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Din men tin 44769 40 pikir 12 Shilde, 2018 saghat 01:59

«Alash Ordany» tútas halyqtyn qoldamauynyn astarynda din problemasy jatyr

Dinnin qogham ómirindegi rólin baghalay almau, sanaspau әr kezde qoghamdaghy sheshilui tiyis mәselenin ontayly sheshiluine kedergi bolyp jatady. Osy týsinikten osy kýnge deyin aryla almay kele jatqan jayymyz bar. Osy qatelikti kezinde Alash qayratkerleri de basynan ótkergenin sol kezendegi qazaq qoghamyndaghy diniy-ruhani ýderisterge taldau jasaghanda týsine alamyz. Áriyne, ol kezendegi qazaqtyn diniy tanymynyn ózinde bir izdilik bolmaghanyn da eskeruimiz kerek. Ruhaniy tútastyghy әlsiregen halyqtyn syrttan týrli aghymdar jeteginde ketetini belgili jayt. «Alash» partiyasy qayratkerlerinin tútas halyqty júmyldyryp, sondaryna erte almauynyn astarynda osy din mәselesi jatqandyghyna әli kónil bólgenimiz joq.

Osy mәseleni terenirek qozghap, qazaq dalasyndaghy 17-19 ghgh. diniy-ruhani ýderisterge taldau jasaytyn bolsaq, onda diniy faktordyn alashtyqtardyn azattyq jolyndaghy kýresinde kedergi keltirgenine kóz jetkizuge bolady. Nege? Osy súraqqa jauap beru ýshin songhy ýsh-ghasyrdaghy diniy-ruhani ýderisterge taldau jasau qajettigi tuady.

