Sәrsenbi, 7 Jeltoqsan 2022
Áne, kórding be? 7211 6 pikir 2 Aqpan, 2018 saghat 11:04

Qytaydyng diaspora sayasaty. Álem kezip jýrgen 70 million qytay bar

Álemge esigi ashyq әrqanday elding kórshi elderding jaghdayymen jiti tanysqysy keletini qazirgi geosayasattyng daghdysyna ainalghan. Endeshe, irge kórshi, strategiyalyq әriptes QHR jayynda egjey-tegjeyli bilu elimiz ýshin qay jaghynan bolsyn manyzdy.

Qazir dýniyejýzindegi Qytay diasporalarynyng sany 70 milliongha jetip jyghylady. Olardyng keng taraghany sonshalyq, “kýn týsken jerding bәrinde Qytay bar” degen tәmsil taraghan. 16 ghasyrdyng sony Qytaydyng órkendegen dәuiri boldy da, ekonomikasy qaryshtaghan, tehnologiyasy tegeurindi elding óz aulasynan arygha kóz tastap, basqa qúrlyqtargha qol sozugha talpynysy oyandy. Sonday-aq, quatty tenizge jortu tehnikasynyng arqasynda týstik tenizderge jol ashty. Sonymen, auarayy jangha jayly, sharuagha qolayly, túrghyndary siyrek te momaqan týstik úiyqqa - Tynyq múhittyng ontýstik qaptalyna qytaylar molynan aghyla bastady. Sol jerde ósip-óndi. 19 ghasyrdyng ortasyndaghy “baytal túrmaq bas qayghy bolghan” zamanda Qytay diasporasynyng ekinshi tolqyny aldynghylarynyng izimen taghy soltýstik tenizdi betke alyp, bosty. Odan ary qaray dýniyening basqa týkpirlerine tarala bastady. Býgingi Qytay diasporasynyng eng auqymdy shoghyry - 50 millionnan asa halyq osy Ontýstik-Shyghys Aziya memleketterin meken sanaydy. Sonyng ishinde Indoneziyada 16 mln.(el halqynyng 6%), Taylandta 10 mln.(16*), Malayziyada 6 mln.(25%), Birmada 3 mln.,Singapurda 2.8 mln... Osydan keyingi rette Latyn Amerikasy túr. 1978 jylghy “syrtqy esik ashylghannan” keyin jerúiyghyn ansaghan Qytaylardyng ýshinshi legi jersharynyng әr ólkesine bet týzedi. Búl tolqyn negizinen Soltýstik Amerika jәne Europa qúrlyghyna bardy.

“Elu jylda el jana, jýz jylda qazan” demekshi, zamannyng ozuymen Qytay diasporasy da әuelgi kelimsek, qorghansyz qalpynan arylyp, túrghylyqty elderining mәrtebesi zandy, qúqyghy ten, qaltasy qampayynqy azamattaryna ainaldy. Tipti keybir memleketterde sol júrt ekonomikasynyng tiregine ainalyp ýlgerdi. Býginde Tayland, Indoneziya, Singapur syndy elderding ekonomikasynyng kýre tamyry solardyng qolynda. Olar әlemdegi diasporalar ishinde sany qalyn, taralymy ken, ainalyspaytyn salasy joq top bolyp sanalady. Ásirese, Den Siau Pin reformasynan keyingi kóshkinning yqpaly olardyng jeke intellektualdyghynyng joghary, innovasiyalyq әleuetterining quattylyghyna baylanysty artyp, múghajyrlar qauymynyng tirekti kýshi bolyp qalyptasyp keledi. Ayta keterligi, Qytay diasporasynyng Europa, Amerikadaghy toby intellektualdyq basymdyghy aiqyn bolsa, Aziyadaghy toptyng qarjylyq basymdyghy ýstem. Mysaly, AQSh joghary sanatty ghalym-injenerlerining 14%-y osylardyng enshisinde. “Qytay diasporasy ekonomikalyq shenberinin” jalpy baylyghy 3.7 trillion AQSh dollaryn qúrasa, osynyng 87%-y Shyghys-Ontýstik Aziya Qytaylarynyng qolyna shoghyrlanypty. Meyli qay qúrlyqta bolsyn, olardyng arasynan túrghylyqty elderining sayasy elitasyna enip, biylikke kelip jatqandary da kóbeyip keledi.

