Jeksenbi, 1 Tamyz 2021
Alashorda 9052 0 pikir 28 Nauryz, 2016 saghat 12:45

BESIGINDI TÝZE...

“Danyshpandardyng aqyl-oyynyng sýrleuimen jýrip ótkenning ózi ghajap júbanysh qoy”.

Aleksandr Pushkiyn.

“Áldeqashan bel asyp ketken kóshting júrtyna keshigip jetken jolaushy jyltyraghan bir qyzyl shoq tauyp ap, tútatpaq bop ýrlemey me – janaghy estelikterdi shashau shygharmay saqtaghan mening halim de solay edi”.

 Múhtar Áuezov.

“Mening ómirbayanym”.

 

TAMYR MEN TAGhDYR

 

I

 

Múhtardyng ómirindegi jәne ónerindegi alghashqy qadamy, tura maghynasynda aitqannyng ózinde, Abaydyng qara shanyraghynyng tabaldyryghyn attaudan bastaldy.

Ol – 1917 jyly jaz aiynda Abaydyng bauyryna salghan nemeresi Aqyliyanyng toyyna erekshe syi, úly aqynnyng kenjesine kórsetken qúrmeti retinde “Enlik-Kebek” piesasyn jazyp, Áygerimning qosarlana tigilgen kiyiz ýiinde sahnagha qoydy. Búl saqara bolghaly kóshpeli qauymnyng kórmegen “qyzyghy” bolatyn. Kengirbay, Kóbey, Espembet siyaqty qasiyetti әulie biylerding aruaghyn qozghauy – namysty qozdyratyn, el arasyn jaulyqtyratyn, basynudyng belgisindey edi. Múhtar sol narazylyqty bile túryp, olardy kergige shaqyrdy. Múnday “syidy” tek Abaydan ghana kýtetin. Endi Múhtar shyqty. Abay ólmepti. Óitkeni úly aqynnyng ózi joq bolghanmen de, onyng tәrbiye-taghylymyn, adamshylyq múratyn miras etken asa quatty jas kýsh bar edi.

Olar HIH ghasyrdyng ayaghynda, HH ghasyrdyng basynda qazaq saqarasynyn parasat uniyversiyteti – Abay tәliminen susyndap ósti. Abaydyng ústazdyq mektebi shyn mәnindegi halyq uniyversiytetine para-par dәrejede әser etip, qazaq qauymynyng ruhany mekkesine ainaldy. Jiydebay bilim Qaghbasy boldy. Dýnie jaratylghannan beri adamzattyng aqyl-oyynyng damuy, tarihy, әdet-ghúryp, kórkemdik әlemning aishyqtary, filosofiyalyq әfsanalar Abay parasatynyng mәiegine úiydy.

Ol – ýsh ýlken tamyr arqyly “kókiregine kóp júbanysh tauyp, oy ólkesi gýldendi”.

Birinshi tamyr:

Tili men dini arqyly janyna singen kóne shyghystyng ghúlamalyq әfsanalary. Shaghatay, týrik, parsy, arap danalarynyng múrasy. Jaratylys, bolmys haqyndaghy ejelgi grek, riym, egiypet, parsy, ýndi danyshpandarynyng filosofiyalyq tolghamdary, shayyrlyq dәstýri, tarih shejireleri. Aristoteli, Platon, Sokrat, Gomer, Firdousi, Rudaki, Ghaznaui, Fizuli, Saghdi, Hafiyz, Omar Hayam, Yassaui, Baqyrghani, Ál-Farabi, Ibiyn-Sina, Nizami, Balasaghun, Sofy Allayar, Nauai, Rashiyd-ad-diyn, Iýginaki, Babyr, Múhammed Haydar, Abylghazy Bahadúr, Múhammed Ghabduhi, Jalaliddin Aughani, Shahabuddin Marjany siyaqty bir-bir halyqtyn, tipti, adamzattyng danalyq túlghalarynyng dýniye, jalghan, adam, tariyh, jeke túlgha, minez, insana (adamgershilik) haqyndaghy ilimin sinirip, olardyng pikirlerin salystyra otyryp, ghaqliyalarynda Aristotelimen, Sokratpen oy jarystyrady. Firdousiyding anyznamasyndaghy Eskendir Zúlqarnayynyng ómiri haqyndaghy janylys derekterdi týzetip jyrlaydy. Shyghys danalarynyng shayyrlyq ýlgisin sol tilderden audaryp, óleng әfsana jazyp, “ghashyq jýrek” dauasyn emdeydi.