Qazaq halqynyn ruhaniy tútastyghynyn jikteluinin basy Esim hannan bastalyp, Tәuke hannyn «Jeti jarghysymen» ayaqtalghany, Yasauiy joly ókilderi-qojalardy ruhaniy sayasiy biylik jýyesinen shettetip, olardyn ruhaniy basshylyqtaghy ornyn naqshbandiya tariqaty ókilderine, rulyq taypalyq jýyedegi basshylyqtaghy ornyn әr rudyn taypanyn ózinen shyqqan ókilderge berui boldy. Nәtiyjesinde qazaq halqynyn ruhaniy tútastyghy ydyrady. Naqshbandiya tariqatyn tolyghymen qabyl etken ru-taypalar ózbektendi. Qazaqstannyn Ontýstik ónirlerin mekendeytin ózbek halqy osy sayasiy-ruhaniy reformanyn jemisi. Memlekettin qúrylymdyq jýyesi búzyldy. Búrynghy qara – qoja – tóreden túratyn memlekettin basqaru jýyesi ydyrap, onyn ornyna hannyn absolyuttik biyligine negizdelgen jýye qalyptastyryldy. Búl qazaq halqynyn ruhaniy tútastyghyn ydyratugha baghyttalghan әrekettin jeniske jetui edi. Múnyn sony qazaq halqynyn Jonghar shapqynshylyghy kezeninde ózinen sany az halyqtan oysyray jeniluine әkelgeni belgili. Abylay hannyn dәstýrli qazaq qoghamyn qayta qalpyna keltirmek bolghan әreketi sәtsiz ayaqtalyp, múnyn sony ol kisinin dýniyeden ketuimen ayaqtaldy. Qazaq dalasyndaghy osy tike-tiresti jiti baqylap otyrghan Resey patshalyghy sol 18 ghasyrdyn ekinshi jartysynda ózinin sayasiy maqsatyna tiyimdi paydalanghysy keldi. Úzaq jyldargha sozylghan zertteu júmystary arqasynda, otarshyldar, qazaq qoghamynyn ruhaniy tútastyghyn ydyratpay túryp, ony tolyghymen sayasiy túrghydan iygeru mýmkin emestigin ayqyn sezindi. Orys zertteushileri ol kezende qazaq dalasyn sharlap, onyn әdet-ghúryp, salt-dәstýrin, jalpy ruhani, mәdeniy bolmysyn býge-shigesine deyin zertteude bolatyn.  Búl Resey imperiyasynyn Qazaq handyghy tarihtan ketpey túryp, qazaq dalasyn dini-iydelogiyalyq túrghydan iygeruge baghyttalghan әreketke kirisuine mýmkindik berdi. Ol әreket Ufa jәne Simbirsk namestniygi O.A. Ingelistromnyn úsynysyna sәykes II Ekaterinanyn jarlyghy boyynsha Ufa qalasynda músylman diniy basqarmasynyn 1789 jyly ashyluynan bastaldy. Sóytip, alghash ret qazaq dalasyn diniy-ruhaniy túrghydan iygeruge baghyttalghan Resey imperiyasynyn sayasaty iske qosyldy. Ol diniy basqarma Orynbor muftiyligi dep ataldy[1.104]. Maqsaty – qazaq dalasyn dini, ruhaniy túrghydan ydyratu, músylmandardyn diniy negizde bas kóterulerinin aldyn alu edi. Ol ýshin arnayy osy maqsatqa dayyndalghan moldalar qazaq halqynyn dәstýrli dinine qayshy keletin uaghyzdar jýrgizuge tiyis boldy. Olar qazaq arasyna kirip, qazaqtyn dәstýrli diniy tanymynan ajyratugha, tanym negizderin ózgertuge kýsh saldy. Ol moldalardy qazaq arasynda «zakaznoy moldalar» dep atady. Óytkeni, әrbir qazaq auly olardyn oqyghan qarajaty men ózge shyghyndaryn tólep, satyp alatyn. Orynbor muftiyligi qazaq arasynda ózinin múnday ruhani ydyratushylyq baghytyndaghy әrektinin auqymyn myna sifrlardan-aq kóruimizge bolady. XVIII ghasyr sonynda qazaq arasynda Resey imperiyasynyn sayasatyn jýrgizetin 28 ahun, 969 molda, 114 meshit, 1921 mudarris boldy [1.105]. Olardyn qazaq halqynyn dәstýrli diniy tanymyna qarsy әreketin qazaq ziyalylary kórmey qalghan joq. Olar qarsy әreket etti. Diniy túlghalar qazaq halqynyn ruhaniy tәuelsizdigin saqtap qalugha kýsh saldy. Múny biz Kenesary hannyn Resey patshalyghyna qarsy kýresin qoldaghan Maral ishan mysalynda kóre alamyz. Onyn qazaq halqynyn tәuelsizdigin saqtap qalu jolyndaghy әreketi, tek dini uaghyzben ghana shektelip qalmay, qolgha qaru alyp kýresuge de shaqyrdy. Qazaq jerinin soltýstiginde tuylghan Maral ishan Reseydin otarshyl sayasatymen  kýrese jýrip, Syr boyyna kelip, túraqtaydy. Sayasiy kýreste jene almasyn sezgen ol qazaq halqynyn ruhaniy tәuelsizdin saqtap qalugha kýsh salady. Ol din isterin Reseymen emes, Búharamen baylanystyrghandy jón sanady. Búl әreket óz jemisin berdi[2]. Qazaq dalasynyn ontýstik ólkesinin halqy diniy qyzmetkerlerdi Búhara qalasynda oqytudy qolgha aldy. Búl әreket Syr ónirinde keninen etek jaydy desek artyq aytqandyq emes. Oghan Maral ishan әrekti tikeley yqpal etkenine dau joq. Búhara qalasyndaghy medreselerde oqyp, qazaq arasyna qayta oralghan túlghalardyn qazaq halqynyn ruhaniy ósuinin kezekti baspaldaghynyn biri bolghany anyq. En bastysy, Búhara qalasyna barghan jastardyn aldymen «Mir Arab» medresesine baruynyn ózi jas talapkerdin ózge dini aghym sonyna ermeuin qadaghalap, diniy tanymyn qalyptastyryp baryp, ózge oqu oryna auysatynyn kóremiz. Óytkeni, «Mir Arab» medresesinin negizin qalaghan, saldyrghan Yasauiy jolynyn ortaghasyrlardaghy kórnekti ókili, Múhammed Shaybaniy hangha pir bolghan, Sauran qojalarynyn ókili bolatyn. Ol jerde 20 ghasyr basyna deyin Yasauiy joly negizinde bilim berilip keldi. Bilim aludy osy oqu ornynan bastaghan jastar odan keyingi oqu oryndarynda qansha bilim alsa da, ózge aghym sonyna ilese qoymaytyn. Sol sebepti, Búhara qalasynda oqyp, bilim alghan Syr boyy ahundarynyn oy-pikirleri qazaqtyn dәstýrli diniy tanymynan alshaq bolghan joq. Ony Syr boyy ahundarynyn mysalynan kóre alamyz. Alayda, qazaq halqynyn ishinde olargha da kýdikpen qaraghanyn kóremiz. Oghan mysal retinde Bazar jyraudyn Qaljan ahungha arnaghan myna óleninen kóruge bolady:

Jany ardaqty jaqsynyn,

Kýnde biri ólsin der.

