Jeksenbi, 2 Qazan 2022
Tarihtyng bir kýni 5665 1 pikir 26 Qazan, 2016 saghat 11:54

QABDESh AGhANYNG QYLYGhYNA ÚYaLDYQ

Abay aqparattyq portalynyng elektrondy pochtasyna qazaqtyng klassik jazushysy Qabdesh Júmadilovti synaghan material kelip týsti. Avtor Qabanbay batyrgha arnalghan ghylymiy-tanymdyq konferensiyada jazushynyng ózin dúrys ústamaghanyn tilge tiyek ete kele, biraz tarihy pikirine qarsylyq bildiripti. Áriyne, biz tizgindi teng ústaugha tyrysatynymyzdy, Qabdesh agha Júmadilov tarapynan aitylar uәj bolsa, oghan da minber beruge dayyn ekenimizdi eskertemiz. 

Abay aqparattyq portaly

Osy maqalany jazuyma «Ayqyn» gazetindegi «Qabanbaytanu kenjelep barady» degen maqala sebep boldy. Aydana Núrmúhannyng qalamynan tughan dýniyeni oqyp shyqqan son, jurnalisterding ghylymy negizdelgen pikirge aralaspaghany, taraptardyng eshqaysysyn qoldamaghany, kórgenin, estigenin sol qalpynda oqyrmangha jetkizgeni jón eken degen oigha keldim. Aydana qatysqan ghylymiy-tanymdylyq konferensiyagha biz de barghan edik.

Qazaqstan Ghylym Akademiyasynyng M.Áuezov atyndaghy Ádebiyet Inistittuty úiymdastyrghan basqosu  Qabanbay batyrdyng tughanyna  325 jyldyghyna arnalghan-dy. Keler jyly atamyzdyng mýshel toyy. Tarihshy, foliklorshy ghalymdar Qabanbay batyr turaly, Q.Júmdilovtin, Z.Senikting enbekteri, Qabanbay batyrdyng Tuy jayly bayandama jasady. Kezek qúttyqtau ýshin aqyn Shómishbay agha Sariyevke berilip edi, tórden shu shyqty. Qabdesh agha Júmadilov:

– Mynau menen búryn nege sóileydi? Mening aldyma nege týsiresinder! – dep jýrgizushige dýrse qoya berdi.

Jýrgizushi:

– Agha bú kisi óleng oqyp, qúttyqtasyn dep edik, – degen taqilettes aqtalu aityp jatyr.

Búghan toqtaytyn Qabdesh agha ma, әldekeuim shytynady. Orynsyz-aq qylyq.

Ózine sóz berilgende de ashudan arylmay túrdy. Biz konferesiyagha dayarlanyp, ghalamtordaghy Qabanbay batyr turaly maqalalardy tintiley oqyp, ózara pikir alysyp kelgenbiz. Aghamyzdan janalyq kýttik. Biraq Qabdesh aghamyz sonau jyldardan beri aityp kele jatqan qarama-qayshy óz pikirlerin taghy da tizbeledi. Bir izge týspegen, bytyranqy oilaryn, taldanbaghan anyzdaryn  úzyn-sonar әngimege ailandyryp jiberdi. Zalda tarih pen foliklordyn, әdebiyetting kәsipqoy mamandary, ghylym doktorlary men kandidattary otyrghanymen de isi bolmady. Óstip keldi de ayaq asty zalgha qarap, ses kórsetti.

– Myna jerde Kamal Ábdirahman degen otyr. Ózi adasqanymen qoymay, eldi de adastyryp, Qabanbay batyrdy Arqada, Aqmolada jerlendi deydi. Oidan óleng qúrap dastandargha qosypty. Múny tarih ghylymynyng doktory Nәsenov keremet anyqtady. Keseneden kýnin kóre bersin de, biraq eldi aldamasyn. Bizding berik senimimiz boyynsha Qabanbay batyr Jonghar Alatauy manynda jerlengen. Myna Kamal ótirikshi. Aqmolada jerlengen basqa, arghyn Qabanbay. Búl, tipti, Qabanbaydyng túsynda nayman Tarbaghataygha qonystanbaghan, ol jaqta Qabanbay batyrmen tústas adamnyng molasy joq deydi. Mening onynshy atam jerlengen. Búl she? Shynghyshannan beri nayman otyrghan jer ghoy...

Ary qaray Qabdesh agha «Jas Alash» gazetindegi, «Anyz adam» jurnalyndaghy jeke dara pikirlerine qayta oraldy. Kamal agha Ábdirahmandy betpe-bet tanymaydy ekenbiz. Biraq Qabanbay batyr turaly maqalalaryn ghalamtordan oqyghanbyz. Orys, qytay, qyrghyz elderine baryp Qabanbay batyr turaly tyng derekter әkelgeninen, saparlarynan habardarmyz. Núrtileu agha Imanghaliyúlymen kýbirlesip otyr eken, Qabdesh agha sausaghymen núsqap kórsetti. Alayda o kisi Qabdesh aghanyng ózine úryna bastaghanyna asa mәn bermedi, әjuәlay kýlip otyrdy.  Sóz alyp, pikirin bildirdi.