Bir qyzyghy, kompartiya biylikke kelgennen keyin osynshama bauyrlastan Qytay halqy da, biyligi de resmy týrde ajyrap qalghanymen, olardan beyresmy joldary men tәsilderi arqyly baylanysyn ýzgen emes. Múghajyrlar da tarihy mekenge ansary aughanymen tilekshi niyetterinen asqan emes. Sonyng әserinen bolar, Qytay ótken ghasyrdyng 80-jyldary “ekonomikany reformalau men esikti ashyq ústau” sayasatyn jariyalap, shetelden investor shaqyra bastaghanda, alghash bolyp ýn qatqandar da, órbigen topyraqqa jighan-tergeninen bóliskender de solar boldy. Sol tústa Qytay shetten tartqan investisiyasy kólemimen dýnie jýzindegi №1 oryndy iyelense, sonshama úlanqayyr qarjynyng 70%-dan astamy osy diaspora ýlesine tiyesili ekenin bireu bilse, bireu bilmeydi.

Reformagha deyingi jabyq jyldary Qytay biyligi QKP syrtqa qaratylghan baylanys bólimi, Birliksap ministrligi, shetelmen dostyq assosasiyasy, múghajyrlar birlestigi syndy resmy jәne ÝEÚ arqyly jalpysy bolmasa da, diasporanyng elitalyq tobymen baylanysta bolyp keldi jәne olardy qoldaularyn ýzgen joq.

Syrtqa ashyq esik sayasatyn ústanghannan keyin, yntalandyrghysh zandar, qolayly sayasattyq tetikter, tiyimdi investisiyalyq sharalar qabyldap, diasporanyng kóptep kelulerine, qarjylyq mýmkindikteri men sharuashylyq tәjiriybelerin, qoldaghy tehnikalyq  qarymyn tarihy júrtqa júmsaugha ýgitteuge, soghan tartugha baryn saldy. Nasihattyq, úiymdastyrushylyq, atqarushylyq resurstardy osy baghytqa meylinshe aqtardy. Nәtiyjesinde jabyq qogham jaghdayynda, qaytalanghan nadan әm kórsoqyr sayasy nauqandardyng kesirinen ekonomikasy túralap, halqy qayyrshylanghan, әleumettik әlpeti kýlbettenip, tirsegi qaltyraghan el syrttaghy diasporalarynyng arqasynda el qataryna qosyldy.

“Erulige qaruly” degendey, býginde ensesin tiktegen baquatty el diasporalar qauymdastyghyna bauyrmaldyq pen qamqorlyq jasaudy, onyng mýddesin әspettep, ruhaniy-gumanitarlyq qoldau bildirudi eldik strategiyasyna engizdi. QHR konstitusiyasynda “QHR-nyng diasporalardyng tiyesili qúqyqtary men mýddelerin, elge oralghan diaspora ókilderi men olardyng otbasyndaghylardyng zandy qúqyqtary men mýddelerin qorghaytyndyghy” atap kórsetilgen. Qytaydyng diasporasyn qoldau sayasaty “qytaylyq bolsa boldy, ol bógde el azamaty bolsa da, túlghanyng yqtiyarlyghymen, túqghylyqty elderining jәne halyqaralyq zandardyng ayasynda qamqorlyqqa alynuy tiyis”deytin ústanymdy basshylyqqa alady. Osy negizde aluan baghyttaghy baghdarlamalar iske qosylghan. 2015-jyldan beri diasporalardy iygiliktendiruding 8 iri jospary praktikagha engizilip, atqarylyp keledi. Olar: shetelderde diasporalar úiymdaryna qoldau bildiru, diasporalardyng ózara kómek ortalyqtaryn jasaqtau, Qytay tilin damytugha qol úshyn beru, Qytay taghamdaryn janghyrtu, Qytaydyng óneri men dәstýrin dәripteu, Qytay biznesin әsirese onyng innovasiyalyq baghytyn pәrmendi qoldau, diasporalarman aqparattyq baylanysty ghalamtor jelisimen kýsheytu.