“Múhtardyng balalyq shaghy qazaq dalasynda kezdesip kórmegen, batys elderinde de siyrek kezdesetin óleng men әnge, ertegi men jyrgha, júmbaq pen janyltpashqa, shejire men sheshendikting lúghatty sózderine kýni-týni shomylatyn tvorchestvolyq erekshe jaghdayda ótti. Ol Abay auyly. Abay ainalasy – Abaydyng aqyn balalary, Abay auylyna ýsti-ýstine aghylyp kelip jatqan aqyndar, әnshiler, dombyrashy, qobyzshy-kýishiler, biyshiler, sheshender... Qazaq halqynyng qalyptasqan әdeptiligi, inabattylyghy, minezdiligi, adamgershiligi – bәri osy auylda, Abay eleginen ótip óndelgeni de bar. Abay ainalasynda óreskel minez, ersi sózge tyiym salynghan. Búl auylda kitap bar, kitap oqu bar. Nauai, Nizami, Omar Hayam, Firdousiyler audarmasyz óz tilderinde oqylady. Abay ainalasynda osynday jaylar bolghanyn Múhtar ózi jyr etip aitatyn edi. Sol tónirekting barlyq ishki-syrtqy beynesi zerek balanyng balghyn oiyna óshpestey bolyp ornap qalghanyn sezinetin edik», – deydi Ghabit Mýsirepov. – Abay aulyna qysy-jazy kórshiles otyratyn Múhtardyng atasy Áuez ózi de músylmansha oqymysty, sandyq-sandyq kitap jighan adam: Ál-Farabi, Abduәly Ibn-Sina, Qoja Ahmed Yassaui, Múhammed Haydar Dulati, Ábilghazy Bahadur hannyng enbekteri qolgha kóshirip alghan kýiinde sol kisiden tabylady eken”.

Sonyng barlyghyn sinire otyryp, ol danyshpandyqtyng úly dәstýrinen qalys qalady. Derbes jol izdeydi. Tabady. Sondyqtan da:

“Abaydyng aqyndyghyn, basqa qasiyetterin bylay qoyyp, tek әdeby tilimizdi jasaudaghy enbegining ózin ghana alsaq ta, aqymyz ketetin týri joq. Onyng ýstine Abaydyng iri aqyn bolghanyn, onyng óleni bolsyn, qara sózi bolsyn, búrynghy halyq aqyndarynan da, shaghatayshyl molda aqyndarynan da ozyp shyghyp, sony jol salghanyn eskersek Abayday beyneli aqyn sol kezde qazaqta ghana emes, kórshi elderde de bolyp jarymaghanyn kóru qiyn emes. Óitkeni, alghash “Múhammediya” izimen týrik tilinde jazyp jýrip, beri kele evropa ýlgisine týsken, sóitip tatar óleni tarihynda jana dәuir ashqan Ghabdolla Toqaylar “Qansonarda býrkitshi shyghady angha” jazylghanda tughan da joq edi”,professor Qúdaybergen Júbanov (“Abay qazaq әdebiyetining klassiygi”, “Ádebiyet maydany”. 1934 jyl. 11-12 san).

Búl taghylymnyng tәlimi osy.

Ekinshi tamyr:

Ol – Evropanyng oi-pikirining damu tarihy. Endi ol:

“soqyr aqyn Gomerdin”, Aristoteli, Sokrat, Platondardyng ilimin Evropa ghalymdarynyng tújyrymdary arqyly taghy da tanym sýzgisinen ótkizip, aqylmen saralaydy. “ózining kónil kýiining lirikasynda, jartylystyng logikasynda, tolyp jatqan ózining rasionaldyq filosofiyasyn Abay kezdeysoq jasay salghan joq...” “Evropanyng klassikteri de Sokrattan, Aristoteliden bastap Spinozagha, Spenserge jәne Darvinge sheyingi de filosofiya iyeleri oghan tanys bolatyn-dy. Ol, әsirese, Evropadaghy oi-pikirlerding damu tarihymen kóbirek ainalysty... Islam ghalamynda grek filosofiyasynan kelgen neoplatonikterding kóp әseri bar edi. Músylman filosoftarynda Baghdattaghy Ál-Faraby sol jolda enbek jazghan. Keyin Aristoteli filosofiyasy da arabtar arqyly músylmanshylyq mәdeniyeti kóleminde kóbirek óris alyp taraghan bolatyn... Múnyng Spenserding morali filosofiyasymen tuystas ekeni kýmәnsiz... Biz búl arada halyq danalyghynyng shyghys klassikasynyng jәne Grek antikalyq (eski) mәdeniyetimen tamyrlasyp jatqan Evropanyng klassikalyq mәdeniyetining qamshyday jymdasyp birikkenin kóremiz. Abay Sokrat turaly filosofiyalyq traktat ta jazghan”.

Múhtardyng búl pikiri shyndyq.