– Qabanbay batyrdy Arqada tuyp, Arqada jerlendi degendi jazudy bastaghan men emes. Men әr kezende jariyalanghan derekterding basyn qúrastyrushy ghanamyn. Alghash ret 1934 jyly Qabanbay batyrdyng tikeley úrpaghy Qydyrmolda jyrau:

                              «Ejelden meken etip jýredi eken

                              Ashysu, Esil-Núra, Sarybeldi» dep jazdy.

1931 jyly molasyna ýsh týnepti. Óz qolymen jazyp bergeni saqtauly. Batyrdyng jәne bir tikeley úrpaghy, ghylym doktory Bolatjan Abylqasymov 1979 jyly, onan song 1991 jyly Taldyqorghanda ótken Halyqaralyq konferensiyada «Qabanbay batyrdyng molasy Aqmoladan 30 shaqyrymdaghy «Oktyabri» sovhozynyng jerindegi Qabanbay tauynda» dep atap kórsetti. Bolatjan kandidattyghyn tughan atasy Qabanbay batyrdan qorghaghan edi. Qabanbaydyng molasy Núra boyynda ekenin 1960-70 jyldary sol mekenning tumasy tarihshy, prfessor Nәby Dauylbaev jazdy. Taghy bir professor S.Bәiishev studentterining qúlaghyna osy derekti ýnemi qúiyp otyrypty. Professor M.Kәrimov sol jyldardan beri Qabanbay batyrdyng Arqadaghy molasyn dәl kórsetip jýr. Qabdesh agha, daulassanyz Batyrdy sizden kósh ilgeri biletin úrpaqtarymen, kәsiby tarihshy professorlarmen, osy  ghalymdarmen daulasynyz.

Qabanbay batyrdy tarihy túrghydan zertteude negizgi qate, janylys sol tústaghy qazaq rulary ornalasqan mekenderdi bilmeuden ketip jýr. Biz býgin Qabanbay eli Jetisuda, Shyghysta otyrghan song Qabdesh aghagha senip, HÝIII ghasyrda naymandar týp-týgel sol mandy mekendedi dep oilaymyz. Shyndyq olay emes. Shyndyq izdesenizder Andreevting 250,  Uәlihanov pen Aristovtyng 150, Tynyshbaev pen Halidiyding 100 jyl,  Mynjan keltiretin 150 jyl búrynghy qytay derekterin oqynyzdar. Menimen emes, solarmen aitysynyz. Andreev HÝIII ghasyrdyng ortasynda, Qabanbay batyr túsynda Tarbaghatay, Jonghar Alatauy manynda, Ayagózding sol jaghalauynda kim otyrghanyn shanyraghyna deyin sanap jazady. Aristov, Uәlihanov, Tynyshbaev, Mynjan, Halidy qazaq rularynyng osy alqaptargha qashan ornalasqanyn әr jylymen dәldep kórsetedi. Ayagózding sol jaghalauynda 1810 jylgha deyin qazaq rularynan, Qabanbay elinen bir shanyraq joq. 1758, 1862 jylghy qazaq-qytay kelissózderinen keyin osynday jaghday qalyptasty. 1762 jyly Úryjardyng janyna qytay shekara beketining kensesi ornady. Nyghymet Mynjan múny taygha tanba basqanday jazady. Qaydaghy 1754 jyldan bastap nayman men kerey búl jerge ornalasty? Tek 1810 jylgha qaray qytay imperatorynyng belgili jarlyghyna oray Uәlihanovtyn, Tynyshbaevtyn, Aristovtyn, Halidyng naqtyly tarihy derekteri boyynsha, qazaq rulary Ayagózding sol jaghalauyna óte aldy. Men bar-joghy әlem tanyghan ghalymdardyng ghylymy orta tolyq moyyndaghan tarihy derekterin jinastyryp, júrtqa úsynushymyn. Dauynyzdy, shamanyz jetse әlem tanityn Uәlihanov, Mynjan, Tynyshbaev, Andreev, Aristovqa, professorlar Abylqasymovqa, Dauylbaevqa, Kәrimovke, Bәiishevke, Mústafinge, solardy moyyndaghan, kýni býginge deyin bir auyz qarsylyq bildirmegen, myna zalda otyrghan ghalymdargha aitynyz.Kamal aghanyng osy sózinen keyin Qabdesh agha ornynan túryp ketti:

– Toqtatyndar anany, toqtatyndar! Toqtatpasandar men ketemin! – dep stoldy núqydy.