Osy baghdarlamalardyng aqausyz atqaryluyn qamtamasyz etu ýshin ministrlik dәrejesindegi diasporalar kenesi júmys isteydi. Onyng mindeti—diasporalar qyzmetining baghytyn aiqyndau, zan-sayasattyq negizdemesin jasau jәne osylardyng oryndaluyn qadaghalau, diasporalardyng manyzdy sayasattyq, әmәliyattyq mәselelerin zerttep, QKP men ýkimetke kerekti aqparattar jetkizu, damytu josparyn әzirleu, osy baghyttaghy jergilikti mekemelerding sayasatyn qarap qadaghalau, jergilikti qatysty salalar men osyghan sayatyn mekemeler men úiymdardyng júmysyn ýilestiru, diasporalar qatysatyn ekonomikalyq-tehnologiyalyq yntymaqtastyqtardy ýilestiru-úiymdastyru, el ishi-syrtyndaghy, diasporalardyng qúqyq-mýddesin qorghau qatarly auqymdy qyzmetter kiredi.

Endi Qytaydyng diasporalar qyzmetining Qytaydan kelushi qandastarmen qatystylyghyna toqtalayyq. Qytay shetelderdegi diasporalaryn últyna, nәsiline qaramastan, meyli ol hanzu bolsyn, monghol, dungan, qazaq, tiybet, úighyr bolsyn, “Múghajyrlar”(“华侨”)jәne “Qytaylyqtar” (“华人”) syndy eki sanatqa bólip qarastyrady. Múnyng ishinde aldynghysy shetelderde әrtýrli joldarmen nemese sebeptermen úzaq merzimde túryp jatqan, biraq QHR-nyng azamattyghyn saqtaghan azamattar bolyp tabylady. Olardyng sany býginde 7 milliongha juyqtaydy. “Qytaylyqtar” týptegi QHR-nan taraghan, býginderi basy býtin basqa elding azamattary bolyp sanalatyn túlghalardy menzeydi. Olardyng sany 60 millionnan asyp jyghylady. Qytaydyng ústanymynda osy eki toptaghy qauym da últqa, nәsilge bólip qarastyrylmaytyndyqtan, kezinde sonda tuylyp, egemendikten keyin Atajúrtqa qonys audarghan qandastarymyzdyng QR-da Qazaqstan yqtiyarhatymen jýrgenderin “Múghajyrlar”, QR azamattyghyn alghandaryn “Qytaylyqtar” dep sanaydy. Sonday-aq, QHR-nyng kez kelgen shetelderdegi diyasporalaryna kórsetetin qamqorlyqtary jәne iygilikterimen olardy da qamtyghysy keledi. Óte-móte últy qazaq bolghanymen, Qazaqstanda QHR pasportymen (QR yqtiyarhatyn iyelense de) jýrgen qandastarymyzdy Qytaydyng múghajyrlary esebinde tabighy týrde qamqorlyq-qorghauymyzda bolady dep sanaydy. Qazaqstan Respublikasy da qos azamattyqty tanymaytyndyqtan, taza zandyq túrghydan kelgende olardyng múnysy oryndy da.(Reti kelgen song týsindire keteyik, kóptegen qandastarymyz osy “múghajyr” atauynyng mәnin týsinbey jatady. “múghajyr dәlirek aitqanda ‘‘múghajiyr”-- «hijret etushi» degen maghyna beretin arab sózi... Múghajyrlyq, yaghny hijret Adam Atamen birge bastalghan. Al múghajyrlardyng kósh bastaushysy ol Mekkeden Mәdinagha qasyretti de qasiyetti sapar shekken Hazireti Múhammed(s.gh.s). Conymen qatar, ústanghan dini ýshin otanyn tastap, Mekkeden Mәdinagha ýdere kóshuge mәjbýr bolghan sahabalar da “múghajyr sahabalar” dep atalady”.(Darhan Qydyrәli «Mústafa Shoqay»,107-bet). Kezinde sayasy erkine baylanysty elden shettetilip, Europada emigrantta jýrgen Mústafa Shoqay atamyz da ózin múghajyr atap ótken. Osy sózdi ótken ghasyrdyng 80-jyldarynda Qytay qazaqtary janghyrtyp, bir jaqtan bir jaqqa jer audarushylargha qoldanyp, “华侨” atauyn da osy terminmen bergen bolatyn.)