Sonymen qatar fransuz oishyldary Jan-Jak Russonyng “Ghylym men óner jayyndaghy payymdaularymen” tanysqan, Montenining “Tәrbie tәjiriybelerinin” ýlgisinde “Ghaqliya” jazghany da, aghylshyn filosofy Dreperding “Evropa aqyl-oyynyng damuy”, “Amerikanyng azamattyq damuy” atty A. Argamakovtardyng basylymymen shyqqan monografiyalaryn taldap, pikir almasuy da anyq derekting qataryna jatady. Mysaly, amerikalyq publisist, jer audarylghan tútqyndardyng ómirin zerttegen Djordj Kennannyng «Sibir jәne jer audarylghandar» atty kitaby 1891 jyly Londonda basylyp, 1906 jyly Peterburgte orys tilinde jariyalandy. Djordj Kennan әigili telegraf apparatynyng negizin salghan Morzening jiyeni.Telegraf kensesining kәnigi qyzmetkeri retinde 1864 jyly Kamchatka men Sibir arqyly telegraf baghanalaryn ornatu ekspedisiyasyna attanyp, saparynyng sonyn Irkutski – Peterburgpen ayaqtaydy. Sonyng nәtiyjesinde jazylghan «Sibirdegi kóshpeli ómir nemese Kamchatka men Soltýstik Aziyadaghy koryaktardyng nemese ózge de taypalardyng arasynda ótken qyzyqty oqighalar» atty alghashqy jazbasy (1871) kezinde jiyrma retten artyq qayta basylyp shyghady, 1886 jyly orys  tiline audarylady. Ol úzaq dayyndyqtan keyin Sibirdegi sayasy tútqyndardyng jaghdayymen tanysu ýshin 1885-1886 jyldary fotograf Frost ekeui Permi – Tumeni – Tobyl – Tom – Omby – Esil – Kereku – Semey – Óskemen – Búqtyrma – Altay – By - Ýrkit – Baykal – Qiyaqty – Chita – Nerchinski – Mninusinskini qamtityn auyr sapargha shyghady. 1886 jyly Semey, Shemonayha, Búqtyrma, Marqakól, Qatonqaraghay ónirin aralap, sayasy tútqyndardyn, jergilikti halyqtyng jaghdayymen tanysady, oraza aittaghy bәige men paluandar kýresin qyzyqtaydy, ózderin, ýy ishin, tabighat kórinisterin suretke týsiredi. Ósimdikter men jer jaghdayyna sypattama beredi. Semeyde úzaq ayaldap, Abaygha tanys, Qaramola siyazynda qazaq zanyn jazugha tapsyrma bergen gubernator Seklinskiymen, ruhany dostary, pikirlesteri atanghan Pavlovskiymen (Makoveskiymen – Dj.Kennan jandarmereya jazagha tartpas ýshin Makovesikiyding atyn osylay jasyryp kórsetken), Lobanovskiymen, Dicheskulimen, Bogomolispen, Leontievpen syrlasyp, olardyng ýiinde bolyp, oy týiedi, ekonmikalyq, sayasi, etnografiyalyq derekter jinaydy. Sonyng ishinde Semeyding kitaphanasy turaly óte mol maghlúmat beredi. Búl kitaptarmen Abaydyng da sózsiz tanys bolghandyghyn jәne onyng Abay oqyghan kitaptar turaly birden bir maghlúmat boluy mýmkin ekendigin eskerip, janr tabighatynan syrt bolsa da, kitaphananyng qory turaly jazbany iriktep ala otyryp, qysqartpay berudi jón kórdik:

«Gubernatordyng kensesinen shyqqan son, onyng kenesi boyynsha, qalanyng ortalyghyndaghy qarapayym ghana aghashtan qiilastyrylghan kópshilik kitaphanasyna bardym, onyng janynda shaghyn ghana antropologiyalyq múrajay bar eken, yqsham da jayly oqu zalynda kóptegen orys gazetteri men jurnaldarynyng tigindileri men qosa óte jaqsy talghammen jinaqtalghan myng tomnan asa kitap jinaqtalypty, solardyng ishinen men: Spenserdin, Boklidin, Liuistin, Millidin, Tennin, Lebboktin, Teylordyn, Haksliydin, Darvinnin, Layelidin, Tindalidin, Alifred Rasseli Uelistin, Makkenzy Uelisting jәne ser Genr Mennin, sonymen qatar Skottyn, Dikkenstin, Mariettin, Djordj Eliottyn, Djordj Makdonalidtin, Entony Trolloptyn, Djastin Makaartiydin, Erkman-shatriannyn, Edgar Allan Ponyng jәne Bret Garttyng romandary men povesterin tandana otyryp kórdim. Ásirese, ghylymiy-sayasy bólimning әdebiyetteri óte mazmúndy eken, múnda jinaqtalghan kitap qory ony jinaqtaghan jәne ony paydalanghan adamdardyng bilimi men talghamy taghzym etuge tolyq layyq dengeyde eken. Búl Semey turaly búryn estigenderimnen jәne ony kórgenderimnen kóri әldeqayda әserli kórinis berdi… (Silteme: Jogharyda atalyp ótken avtorlardyng kóptegen ghylymy shygharmalarynyng orys basylymdary senzuralyq baqylaudan ótip, qiylyp tastalghan. Lekkiyding «Rasionalizmning tarihy» atty enbegining әr bólimin senzura qidalap tastapty, asygha qarap shyqqannyng ózinde men onyng keybir jerlerining on betten on bes betke deyini qiylyp tastalghanyn bayqadym. Osynday qyrqylghan kýiining ózin de, búl kitaptyng shalghayda jatqan Sibirding týkpirindegi Semey qalasyndaghy sekemshil orys ýkimetining ókilderine qauipti kóringeni sonday, joghary mәrtebelining pәrmeni boyynsha ony paydalanugha tiym salypty, ishki ister ministrliginng arnayy rúqsatynsyz oqyrmandargha berudi toqtatypty. Tura osynday tiym, senzordyng «qauipti» jәne «ziyandy» dep sanalghan jerlerin alyp tastaghanyna qaramastan, Spenserdin, Millidin, Liuistin, Lebboktin, Haksliydin, Layeliding shygharmalaryna da salynypty. Búdan keyin men, osy tomdar, jәne oghan qosa taghy da basqa 100 tom «index expurgatrnus» retinde (tiym salynghan kitaptardyng tizimine) kirgenin jәne ony eshkimge bermeu turaly әrbir kitaphanashygha eskertilgenin bildim)...