«Janazasyn oqy» -dep-

Shaqyrushy kelsin!-der.

«Sqat, Qúran shygharyp,

Mal men mýlkin bólsin!» der.

Sol bólingen oljadan,

«Ózgelerden kóbirek,

Sybaghama bersin!» der.

Búl moldalar tilegi. [3.162]              

Biraq, Búhara qalasynda oqu bitirip kelgen diniy túlghalardyn kópshiligi Resey tarapynan dayyndalghan moldalardan ýlken ereksheligi boldy. Olardyn dýniye, mal ýshin emes, halyqtyn ruhaniy tútastyghyn qalyptastyrugha, ózgelerdin ruhani yqpalyna týsip qalmaudyn aldyn alu ýshin qyzmet etkenin kóremiz. Oraz-Múhammed ahun Beketayúly, Aldashbay ahun Ernazarúly, Qaljan ahun Bólekbayúly siyaqty túrghalar qazaq halqynyn ruhaniy tәuelsizdigin saqtap qalu jolyndaghy naghyz kýreskerler boldy. Búlardyn enbekterinin arqasynda «Syr sýleyleri» degen atqa ie bolghan aqyn-jyraular shoghyry dýniyege keldi desek artyq aytqandyq emes. Sonymen qatar, Búhara medreselerinen bilim alghan týlekter arasynda qazaq ruhaniyatyna jana serpin, jana lep әkelegen túlghalar kóp boldy. Mysaly, Túrmaghambet syndy túlghalar arab, parsy halyqtaryndaghy inju-marjandardy qazaq tanymyna say qayta jyrlap, qazaqtyn ruhaniy bolmysynyn ayasyn kenitti. Qazaq halqynyn Resey patshalyghynyn dini-iydeologiyalyq sayasatyna qarsylyghy Syr boyy men Ontýstik ónirlerde osynday sipat alsa, soltýstik jaghynda tikeley qarsylyqqa úlasyp jatty. Halyq «zakaznoy moldalardy» dindi búzdyn dep, auyldardan qughany Qúbanghaliy Halid enbekterinde jazylghan. Onyn sony jalpy qazaq halqynyn ózderin muftiylik qúramynan shygharu turaly patshagha aryz jazugha úlasqanyn kóruge bolady. Patsha ókimeti qazaq halqynyn osy aryzyn paydalanyp, qazaq halqyn hristian dinine ótkizuge әreket jasaydy. Belgili qazaqtan shyqqan islam dininin kórnekti qayratkeri Saduaqas Ghylmanidyn «Qazaq halqynyn Nikolaygha qarsy shyghuy, ony bastaushy Shaymerden Qosshyghúlovtyn tarihiy ghúmyrnamasy» atty maqalasynda qazaq halqynyn ózinin diniy tanymyn qalay qorghaghany jazylghan. Oqigha bylay bayandalady: «Óytkeni, patsha qolyndaghy Bas Arhiyereyin jiberipti. Sol búyryq boyynsha auylnay men bolystar, biyler әr stansiya basyna bes ýy tigip, 80 at, 100 qoy soyysty dayarlap qoyyp, ózderi 10 qoydan jep, kýtip jatady. Arhiyerey uyezdik nachalinik Kanaualov (Kanovalov) degennin ýyine týsip, 1200 qazaqty shirkeu týbine jinap qoyyp, Kupryan degen orysty tilmash qylyp, altynday jarqyraghan kiyimin kiyip shyghyp: «Qazaq halqyn músylman dep muftiyge qaratqan әuelgi jaqsy basshylarynyz agha súltan ózderinizdin sәbetteriniz boyynsha: «Bizge muftiydin keregi joq. Biz әdet zanymen túramyz» dep bizge aryz bergen. Sol tilek boyynsha sizderdi muftiyden shygharghan. Osy kýnde sizder dinsiz túrsyzdar! Sol sebepti sizderdi aq patshanyz jaqsy, anyq dinge salugha jiberdi. Óytkeni, memleket sizderge din tauyp beruge mindetti. Endi sizderdin din turaly úlyqtarynyz - men. Óz tilderinmen jazdyryp, altyn din kitabyn alyp keldim» [4, 62-63  bb.]. Osy maqalada aytylghan, tatar moldalaryna qarsy shyghugha sebep bolyp jýrgen «әdet zany» qazaq halqynyn diniy dýniyetanymynyn ózegi bolghan Yasauiy joly bolatyn. Kezinde belgili jazushy Sәbit Múqanov qazaq halqynyn әdet-ghúrpy turaly ózinin «Han qazyq, biy toqpaq» atty maqalasynda bylay dep jazdy: «Qazaqtar islam dinin týgel qabyldaghannan keyin, әdet zanyna sharighat ýkimi aralasty. Múnday zandylyq arabtardan bastap músylman elderinin bәrinde bar. Arabtar әdet zanyn – tariqat, din zanyn – sharighat – dep ataydy. Ózge músylmandar da solay ataydy. Qazaqta sharighattan tariqat basym boldy. Búl zandy qoldaushylar biyler» [5, 82 b.]. Búl qazaq halqynyn ózinin dәstýrli diniy tanymy men әdet-ghúrpy, salt-dәstýrin qalay qorghaghanyn kórsetedi.