Osydan baryp biraz әngime tuyndaydy, tuyndap ta jatyr. 2016 jyldyng aqyrynan Qytaydyng SUAR aumaghynda bastalghan pasport jinau әlegi osynyng tikeley kórinisi jәne nәtiyjesi. Halyqaralyq tәjiriybede, pasport ony berip otyrghan elding menshigi bolyp tabylady, ony paydalanushy sol elding tikeley qamqorlyghynda bolady. Demek, óz menshigine tiyesili pasportty ony qoldanushydan qaytaryp alu nemese ony qaytyp beru basybýtin QHR tiyisti mekemelerining qúzyryndaghy sharua. Onyng tútynushysy da tolyqqandy QHR azamaty retinde, sol elding zan-erejelerining boysynushysy boluy tiyis. Sondyqtan, QR yqtiyarhaty bolghanymen, QHR pasportymen jýrgen aghayyndarymyzdyng pasportyn Qytaydyng jergilikti ýkimetining jyiyp aluy basy ashyq solardyng zandary ayasynda sheshiletin mәsele. Yqtiyarhat iyelerining birazy osyny týsinbey jýr. Yqtiyarhat QR ýkimetining shetelderdegi qazaqtardyng QR-na kelip-ketuin onaylandyru, elge birtindep ýiirlesu, olardyng elge oraludyng aldynda búrynghy túrghylyqty elindegi tirlikterin rettep alugha múrsat beru ýshin jasaghan jenildik kuәligi. Mәsele Qytaydan kelgen aghayyndarymyzdyng birsypyrasy óz sózderimen aitqanda ózine “saylau-saylanu qúqynan basqanyng bәrin QR azamattyghymen birdey syilaghan” osy kuәlikti tym asyra paydalandy. Ol negizi QR azamattyghyn alugha deyingi merzimdik qamqorlyq tetigi bolsa, onyng merzimin qalaghandarynsha sozyp, Qytay azamattyghynan shyghudy keyinge qaldyra berdi de, býgingi jaghdaygha tap bolyp tyndy. Nәtiyjede, Qytayda anyrap asyraushysyz anasy qalghan; ózi Qytayda qalyp, elge әkelip oqytyp jatqan kәmeletke tolmaghan balasy múnda tanystarynyng qarauyna qaldyrylghan; erdi-zayyptylar “qalqatay sen aryjaqta, men berijaqta” kýige úshyraghan búlang zamangha dushar boldy. Keybir aghayyndar osy tústa “óz basymen qayghy júrtty jazghyrghany nesi”- der. Biraq, dalalyq qazaqilyqty qoyyp, zanmen ómir sýruge, әr nәrsening bayybyna baryp әreket qyludy ýirenetin, soghan daghdylanatyn zaman jetken syyaqty! Áli de bolsa azamattyq alugha mýmkindigi bar aghayyndar osydan oy qorytyp, sabaq alsa eken deymiz.

Qytaydyng diaspora sayasatynan el biyligining de, bylayghy aghayynnyng da sabaq alatyn, sózding shynyna kóshkende, ýirenetin tústary mol. Eng әueli Qytay elining alystan oilaytyn kóregendiginen, qandasyna qayyrymdylyghynan ýlgi alsaq edi. Bes ghasyr búryn bógde mekenge au jaya bastaghan bauyrlarynan Qytay eli qanday biylik - feodaldyq handyqtan burjuaziyalyq respublikagha, onan kommunistik dikaturagha - auyssa da baylanysyn ýzgen emes. Qarymy әlsiz kezde sәlemin bolsa da ayamaghan El quaty úshtalghan shaghynda bauyrlarynyng mýddesin Atazangha jazyp túryp qorghap qana qoymay, olardy da jogharyda bayandaghanymyzday el mýddesi iygiligine qyzmet ettirip otyr. Qytaydyng sonda túratyn qazaqtargha qysymy taqyrybynyng jyrlanghanyna jylgha juyqtady. Osyghan jauap beretin mekememiz SIM búl jaydan habardar. Qandastarymyzdyng mýddesine dep qúrylghan qoghamdyq úiymdar bastap, belsendi azamattar qostap, basyna is týsken kisiler shulap, bolyp jatqan jaghday jetkizilgen, biraq qúzyrly mekemeden “әriptesterimizding nazaryna joldadyq”, “zerdelep jatyrmyz”degennen ary jauap ala almay otyrmyz. Negizinde strategiyalyq әriptes el salauatymen, sauatty da saliqaly týrde, eki jaqtyng mýddelestik tegershikterin eskerte otyryp, Qytaytanushy mamandardyng kenesin qaperge ala, jýieli aqyldassa, osy kýnge deyin ondy bolmaghan kýnning ózinde túshymdy jauap alugha bolar edi.