… Keshqúrym biz qalagha qaytyp keldik te, birazdan son, biz әli kórmegen, bizben tanysqysy keletin sayasy tútqyndar kýtip otyrghan Leontievtin ýiine bardyq. Bizdi alyp kirgen bólme Lobanovskiy túrghan bólmeden kóri ýlken әri jaqsy jabdyqtalypty biraq ondaghy Leontievting jazu stolynyng túsyndaghy qabyrghada iluli túrghan Gerbert Spenserding suretinen basqa esh nәrse mening nazarymdy erekshe audara qoyghan joq. Lobanovskiyding ózin, Dicheskuli biykeni, әieli Kary kenishine katorgaga aidalyp ketken, jas dәriger d-r Bogomolisti, «Senchury megezinde» 1887 jylghy jeltoqsanda jariyalanghan «Orys revolusionerlerining týrmedegi ómiri» atty maqalamda atap ótken apaly-sinili eki Piysesskayalardy qosqanda, jinalghan jer audarylghandaryng sany, on eki – on bes adam eken. Jinalghan qauym bir-birimizben tanysqannan keyi, ózara qyzu, erkin әngime  bastaldy. Mening súraghyma oray, Leontiev maghan Semey kitaphanasynyng  tarihy turaly aityp berdi, sonyng ishinde, onyng jer audarylyp kelgen sayasy qughyndalushylardyng emes, jalpy qala túrghyndarynyng kýndelikti ómirdegi oi-órisin keneytuge izgilikti yqpal etip otyrghanyn da atap ótti. 

Tipti qazaqtar da, dedi ol búl kitaphanany paydalanady. Men oqymysty, egde qazaqty bilemin, onyng aty Ibragim Qonanbay (Qúnanbay – T.J.), ol kitaphanagha kelip qana qoymaydy, sonymen qatar Milli men Dreper siyaqty avtorlardy da oqidy. 

Sizding aitqynyz kelip túrghany, dep dauystady bir student Milli men Dreperding shygharmalaryn oqy alatyn egde qazaq Semeyde túrady – demeksiz be?! 

IYә, dәl solay!, – dep qaysarlana jauap berdi Leontiev. – Men ony birinshi ret kórgenimde, onyn menen: induksiya men deduksiyanyng ayyrmashylyghyn týsindirudi ótingeni qatty tang qaldyrdy. Keyinnen baryp onyng shyndyghynda da aghylshyn filosofiyasyn zerdeley oqyghanyn, men atap ótken avtorlardyng orys tilindegi audarmalaryn oqyghandyghyn bildim. 

Siz, sol oqyghandaryn týsindi dep oilaysyz ba?, dep súrady managhy student.

– Men qatarynan eki kesh odan Dreperding «Evropanyng aqyl oiynyng damuy» atty kitaby boyynsha emtihan aldym, – dep jauap berdi Leontiev, – men: ol búl enbekti tolyq týsingen eken – dep tolyq senimmen jauap bere alamyn.

– Mening nazarym mynaghan audy, – dedim men, – kitaphanadaghy kóptegen kitaptardy, sonyng ishinde aghylshyn ghalymdarynyng kitaptaryn, al olardyng barlyghy da senzuradan ótse de, beruge tiym salynypty. Kitapqa әueli de rúqsat berilip, sonynan tiym salatyny qalay?

– Bizding senzuranyng talghamy ózinshe, – dep jauap berdi jer audarylushylardyng bireui, – Mysaly siz, Adam Smitting «Halyqtar baylyghy» atty kitabyna tiym salynyp, al Darvinning «Týrlerding payda boluy» men «Adamnyng payda boluy» siyaqty enbekterining rúqsat etiluine qalay qaraysyz? Keyingi shygharma birinshi shygharmagha qaraghanda әldeqayda qauipti emes pe» (Djordj Kennan. Sibiri y ssylka. S.-Peterburg.-1999.198-199 bet).

Mýmkin, Semeyge kelip jatqan Dj.Kennannyng búl estigenderin Abaydyng bilui de, tipti onyng ózin oraza ait kezindegi bәige men paluan kýresi kezinde kórui de mýmkin. Óitkeni tura sol jyly, sol mezgilde Abay Seklinskiyding pәrmenimen Bóribaevting aryzy boyynsha Semeyde alty ay «myrzaqamaqta» jatqan. Sonday-aq sol tergeudi toqtattyryp, aqtau qorytyndysyn jazyp, Abaydy bosattyrghan Dj.Kennanmen sol saparda kezdesken Losovskiy men Makoveskiy bolatyn. Dj.Kennan sayasy qudalanushylardyng Shekspiyr, Milli, Spenser, Bokli, Belfur Suart, Geyne, Gegeli, Lange, Irving, Kuper, Longfello, Bret Gart jәne Buicher Stou shygharmalaryna silteme jasay otyryp, oilaryn emin erkin jetkizgenine, olardyng kórkem astary men sayasi, әleumettik mәnin tereng týsingenine tang qalady. Al endeshe, olardyng emtihanynan ótken Abaydyng da әlem әdebiyetin solargha jete qabyl mengergenine kýmәn tumasa kerek.

Mine, Abaydyng parasat aqyly sol ghasyrdyng ózinde-aq aghylshyn júrtyna jetken. Djordj Kennanyng búl kitabynyng týpnúsqasy aqynnyng Semeydegi memorialdyq muzeyinde saqtauly.

