Dýisenbi, 20 Qyrkýiek 2021
Bilgenge marjan 13499 1 pikir 2 Aqpan, 2016 saghat 10:58

SUISIDTING ÓRShUI – QOGhAMGhA KELGEN QATER

Dýniyejýzilik densaulyq saqtau úiymynyng derekteri boyynsha, Qazaqstan suisidting sany jaghynan ýshinshi oryn alady. Ásirese, elimizde jastar arasyndaghy ózin-ózi óltiru oqighalary kez-kelgen basqa elden ýsh ese kóp deydi osy úiymnyng sarapshylary. Osy rette "degdar.kz" sayty  qoghamgha tóngen qater - suisidting aldyn alu jәne kezek kýttirmeytin sharalar turaly bylay dep jazady.  Biraq, otandyq resmy statistika múnday mәlimetterdi jariyalamaytyny belgili. Býgingi kýni búl qauipti fenomen qorqynyshty dengeyine jetti, ókinishke oray, suisidke baratyndardyng kópshiligi 18-ge tolmaghan jastar. Búl  derekterding  ar jaghynda qanshama adam taghdyry, otbasy qayghysy, elding bolashaghy siyaqty mәseleler túr. Sondyqtan da osynday teris oqighalardyng sebepterin zerttep, saldarynyng aldyn alu mindeti kýn tәrtibinen týspey keledi.

 «Degdar» qoghamdyq kelisimdi qoldau qory 2015 jyldan bastap Almaty qalasy Ishki sayasat basqarmasynyng ýkimettik emes úiymdarmen әleumettik manyzy bar jobalardy jýzege asyru qyzmeti boyynsha  jastar arasynda suisidting aldyn alugha baghyttalghan keshendi is-sharalar úiymdastyryp keledi. Búl júmys jýieli týrde jýrgizilip, Almaty qalasy ghana emes, audan, birneshe oblys kólemine shyghuy osy baghyttaghy júmystardyng nәtiyjesine eleuli yqpal eteri anyq. Aytalyq, ótken jyly  osy joba ayasynda jastardyng ómirlik ústanymyn, dúrys kózqarastaryn qalyptastyru maqsatymen ótkizilgen «Suisidting aldyn alu», «Ómirge ghashyq bolu» jәne t.b. taqyryptardaghy dәrister, seminar-treningter, dóngelek ýstel, konferensiya jәne t.b. sharalargha myndaghan oqushylar men student jastar qamtyldy.

Árbir adam bala kezinen aldyna maqsat-mindet qoyyp, ómirining basty mәn-maghynasyn aiqyndap aluy ýshin bolashaqqa jospar qúryp, soghan jetu jolynda ar-ojdanymen ýilesimge úmtyluy manyzdy. Yaghni, jas adam birden dúrys joldy tandauy onyng ómirge degen kózqarasy, óz ómirining tolyqqqandy qojasy bolugha degen tilegimen, óz taghdyryn ózi jasaugha tyrysuymen astasyp jatyr. Al, múnyng bәri onyng ómirdegi qanday qúndylyqtardy tandap aluyna kelip tireledi. Áleumettanushy-ghalymdar suisid jasau qaupining ósu dengeyine ómirlik qúndylyqtar men әleumettik jaghday edәuir yqpal etedi dep esepteydi. Yaghni, jeke adam ózin qoghamnyng bir bólshegi retinde sezinu dәrejesine – adamnyng ortagha beyimdeluine tikeley baylanysty.

Ghalymdar ózine-ózi qol júmsaudyng sebepteri men týrtkileri adamnyng ómirding mәnin joghaltuyna baylanysty dep sanaydy. Jan-dýnie qúlazyp, keudesi bos qalghanday anyryp qalghan adam ýrey men ózin-ózi kinalaugha boy aldyrady. Ózin eshkimge qajetsiz sezinip, jan jarasy terendey týsedi. Osynday týpsiz tereng shynyraudan shyghudyng joly tek ómirmen qosh aitysu dep týsinip, janylys qadamgha baratyndar jii kezdesedi.

Búl arada jaqyn jandarynnyng kýndelikti minez-qúlqynda, qarym-qatynasynda bayqalatyn ózgeristerge mәn beru asa qajet. «Ózin-ózi óltiru jóninde shyn oilap jýrgen adam ózining osynday oiy turaly qaytkende de ainalasyndaghy adamdargha әiteuir bir belgi beredi deydi ghalymdar (Grollman E. «Suisiyd: prevensiya, intervensiya, postvensiya»). Suisid ayaq astynan payda bolmaydy, ol birtindep, impulisivti týrde keledi. Yaghni, ushyghyp túrghan jaghdaydyng kýnderding kýninde shekten shyghary sózsiz.  Suisid jasaghandardyng 70%-y óz maqsattaryn qanday da bir týrde bildiredi eken. Olar ashylyp әngimeleskisi keledi, bireuding ony tyndaghanyn qalaydy. Keybir suisidti josparlaghan adamdar ayaq astynan dostaryna, tuystaryna zattaryn berip, syilyqtar ýlestire bastaydy. Tipti, ózi ýshin qymbat, qúndy sanalatyn zattaryn da onay qiya salady. Ne bolmasa, eshtenege mәn bermey, qyzyghushylyghy joghalyp, sýlesoq, nemqúraydy qalypqa enedi. Tәjiriybe kórsetkendey, múnday kórinister aldaghy baqytsyzdyqtyng belgisi. Osynyng bәrinde adammen ashyq súhbattasyp, syrlasu kerek.