Onan keyin, arnayy shetelderdegi qandastarmen júmys isteytin mekeme qúzyrlap, sol arqyly olardyng ruhani, mәdeni, adami, intellektilik qajettilikterin bilu, soghan say eldik jәrdem baghyttau, qysqasy solardyng mún-múqtajyn qadaghalap otyru Eldik paryzymyz boluy kerek. Alayda osynday shanyraqqa jarymay-aq qoydyq. Mysalgha Qytaydyng janaghy múghajyrlar kensesin atadyq, onyng úlanqayyr mindetin de tizbelep kórsettik (Ministrlik mindeti bar mekemeni kense atymen atau da tym saqtyqpen ershimdi oilastyrylghan sharua). “Resey bizdegi túqymdastaryn qorghaghaly jatyr”, “Qytay elimizge diasporasyn qaptatqaly jatyr” dep ozandatqannan kóri, osylardyng istegenderin biz qanday jol-jobamen syrttaghy aghayyndarymyzdy qoldaugha paydagha jaratu tetikterin zerttep-zerdeleuimiz lәzim. Shyn mәninde, Reseyding túrghysynan qaraghanda ol zaghdy da. Ghasyrlar boyy shengeldep kelgen yqpal ayasynan aiyrylyp qalmas ýshin, búrynghy “bauyryndaghy” elderdegi diasporalarynyng mýddesin qorghau jeleuimen sol elderde “qala túru”, mynau basqalardyn “óz tabaghyna” kóz sýzip, al oghan qol saldyrmaugha qauqary ketip túrghan almaghayyp zamanda, tipti de kerek tәsil. Qytaydyng niyeti ekibastan әidik. Jerge de, onyng qoynauyna da, sugha da, soqqan jel men týsken kýnge de derlik zәru Qytaygha mynanday sayyn aimaq otyrsa oiynan, jatsa týsinen ketpes inkәrlik ekeni sóz zaya ketirmes aqiqat! Kýsh pen qarudyng zamany ótken. Endigi seneri qarjy, mәdeniyet, tehnologiya, emigrasiya. Sondyqtan da “Bir beldeu-Bir jol” bastamasy kóterildi, sondyqtan da Konfusey instituttary qúrylyp jatyr, sondyqtan da elimizge Djek Ma (Ma yun) kelip “qydyryp” ketti, basqa sýt súray kelgensip shelegin jasyrghandar kóbeydi.

Búlardyng bizge berer eki taghylymy bar. Birinshisi, ózimizdi elding ornyna qoyyp oilau әdiskerligin ýirenuge jeteleydi. Elding syrtynan baybalamdap, ýrke bergennen góri, ózimizdi solardyng ornynda túryp oilanugha, әlemge solardyng niyeti men mýddesinen ýniluge, solardyng jasaghan jýrisining saldaryn payymdaugha daghdylansaq útarymyz kóp bolar edi. Ekinshisi, jәne osydan tuyndaydy, shetelderdegi qandastarymyzdy qamqorlyqqa aludyng tújyrymdamasyn jasap, tetikterin bekitip, El bolyp solardyng mýddelerine jauapkershilikti bekemdeu men olardy Otangha qyzmet ettiruding ilgekterin tapqyrlauymyz shart. Mysaly, Qytay tәjiriybesi. Olar atalghan kense arqyly dýnie jýzindegi barlyq diasporasymen kýndelikti baylanys jasap otyr, әrtýrli syltaularmen solargha barady, olardy shaqyrady, solar arqyly túrghylyqty elding biyligimen tildesedi, kelisimderge qol jetkizedi, tipti solar arqyly olar túrghan elmen diplomotikalyq baylanysyn ústap otyr.

Múnan syrt, qaryndasqa janashyr qauym, óte-móte sol jaqtan kelgen tuysqannyng eskereri: mәseleni zerdelemey, isting bayybyna barmay pikir aitatyn danghazalyqtan, júrtpen ilese shabatyn danghoylyqtan, faktpen sanaspaytyn úrda-jyqtyqtan, ósekke ere ketkish payymsyzdyqtan aulaq bolsaq edi.

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