Tipti, inkvizisiya tarihyn da tereng bilgen. Abaydyng ózi oqyp, әngimelep bergen “Ýsh noyan”, “Qyzyl saqal”, “Aqsaq fransuz”, “Novarra Genriyh”, “Sýleymen patshanyng qazynasy” atty tarihy shygharmalardy saqara túrghyndary ertekshi Bayghambetting auzynan tandy tangha qosyp tyndaghan. Múhtardyng ózi:

“Belgisiz avtordyng inkvizisiya zamanynan jazghan sujetke bay birneshe romandaryn estidim. Osy romandardy bastaghanda, “Niyderlan degen jerlerde, Leyden degen qalada, Inkvizisiya degen bir by bopty”– dep bastaytyn Bayghambetti tyndaghandardyng bәrining de esinde bolar: Abaydyng belgili dosy, qara tanymaytyn Bayghambet qúlaghyn tige, sonyng auzyna qaraghan tyndaushylargha qyzghylyqty hikayasyn, mine, osylay bastaytyn” - dep kuәlik beredi.

Geteni, Bayrondy, Shillerdi audarghan. Gerolid Beliger “Abay men Gete” dep monografiya jazdy. Onyng týbi Gegeli men Lessingke tireledi.

Ol da ras.

Ókinishke oray, Qúdaybergen Júbanovtyng aitqanynday:

“Ol oyanu dәuirining tolqynynan payda bolghan nemis Lutter, fransuz Malerby de emes. Sondyqtan renessanstyq úly nóserding iri jemisteri Leonardo da Vinchi, Alibert Durer bolu da Abaygha búiyrmaghan. Abay óz ortasynyng Dante siyaqty adamy. Biraq Dante – eskining sony, jananyng aldy edi. Orta dәuir men oyanu dәuirining arasyndaghy kópir edi. Al Abaydyng aldy joqqa juyq ta, arty ghana bar: ol – songhy dәuirding basy. Onyng tóniregi – Egey tenizi emes, Saryarqanyng shóli de, ótkeni – klassikalyq Rim emes, ýdere kóshken qayshylyq ómir ghoy”.

Búl da aqiqat.

“Mening Qaghbam batysqa qaray kóshti” – deydi Abay.

Barlyghyna dәlel osy bir auyz sóz. Al búl sóz dәleldi qajet etpeydi.

Ýshinshi tamyr:

ol – “oryssha oqu kerek, hiyqmet te, mal da, óner de, ghylym da bәri orysta zor. Zalalynan qashyq bolugha, paydasyna ortaq bolugha tilin, oquyn, ghylymyn bilmek kerek. Onyng sebebi, olar dýniyening tilin biledi, múnday bolady. Sen onyng tilin bilsen, kókirek-kózing ashylady... Orystyng ghylymy, óneri – dýniyening kilti, ony bilgenge dýnie arzanyraq týsedi” -degen Abaydyng “óner – bilim ýshin orysshyl” boluy.

Búl mahabbaty ýshin úly aqyn az azap tartqan joq. Qazaqtar qamshysynyng astynan aldy. Uryadnikter men poliyseyler abaqtygha japty. Olar:

“...orys kapitalynyng dýniye-mýlkin, ataghyn kýzetti. Alayda, bәrinen búryn orystyng revolusiyalyq sózinin, sosialistik iydeyasynyng týkpirdegi qazaq auylyna úshqynyn týsirmes ýshin bizding dalamyzdy asqan saqtyqpen kirpik qaqpay andumen boldy”.

Biraq ta, erkindikti ansaghan asyl oy – “Sibirding shynyrau tozaghyn” (Múhtar Áuezov) da jaryp ótti.

Reseyding aspanynda jarq ete qalghan nayzaghaydyng synyghy qazaq saqarasynyng shetindegi Semey shaharyna týsti. Chernyshevskiydi azamattyq dargha asu rәsimi kezinde, Reseyding revolusionerler perzentine qyzyq qughan qauymynyng ortasynan suyrylyp shyghyp, raushan gýlin syilaghan nәzik jandy, ruhy ór әiel zaty Mariya Petrovna Mihaelisting tughan aghasy – Evgeniy Petrovich Mihaeliys, Chernyveshskiyding shәkirti – Mihaeliys: ataqty N.A.Dobrolubovtyng ózi: “Student Mihaelispen tanysu ýshin keldim, ol turaly óte kóp estidim” – dep pәterine izdep barghan Mihaelis – “patsha aidap” Ertis jaghasyna keldi. Abaydyng “dýniyege kózin ashqan – Mihaelis te” sol. Ekeui Semeydegi Gogoli atyndaghy kitaphanada Abay Lev Tolstoydyng kezekti shygharmasyn jazdyrtyp alghan kezinde tanysqan. Gross, Dolgopolov taghy bar. Shoqan men Dostoevskiy Semeyde jýrgende Abay sonda shәkirt. Aghasy – Haliolla – Shoqan bitirgen kadet korpusynda oqyghan. Shoqan Qúnanbaydy Omby týrmesinen qútqarugha septesti. Kópes Tinibaydyng úly Mendibay Abaydyng әpkesi Mәkishti alghan. Abay sol ýide jatqan. Dostoevskiy men Shoqan Tinibaydyng ýiine seruendep baryp týstenip jýrgen. Mysaly: F. M. Dostoevskiiyding ózi “Ómirlik qaryzdarmyn”,– dep eseptegen dosy Aleksandr Egorovich Vrangelding “1854-56 jyldardaghy Sibirdegi F. M. Dostoevskiyding ómiri turaly estelik» kitabynda 1855 jyly 20 tamyz kýni Semeydegi ýlken toyda Dostoevskiy ekeuining bolghanyn jaza kelip:

