ýndemeydi. «Jaman ýidi qonaghy biyleydi» deytin kóne maqaly bola túra, kónilshek qazaq jany keyde toleranttylyq pen namyssyz ynjyqtyqty aiyra almay jatady.

Qazaq jany turaly mәsele bir maqalagha siyarlyq dýnie emes. Búl keshendi zertteudi qajet etedi, sondyqtan, maqalany qorytyndylau da qiyn. Sóz sonynda qazaq janynyng taghy bir ereksheligine toqtalsaq. Europa men Aziyanyn, batys pen shyghys órkeniyetterining arasynda ómir sýrudi Qúday mandayyna jazghan qazaqtyng jany san ghasyrlar boyy ózin-ózi qalay aiqyndaryn bilmey (iydentifikasiyalau), izdeumen, adasumen keledi. Babamyz Qorqyt ata da ólimnen qashyp, mәngilik ómirdi izdep, dýniyening tórt búryshyn kezse de «Qorqyttyng kórinen» qútyla almaghan. Asan Qayghy babamyz da jelmayasyna minip alyp qútty meken bolarlyq «Jerúiyqty» izdegen. Babalarymyz turaly anyzdardan da qazaq janynyng ereksheligin bayqauymyzgha bolady. Qarapayym tilde beynelep aitsaq, qazaq birnәrsesin joghaltyp alyp, joq izdep jýrgen adam ispetti. Qazaq jany ejelden romantiyk, qiyaldaghyny izdegish. Arman quyp, ot pen sugha týsuge dayar. Qazaq jany sayyn dalada jortqan, sәttilikke senip, azyq izdegen bóri qasqyrgha úqsaydy. Qazaq «qasqyrday» dese maqtanady, «itsin» dese renjip, namystanady, ózderin kók týrkimiz, kók bórining úrpaghymyz dep sanaydy.  Qazaq «Er azyghy men bóri azyghy jolda» dep, ghayypqa senip, jolgha shyghady. «Er ýide tuady, týzde óledi» deytin qazaq  izdeumen, joghaltumen, adasumen keledi. Órkeniyetting kóshine, sayasattyng aghynyna ilesemiz dep, óz jolynan adasyp, últtyq erekshelikterin joghalta jazdaghan kezderi kóp. Reseyge bodan bolamyz dep, odan keyin kommunizm qúramyz dep jýrip, qalay orystanghanyn, mәnkýrttenip ýsh ghasyr adasqanyn anqau qazaq jany bayqamay da qaldy. Tәuelsizdik alghaly beri qazaq esin jinap, joghaltqanyn tauyp, óshkeni januda. Múdayda qazaq «Adasqannyng nesi aiyp, qayta ýiirin tapqan son», «At adassa, qazyghyn tabar» dep aqtala salady. Qazir de qazaq jany izdenis ýstinde. Qazaqtyng jany  da, eli de erekshe – ne europalyq emes, ne aziyalyq emes, taza batystyq emes, bolmasa taza shyghys órkeniyetine de jatpaydy.  Qaysysyn tandaymyz, qanday damu jolymen jýrsek adaspaymyz degen súraq ózekti bolyp túr. Naqty iydeologiyamyz da joq, Ata zanymyzdyng 5-babynda «Qazaqstan Respublikasynda iydeologiyalyq jәne sayasy әr-aluandylyq tanylady» dep jazylghan. Syrtqy sayasatymyz da kóp vektorly, bir mezgilde birneshe odaqqa mýshemiz. Ayaghy ne bolar eken dep, qarapayym qazaq jany anyryp, anysyn andyp otyr. «Qalay bolghanda da, qazaq jany ózining bet-beynesin, tabighy bolmysyn, últtyq erekshelikterin saqtay otyryp, ózindik damu jolyn tabuy tiyis» – deytin eng songhy sóilemnen keyin – «Dialektika zany boyynsha, qazaq ta ózining janyn zamangha say jetildirui qajet: jan-tәnine singen jaghymsyz kemshilikterden arylyp, ózgelerding jyltyraghanyna eliktey bermey, әlemdik ruhany kenistikten barlyq jaqsy qúndylyqtardy ózining jan-dýniyesine sәikestendirip, beyimdeu arqyly bayyppen bayytugha talpynuy kerek».

Seyilbek Músataev

(Maqala yqshamdalyp alyndy)

Derekkózi: «Aqiqat» jurnaly

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