Úiymdastyrushylar Kamal aghany toqtatqysy joq. Onyng ýstine ghalymdar da, bizder de aq pen qarany, kimning dúrys, kimning búrys ekenin ajyratyp otyrghanbyz. Degenmen Qabdesh aghanyng kónilin tapqysy keldi me, jýrgizushi:

– Uaqyt Kamal agha, uaqyt, – dep qoydy.

Kamal agha bolsa zalda otyrghan aqsaqalgha qaray sóiledi.

– Maqsýt agha, Sizding otyrghanynyz óte jaqsy boldy.  Qabanbay batyr turaly jazylyp alynghan 18 dastannyng barlyghy sizding aldynyzdan ótti. Sol dastandarda Qabanbay batyr dýniyeden ozar shaghynda:

                     «Jiylyp tegis as berip,

                     Tu biyeni soyyndar.

                     Arqagha arnap, beyit soghyp,

                     Ot ornyma qoyyndar», – degenin, Arqany qadap kórsetkenin, onan song ýzilip bara jatqan qayyn aghasynyng basyn sýiep otyrghan Dәuletbay batyrdyng kelinsheginin:

                     «Maghrip pe mashrihtan, asyl qoymay jinaghan,

                     Esil menen Núranyng arasyna simaghan,

                     Qayran mening qayny agham!», – degenin men jazyppyn ba, әlde sizder jinap alyp pa edinizder?

Maqsýt agha baysaldy adam. Basyn iyzep, kelisimin bildirdi.

Qabdesh agha, sizder Mәskeudegi tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory, Ermahan Bekmahanovtyng qyzy Neyla Bekmahanovanyng «Legenda o nevidimke» degen kitabyn oqydynyzdar ma? Oqymapsyzdar. Osy kitapta apamyz «HÝIII ghasyrdyng qyrqynshy-alpysynshy jyldary qazaqtyng iygi jaqsylary óristik jәne jayylymdyq jerlerdi qauym bolyp iyelene bastady. Mysaly... Qabanbay batyr Esil men Núra ózenining boyynda kóship jýrdi» dep jazady. Osy derekti Aqmolalyq ghalym Appolova da qaytalap, Qabanbay batyrmen qaptaldas kerey Qúlsary batyr jәne Abylay kóship jýrdi dep kórsetedi. 1754 jyly Qabanbay batyr shyghystaghy qay jerdi kerey men naymangha bólip beredi? Arqada tabjylmay otyr. Ótkende sony bir derek keldi. Biz orysqa qarsy shaqqan bashqúrttyng Salauyty men Qarasaqalyn ghana aitamyz. Biraq 1755 jyly Batyrsha degen bashqúrt ta kóterilis jasap, aqyry ol da qazaqty panalapty. 1770 jyly orystar olardy Núra boyyndaghy Qabanbay batyr auylynan tabady. Osy jyly ata dýniyeden ótti emes pe. Arqada! Qaydaghy shyghys?

Juyrda Qabanbay batyrdyng atalasy, bәrimizge belgili ghalym, professor  Túrsyn Júrtbay «Arqada Bayjigit, Janjigit atty eki ózen qatar aghyp, Terisaqqangha qúyady, Terisaqqan Esilge. Esil múhiytqa qúyady. Bizding Bayjigit júrty 1916 jylgha deyin «Ýlken ýige sәlem beremiz. Bata alamyz» dep Aqmoladaghy Qabanbay batyr molasyna jyl sayyn arnayy kelip, qúran oqyp túrghan» dep jazdy. Túrsyngha senbeuding esh negizi joq.

Osynsha ghylym doktorlary, Qabanbay batyrdyng kindik tólderi týgel qatelesip jýr me sonda? Joq. Qabanbay batyr, kim ne dese, o desin, Arqada tuyp, Arqada, Núra ózenining boyyna jerlengen. Qalghan sóz – kesauat! Osymen toqtayyn.

Qabdesh agha men Kamal aghanyng sózderin diktofongha tartyp alyp edim, azdy-kópti rettep jazyp otyrmyn. «Ayqyn» Kamal aghany nege jekkórinishti etkisi keldi eken? Esiminen at ýrketin Qabdesh aghadan bir mysqal taysalmay adalyn, bilgenin kózinshe dәleldi jәne týiindi aitty, Kamal agha. Qatesin dәldep kórsetti. Býgin  Qabanbay batyr ghúmyrnamasynan bәrimiz, әsirese, ghylymy orta,  habardarmyz. Bizdi ilandyrmaq niyetpen, qazaq tarihyn búrmalaudyng  esh qajeti joq. Ghalamtorda kereginning bәri iluli. Joq bolsa, ózimiz izdenemiz. Ýlken aghalarymyz bedelin beker tókpese eken. Jón sózge, naqtyly tarihy derekterge moyynúsynu kerek qoy. Onsyz da kenes dәuiri әbden qiiyn ketirigen tarihymyzdy óz qolymyzben býldirmeyikshi.

Ghayny Biahmetova, Áleumettik ghylymdar magistri

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