Qazaq dalasyndaghy Resey patshalyghynyn diniy-ruhaniy saladaghy qysymyna qarsy kýres múnymen ayaqtalghan joq. XIX ghasyr sony men XX ghasyr basynda býkil Evraziya músylmandaryn týgel qamtyghan jәdidshildik atty qozghalysqa úlasty. Olar toqyraugha týsken músylman halyqtaryn oyatyp, Islam әlemin jana satygha kóteremiz degen ýmitte boldy. Alayda búl jәdidshildik qozghalystyn týbi óz bastauyn Abd al-Uahhab Najdiy negizin salghan uahhabiylikten alatynyn ol kezde kópshilik bile qoyghan joq. Sol kezdin ózinde búl aghymnyn qaterli ekendigin kóre bilgen Islam ghúlamalary olardy әshkereledi. Mysaly, daghystandyq ghúlama Abd al-Hafiz Uhliy ózinin bir shygharmasynda jadidshiler turaly bylay deydi: «Vtoroe techenie — eto gruppa djadidov. (Birinshisi uahhabiylik) Ono nazyvaetsya obnovlencheskoy partiyey (hizb al-djadiyd). Ego osnoval samyi vredonosnyi seyateli smuty shayh Djamal ad-din al-Afgani. I eto naibolee vrajdebnoe techenie po otnosheniyu k posledovatelyam istinnogo islama, i ono vo mnogo raz bolee vrednoe iy sbivayushee s pravednogo putiy v etom islamskom miyre, chem pervoe techeniye. Djamal ad-din al-Afganiy zahotel vnestiy smutu v religiyu v Afganistane, to praviyteli Afganistana izgnal ego iz svoih zemeli. V 1286 godu hidjry, Djamal ad-din al-Afgani otpravilsya v Egiypet. On jil v uniyversiytete “al-Azhar”, obuchalsya tam iy nachal rasprostranyati zlo iy zablujdeniye. Vtoroy seyateli smuty — eto Muhammad ‘Abdo. Ego duhovnaya jizni proshla v slujeniiy shaytanu iy v ispolneniiy [del], protivorechashih religii» [6]. Búl aghymnyn jaqtaushylary uahhabiylerge tәn tanymmen sopylyq jolgha, halyqtyn dәstýrli senim negizderine qarsy shyqty. Oghan mysal retinde Ghúmar Qarashtyn myna ólenin keltire alamyz:

Sopysyp nadan jýrgeni-

Qanahagha kirgeni.

Qúlash jarym tas tizip,

Moynyna orap ilgeni.

Shartyn bilmey qoldanyp,

Shatasyp әbden býlgeni.

Riyazat shegip úyyqtamay,

Karamat týrli kórgeni.

Hluette zikir aytam dep,

Tiriley kórge kirgeni.

Múnyn bәrin oylasam,

Nadandyqtyn kelgeni [7, 52-53 bb.].