“Qazaqtyng at bәigesi, býrkitining qasqyr alghanyn kórsetkenderi asa qyzyqty boldy. Toygha jinalghan halyqtyng kónilin kóterip, qyzdyryp jiberdi. Týrli týsti kiyingen, shat-shadyman myndaghan adam ertis jaghasyna qaptap ketken. Ásirese, tatar men qazaq әielderining әsem-sәndi kiyimderi elden erekshe kóz tartady... Ózim de sayahatshy-anshy bolghandyqtan, býrkitting qasqyrgha týsken sәtin kórgende, delebem qozyp túra almadym. Onday qyzyqtargha әdette salqyn qaraytyn Fedor Mihaylovichti tarta qoymady... Sol toyda qazaq dostarymyz – Tinibay men Mendibay taghy da ýilerine qonaqqa shaqyrdy. Olardykine biz quana-quana bardyq. Qaymaqqa qant qosyp, aralastyrghan tәtti irimshikpen syilady”,– dep esine aldy.

Abay ol kezde on jasta (14 jasqa deyin osy qalada. Oquda bolghany anyq). Dostoevskiydi kórui әbden mýmkin. Al estigeni sózsiz. Endeshe, sol ýige ýnemi týsip, ailap jatatyn Abaydyng úly orys jazushysynyng Semeydegi ómirin, shygharmalaryn estip-bilgeni kýmәn tudyrmaydy. Shoqanmen ilesip Shynghysty aralady degen derek te kezdesedi. Mine, Abay taghdyrynyng tanymyna әser etken, óristi mәdeniyetting jaryghyn saqaragha sebezgiley shashqan da osynday ýrdister. Parasatty Abaydyng qúshtarlyghyn arttyryp, etene jaqyndatqan da sol yntyzarlyq yqylas qoy.

Demek, Abay on jasynda Dostoevskiydi kórgen.

Kórui mýmkin.

Mýmkin.

Biraq ta, aqyn Abay ýshin Pushkinmen tabysudan artyq taghdyrdyng ýlken rizdyghy bolmaghan. Ol tabysqan joq, qazaqtyng Pushkiyni bop, Pushkin bop ómir sýrdi. Orystyng Abayy – Pushkin jazyp, qazaqtyng Pushkiyni – Abay audarghan “Evgeniy Onegindegi” Tatiyananyng jauaby – qazaq poeziyasyndaghy ruhany úly tuyndylarynyng belgisi bop mәngi qaldy. Mәngi. Abay – Lermontov bop ta ghúmyr keshti. Jiyrma segiz ólenin tәrjimalady jәne qanday! Ázirshe ol biyikten ýmit etken aqyn joq. Krylovty – qazaqsha qanattandyrdy. Keshelikke belshesinen batyp, “oqaly kiyim, shen-shekpendi” kóksegenderden jiyirkenip: “Oyynda joq birinin, Saltykov pen Tolstoy” deydi yzaly Abay. Patshagha qarsy úiymynyng mýshesi bolghan doktor Dolgopolovtyng Abay auylynda demaluy, “Sibirden qashqan Kavkaz adamynyn”, Shәmildin, Tastemirding balalarynyn, soldatqa shaqyryludan jasyrynyp jýrgen Ghabiytqan ispetti noghay, tatar bashqúrt azamattarynyng aqyn ýiinen pana tabuy onyng sayasy kózqarasynyng taraqiyatynyng (progress) terendiginen maghlúmat etedi.

Orystan tartqan tamyry – Abaydyng eng kerneuli kýre tamyry. Ol – óz jýregining quatty otyn óz keudesinde saqtaghan joq. “Aqylmenen núrlanghan sózi” arqyly ainalasyna tútas jaryq týsirdi. Parasat pen mәdeniyetting dәnin septi. Ár balasyn qalagha oqugha jiberip, aldyna tórt-bes, tym qúryghanda bir óner ýirenip qaytudy amanat etti. Ónersiz qaytu – Abay aldyndaghy ólim sanalady. Skripka, mandoliyn, ýsh ishekti dombyramen “Balniyaz” – Oginskiyding “Polonezi”, “Rendi – Mosarttyng “Rondasy”, “Týrik sherui”, tatardyng “Bala Miskeni” oryndaldy. Semeydegi polyak revolusionerlerining әnderin ýirendi. Orystyng “Ayly týnin” kýmbirletti. Tym qúryghanda, zergerlikti, etikshilikti, mojandyqty ýirenip keldi.

Bir mysal: Semeyding aeroporty ornalasqan jer búryn Shaghyl dep atalghan. Qazirgi Shaghyl ol kezde Semeyden kósh jer alys. Sәske aua qos jolaushy at shaldyryp túrghanda Aqylbay: “Abay agha: al alty aida ne ýirenip keldinder. Boylaryna óner qondy ma, kórsetinder dese, qaytemiz, Múqa. Odan da óner bazarlyghy bolsyn, sol kisining ózi orysshadan audarghan bir ólenine әn jazayyq”, – deydi. Búl pikirdi Abaydyng skripkashysy Múqa Álqanúly qúp aldy.