Jalpy, suisidti der kezinde tanyp, osynday teris jayttardyng aldyn alu ýshin jan-jaqty aqparat beru, týsindiru, mәselening mәnine boylau, taldau, saraptama jasau qajettigi sózsiz. Osy túrghyda «Degdar» qoghamdyq kelisimdi qoldau qory suisidting aldyn alu baghytynda ótkizgen dәristeri men seminarlary barysynda olargha qatysqan oqushylar men studentter arasynda saualnama jýrgizildi. Saualnamanyn  maqsaty – jastardyng ómirge kózqarasy, ainalasymen qarym-qatynasy, bos uaqyttaryn qalay ótkizetini jayly aqparat alu arqyly osy ortadaghy әleumettik ahual jóninde tújyrym jasau, oghan nazar audaru.

Saualnamagha qatysushylardyng negizgi jasy – 15-25 jas, al basym kópshiligi – 67%-y qyzdar bolyp shyqty.

«Bos uaqytta nemen ainalysasyz?» degen súraqtyng jauabyn diagramma týrinde kórsetuge bolady.

Yaghni, jastardyng 65%-y bos uaqytyn әleumettik jelilerde ótkizedi.  Búl kýndelikti qarym-qatynasty әleumettik jeliler almastyrady degen sóz. Saualnamagha qatysqan student jastardyng kópshiligi negizinen ata-anasynyng qamqorlyghyndaghy jasta ekenin eskersek, bos uaqytty ótkizuding múnday formasy minez-qúlyqtyng barlyq týrinen, kózqarastarynan, ústanymdarynan kórinis tabady, osydan baryp ata-anamen qarym-qatynas kýrdelenedi desek qatelespeymiz. Al, demalys sәtterinde teledidar kóretinder – 15%. Kitap oqityndardyng 13%-dy qúraghanyna qarap, osynyng ózine quanu kerek siyaqty. Biraq, sportpen ainalysatyndar, ókinishke oray tym az bolyp shyqty (7%).

Kelesi «Qiyn jaghdaygha tap bolsanyz kimnen aqyl-kenes súraysyz?» degen súraq boyynsha súrau salynghandardyng jauaptary jastardyng ómirge degen kózqarastary turaly jalpy týsinik qalyptastyrugha mýmkindik beredi.

 Saualnama derekterinen kórinip túrghanday, adamgha shyn kómek kerek kezde, ata-anasynan aqyl súraytyndar – 49%, dostarynyng pikirine jýginetinder – 24%. Qalghan 26%-y óz problemasyn ózi sheshetini kórinip túr.

Jastar erekshe qabyldaghysh, әserlengish jәne joghary әleumettik túrghyda jyldam beyimdelgish bolghandyqtan, jana qúndylyqtardyng payda boluy men búrynghylarynan bas tartuy qoghamnyng basqa taptaryna qaraghanda, búl ótpeli әleumettik topqa qatty әser etedi. Qazirgi jastargha kez kelgen jolmen bang ma, әlde jana jaghdaylargha beyimdelu qabiletin beretin joghary biliktilikti iygeru me, búrynghy moralidyq-adamgershilik erejelerden bas tartu ma, әlde jana shynayylyqqa beyimdelu iykemdiligi me, túlgha aralyq qarym-qatynastardyng sheksiz erkindigi me, әlde tabysty ómir sýruding týrtkisi bolatyn otbasyn tandau ma – olar ýshin qaysysy qúndyraq ekendigin ózderining sheshuine tura keledi.

Ómirdi maghynaly ótkizuding joldary turaly súraqqa berilgen jauaptar negizinen ong ýrdisti kórsetti. Jastardyng 95%-y óz ómirin shygharmashylyq baghytta, jana nәrselerdi ýirenumen ótkizudi qalaydy.

Suisidke barudyng sebebi nede degenge kelsek, onyng ishinde, emosiyalyq kýizelister, otbasy problemalary, qarjy tapshylyghy jәne t.s.s. sebepter bar ekeni anyq. Sonymen birge, ózin-ózi óltiru – psihikalyq aurudyng nәtiyjesi dep esepteu de negizsiz emes.

Ózin-ózi óltiru iydeyasy turaly sóz qozghap jýrgen balalargha nazar audaru kerek. Agressiyalyq kónil-kýi, ashu-yzagha tym jii berilu, qatygezdik, titirkengishtik siyaqty sәtterding kóp boluy oghan kómek kerek degen aiqay ispetti. Al, kerisinshe, odan oqshaulanu, jaqtyrmay qarau teris nәtiyjege әkep soghady, yaghni, suisidti tezdetedi.