Shaghyldyng býiirindegi búlaq qasyna keshki kýnmen jarysa attan týsip, aily týnde ekeui skripkany dala jelimen qosa synsytyp, úzaq tarta qúlaq kýiin búraydy. Oilaryna yrghaghy men maqamy jaghynan әnge iykemdi “Súrghylt túman dym býrkip” atty joldar týsedi. Qos skripkashy qosyla bezildetip, ózderine tanys, qúlaqqa singen orys muzykasynyng izimen әn әuenin izdeydi. Abaydyng búl óleni A.A. Delivigtin

 

Ne osenniy melikiy dojdichek,

 Bryzjet, bryzjet skvozi tuman.

Slezy gorikie liet molodes,

Na svoy barhatnyy kaftan, –

dep bastalatyn romansy edi.

Alghashqy shumaghy týpnúsqasymen dәlme-dәl erkin tәrjimalansa da kelesi joldary, sonday-aq qysqa tarmaqtary basqasha. Aqylbaydy әnge jetelegen de sol qysqa qayyrym bolsa kerek. Tang bozaryp atyp, boztorghay sayraghanda Shaghyl boyyn qos skripka әuenge bóledi. Aqylbay sabyrly, qonyr dausymen bayau әndetti.

 

Súrghylt túman dym býrkip,

Barqyt beshpet sulaydy.

Jenimenen kóz sýrtip,

Súrlanyp jigit jylaydy.

Áyelmising jylama,

Tәuekel qyl qúdagha!

Óleng ait,

Ýige qayt.

Búl joldardyng seri kónildi Aqylbaydyng jýregin qozghauy, “Óleng ait, ýige qayt” degen tirkester óz saparyna oraylas kelui әnning shyghuyna tikeley әser etken. Al kelesi shumaghyndaghy:

Atandy anang azghyryp

Túrghyzbaghan beyishke.

Allasy ony jazghyryp,

Ákeldi bastap keyiske.

Áyelde eshbir opa joq,

Býgin – jalyn, erteng – shoq.

Betti ju,

Beldi bu, –

degen joldar týpnúsqanyng tikeley әserinen tughan Abaydyng tól tuyndysy.

Shaghyldyng tanyn әnmen qarsy alghan Aqylbaydyng búl әueni Abay әni dep aitylyp jýr. Bizdinshe, ol – әbestik tәrizdi. Osynday mәdeny saltanatpen barghanda Abay: “Áy, jaraysyn, Aqylym. Týrtpektegen ana Múqa ghoy. Ózim de sony kýtkem. Kiyiming olaq, kóniling kól-aq. Aqyl, seni shirasyn dep em. Týzelipsin, aqtadyn”,– depti. Keyin Maghauiya qayyn júrtyna attanarda “on minutta oiyna týsken” әigili “Aqylbaydyng әni”, – úly aqynnyng ýlken úlynyng muzykalyq talantyn tanytady. Sonday-aq jana ólen, әn shygharyp, Abaygha synatqysy kelgender әueli Maghauiyagha aparghan. Ol Aqylbaygha úsynyp, sonyng kóniline jaqsa ghana әkesine barugha rúhsat bergen. Ómirde júmsaq, ónerge qatal jan bolghan. Áriyne, aragha jyldar salyp osy jolmen ózining mәngilik songhy saparyn tәmamdaytynyn Aqylbay bilgen joq. Semeyge әkesi Abaydyng qyrqyn beru qamymen kelip, monshadan shyqqan song eski Semeydegi ýide jýrek talmasynan qaytys boldy. Abay men ekeuining arasy da tura qyryq kýn. Alayda artynda dastandary, әni qaldy.

Kókeydegi bir oidy reti kelgende aitu qajet. Jazushy Tәken Álimqúlov ózining “Júmbaq jan” atty tamasha zertteu enbeginde:

“Abaydyng súrghylt túman dym býrkip” әn-ólenin kim bilmeydi. Búl M.IY.Glinkanyng 1829 jyly jazghan, “Ne osenniy melkiy dojdichek” dep bastalatyn әnining kóshirmesi. Ánning teksti aqyn A. A. Delivichtiki. (dúrysy A.A.Deliviyg) V.Dernovanyng zertteuinde búl әnning taghdyry qyzyq. “Ne osenniy melkiy dojdichek” Glinka әnining ishinde de, Delivichting (Delivigting T. J.) ólenderining arasynda da saqtalmaghan. Búl әn úly kompozitordyng “Ivan Susaniyn” operasynda Antonida oryndaytyn romansqa paydalanylady da, qoljazbasy keyin joghalyp ketedi. Sodan 1946 jyly ghana tabylady”,– dep jazady.