Ókinishke oray, búny kóp jaghdayda eleusiz qaldyramyz. Keyde adamnyng janynda jaqyn adamy bolyp, oghan jaghdaydy týsindirip, ashyq sóilesui jetpey jatady. Múnyng bәri suisidtik qauip-qaterding aldyn alu ýshin eskerilui tiyis.

Mamandar jasóspirimderding emosiyalyq jaghdayyna nazar audaryp, minez-qúlqyn múqiyat baqylap, qadaghalap jýrse, suisid belgilerin der kezinde tanugha, demek, onyng aldyn alugha bolady dep sanaydy. Onyng ishinde kýizelistik jaghdayatqa tap boluy, emosiyalyq kónil-kýii, minezi, syrt beynesi, qúrdastarymen, dostarymen qarym-qatynasyna, qyzyghushylyqtaryna jәne t.b. nazar audarady. Oghan qosa, internettegi paraqshasy, kýndelikteri jәne t.s.s. bәri anyq aqparat bere alady. Óitkeni,  «Ómirinde tym bolmasa bir ret ózin-ózi óltiru turaly oilanbaghan bir de bir sanaly adam joq shyghar» (U.Djeyms)


Búl dýniyede adam ómirinen qúndy eshnәrse joq, al, óz ómirin qiigha barudyng oilastyrghan adamnyng basyna auyr jayttar, psihologiyalyq qiyndyqtar tap kelgeni turaly týiin jasaugha bolady. Sondyqtan, osynday «emosiyalyq kýizelisterge týsuding basty sebebi ne?» degen súraqqa berilgen jauaptar da erekshe nazar audartady. Súrau salynghandardyng 40%-y adam ózin eshkimge qajetsiz sezingende osynday shetin jaghdaygha barady dep sanaydy. Al, 29%-y ómirdi qii – bolashaqqa josparynnyng bolmauynyng saldary degen pikirge beyil. Álbette, aldyna arman-maqsat qoyyp, soghan jetuge talpynghan adamnyng ziyandy nәrselerdi oilaugha múrshasy da bola bermeytini anyq.  Sonday-aq, týrli jaghdayattargha baylanysty minez-qúlyqtyng búzyluy, ziyandy әdetter, ólim turaly oilargha berilu suisidke alyp kelui mýmkin degen pikirler de bar.

Jalpy alghanda, ainalasymen qarym-qatynasy kemshin, әsirese, ayaq astynan jalghyz qalghan adam qiyndyqqa shydamay, óz ómirin qiigha baruy әbden mýmkin. Yaghni, suisidtik ýrdisterde psihologiyalyq faktorlar jetekshi oryn alady.  Bala jasynda ashu-yza, ýrey, jazalau, janjaldar jәne t.s.s. jaghymsyz jayttar kóp bolsa, birte-birte suisidtik minez-qúlyq basqa da problemalarmen qabattasyp, teris oqighalardy tezdetedi. Óitkeni, bala jany sezimtal, sengish, kónil-kýii auytqymaly bolyp erekshelenedi. Ata-ananyn, ústazdardyng osy faktorlardy eskerui óte qajet.

Jalpy, adamnyng jastyq kezeni eresek atanu, bir kezennen  basqasyna ótu siyaqty jas shamasyna ghana baylanysty emes, sonday-aq bir әleumettik-mәdeniyettik kezennen kelesi satygha ótudi, aldynghysynyng shekteulerinen shyghudy bildiredi. Sondyqtan, dәl osy ótpeli kezende jastardyng boyyna eshqashan ajyraghysyz mәngilik qúndylyqtar dәnegin ege bilu, eng aldymen, otbasynyng mindeti. Sebebi, adamnyng әleumettenui ýderisi dýniyege shyr etip kelgen kezden bastalady jәne onyng túlgha retinde  qalyptasuyna eng basty yqpal etetin – ata-anasy, odan keyin bilim beru mekemeleri. Múnda onyng densaulyghy, bilimi ispetti sharttargha basa nazar audarymen qatar, meyirim, janashyrlyq sezimderin egu manyzdy. Qorshaghan ortasyndaghy әleumettik ahual, otbasyndaghy psihologiyalyq klimat, ata-anasymen, ústazdarmen ózara qarym-qatynas – osnyng bәri balanyng boyynan kórinis tabady.

Osylaysha, jýrgizilgen saualnama nәtiyjeleri jalpy qazirgi jastardyng ortaq minezdemesi deuge әbden bolady. Býgingi býkil әlem halqyn sharpyghan ghalamdanu, búqaralyq kommunikasiyalyq qúraldardyng sharyqtap damuy jәne basqa trendter eng aldymen jastar ómirine orasan zor yqpal etude. Búl ýrdisten mýldem bas tartu әlde oqshaulanu mýmkin emes, biraq, onyng teris, jaghymsyz ýrdisterin neghúrlym azaytu, aldyn alu baghytyndaghy is-sharalar ghana nәtiyje bere alady.

 

Dina Imambaeva

әleumettanushy

Abai.kz

 

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