Búl derekti alghash salystyra ashqan Ábish Jiyrenshiyn. Ol kisi – muzykasy Abaydiki demegen. Ólenning әni baryn bile túryp, silteme jasamaghan. Aqylbaydyng tuyndysy ekeninen de maghlúmdar ghalym sondyqtan da óz týsiniktemesine engizbegen. Búl turaly derekterding mol maghlúmaty Abaytanushy Tóken Ibragimovting jeke qorynda, kóne kóz qariyalarmen sóileskendigi әngimesin jazghan ýntartqysh taspasynda bar. Árham Ysqaqovtyng muzeydegi jazbasynda da emeurin derekter kezdesedi. Al búl әnning muzykasynyng úqsauy – birinshiden: Aqylbay sol saparda tyndauy mýmkin. Sony paydalanghan da shyghar. Ekinshiden: әnning biz estigen núsqalarynyng әueni qazir óte siyrek aitylatyn osy әnnen góri ózgerek. Demek, keyingi muzyka zertteushileri iyinge keltirgen. Áytpese, týpnúsqadaghy A.Delivigting ózinde “Óleng ait, ýige qayt”, “Beldi bu, betti ju” ispetti qysqa qayyrymdar joq. Jәne Abay sózi ýsh týrli buynda, ýsh týrli yrghaqpen jazylghan. Demek, asyl múrany baghalauda asyghystyq bolmauy tiyis.

Bir әnning shyghu tarihy, Abaydyng bir ýlgisi osy. Dala ghúlamasy parasat núryn óz sanasyna sinirip qana qoymay, bar talantty qasyna jinap, qys boyy olargha bilgenin aityp, “Qara sózden ólendi onay kóretin” qazaq zeyinine arnap, dastangha ainaldyrudy shәkirtterine tapsyrghan. Bir taqyrypty eki-ýsh adamgha úsynyp, qay únaghanyn júrt nazaryna salugha rúqsat etken. Óner, oy bәsekesine erik bergen. Aqylbaygha – Kavkazdaghy shaghyn halyqtyng ómiri jóninde “Daghystan”, Afrikadaghy taypalar tirliginen “Zúlys”, Shәmil kóterilisi qaqynda “Shәmil”; Maghauiyagha – Nil dariyasyndaghy qúldardyng ruhany kýresin beyneleytin “Medghat-Qasym”, Kókbaygha – qazaq tarihyn qamtityn “Sabalaq”, Shәkәrimge – elding eski túrmysynan “Qalqaman-Mamyr”, “Jolsyz jaza” dastandaryn jazdyrdy. “Myng bir týn”, “Totynyng toqsan tarauy” negizinde “Jeti ýi” hikayasyn elge tarattyrady. Jeti bólmede jeti jigit, jeti qyz otyrady. Ár jigit әr qyzgha jeti-jetiden qyzyqty әngime aitady. Sonda 343 hikaya! Bokkachonyng “Dekameronymen” qaraylas! Átten, saqtalmaghan. Júqanasy ghana qarauyldyng ertegishisi Júmaqúlbaydyng esinde qalghan. Ol da qaghazgha týspey ketti. Taghy bir risal: Abaydyng auylynda ayaq qoly byrtyq, mýsәpir Týsiphan atty Qarqaraly jaqtan kelgen mýgedek adam bolypty. Keshke qaray tóbe basyna bir top shәkirtterimen shyghyp ainalany sholyp túrghanda, әlgi Týsiphandy kózi shalady da: “Shirkin-ay, myna Týsiphan da ómir sýrdim deydi-au. Qatyn-bala, artynda qalar qayratty әreketi, úshqyr sózi joq. Aqyndyqtaryna, adamgershilikterine syn bolsyn. Osy Týsiphandy: shirkin, ómir sýrgen-aq eken degizetin, onyng atyn mәngilik este saqtap, úmyttyrmaytyn estelik qaldyryndarshy”,– depti Abay. Aragha kýnder salyp baryp jazyp әkelgen Maghauiya men Kókbaydyng óleni aqyngha únamaydy. Az aghayyn topaydyng ishindegi Beysenbay aqyn Jәnibekúly qazirgi júrtqa mәlim, “jýregindi jylatatyn” “Týsiphan” qissasyn shygharady. Sol núsqany úly aqyn maqúldap: “Beysharanyng aty endi óshpeydi. Ózi kórmegen qyzyqty, jar lәzzatyn kórgizip jan azabyn, armanda ótken ghúmyryn әserli jyrlapsyn”,–dep qosh kóripti.

Ol dәstýr Abaydyng kózi júmylghan song da jalghasypty. Úly adamnyng erini songhy ret betine tiyip, qúmarlana iyiskegen nemeresi Aqyliyanyng  úzatylu toyyna da tosyn syy jasap, Mútardyng “Enlik-Kebekti” sahnagha shygharuy da sol ýrdisting ýlgisi. Úrpaghyna ósiyet etken Abay amanatynyng oryndaluy, “Ósken órkennin” jemisi.

Búl taghlymsyz Múhtardyng da túlghasy syrdang tartady. Onsyz Áuezovtyng ómirin de, ónerin de týsinu mýmkin emes.

Mýmkin emes.

Ol sol taghdyrdyng tamyryn sәby kýninen ana sýtimen qosa emip ósti.

Ol ózining aituy boyynsha alty jasynda Abaydy kórdi.

Ghúmyrynyng sonyna deyin úly aqynnyng sol bir asyl beynesin jýreginde saqtap, jiyi-jii elestetip, onashada ruhymen syrlasyp ómir sýrdi. Sher tarqata syrlasa jýrip, óz Abayynyng túlghasyn somdap shyghardy.

(Jalghasy bar)

Túrsyn Júrtbay

Abai.kz

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