Jәditshildik baghyttyn dәstýrli din negizderine osynday qayshy keletin tústarynyn barlyghyna qaramastan   búl joldy qoldamaghan XX ghasyr basyndaghy músylman halyqtarynan shyqqan intelliygensiya ókilderi bolghan joq dep aytsa bolady. Mysaly, “Islam tuday. ru” jariyalanghan indiyalyq tarihshy Abuzar Hayriy maqalasynda bylay deydi: «V serediyne devyatnadsatogo veka eto dviyjenie (djadidizm) rasprostranilosi srediy musuliman Rossiiy s seliyu ih prosvesheniya. Djadidity podnyaliy svoiy golosa v polizu izmeneniya (politiki) izolyasiiy (musuliman ot ostalinogo mira). Oniy borolisi protiv ogranichennosti islamskogo bogosloviya iy za vvedenie svetskih predmetov v uchebnyi plan musulimanskih obrazovatelinyh uchrejdeniyy. Takie intellektualy kak Abdul Nasir ali-Kursavi, Shahabuddin ali-Mardjani, Husayn Faizhan, Shamsuddin Kulitesi, Muhammad Nasir Tunteri, Ziyauddin Kemali, Alimdjan Barudi iy Musa Djarullah byliy vydayushimiy lichnostyamiy vo vremya nachala boriby za prosvesheniye. Ih sobstvennaya tradisionnaya sistema maktabov (nachalinoe obrazovaniye) iy medrese (srednee obrazovaniye) obespechila mnojestvo obrazovannyh i izvestnyh uchenyh. No k konsu 19-ogo stoletiya obrazovaniye, poluchaemoe v etih uchrejdeniyah, stalo bolee uzkim iy provinsialinym, v to je vremya eto bylo bespolezno dlya ekonomicheskogo razvitiya.» [8]. Osy mәseleni terenirek zerttegen tatar zertteushilerinin kózqarasy, kerisinshe, jәditshildikke teris kózqarastary qalyptasa bastaghanyn kóruge bolady. Onyn sebebi, jәditshildik kózqarastyn týpki shyghu tegin anyqtaghan son ghana, búl baghyttyn halyqtyn diniy tanymy negizderine keri yqpalyn sezine bastady. Ol turaly osy jәditshildikke baylanysty ótkizilgen arnayy otyrysta qarastyrylghan bolatyn. Sol otyrysta Reseydin strategiyalyq zertteuler institutynyn Privoljskiy bóliminin basshysy Rays Sulaymanov bylay degen bolatyn: «Vtoraya polovina XIX v istoriiy Rossiyskoy imperiiy harakterizovalisi ekonomicheskim podemom, burnym razvitiyem promyshlennosti, chto priyvelo razlojeniyu tradisionnogo obshestva. Vsledstvie etogo vozniklo dva moshnyh politicheskih techeniya - liyberalinoe iy konservativnoe. Eto yavlenie samo po sebe bylo svoystvenno ne toliko russkomu obshestvu, no iy mnogim narodam, naselyayushim rossiyskuyu derjavu. Ne byli isklyucheniyem iy tatary, v srede kotoryh poyavilisi dva obshestvenno-politicheskih dviyjeniya - djadidizm (ot arab. ali-djadid - novyi metod) iy kadimizm (ot arab. kadim - drevniyy, staryi). Sootvetstvenno, priyverjensev pervogo techeniya nazyvaliy djadidistami iliy djadidami, priyverjensev vtorogo - kadimistami. Poyavlenie oboih napravleniy tatarskoy obshestvennoy mysliy pervonachalino bylo svyazano s sistemoy obrazovaniya, gde djadidy vystupaliy storonnikamiy ego sekulyarizasii, v to vremya kak kadimisty byliy ego protivnikami iy vystupaliy za sohranenie tradisionnoy sholasticheskoy pedagogiki. Odnako k rubeju nachala HH veka i osobenno posle revolyusiiy 1905-1907 gg. oba techeniya oformilisi iz sugubo didaktiko-pedagogicheskih v obshestvenno-politicheskie iy religioznye dviyjeniya. Sootvetstvenno, djadidy vystupaliy v kachestve storonnikov evropeizasiiy tatarskogo obshestva, v politicheskoy sfere oriyentirovalisi na razlichnye «reformistskiye» politicheskie iydeologiiy (ot kadetov i eserov do bolishevikov), v to vremya kak kadimisty byliy priyverjensamiy konservatizma v forme pravogo monarhizma. [9].  Búl jerde R.Sulaymanovtyn mәseleni dúrys qoyyp otyrghanyn kóruimizge bolady.   Áriyne, jadidshilerdin dini oqu oryndaryna ghylymiy pәnderdi engizui, sol kezendegi sayasi-ekonomikalyq talaptargha jauap bergeni ras.  Búl ýderisten 19 ghasyrdyn sony men 20 ghasyr basyndaghy qazaq zialy qauym ókilderinin de búl ýderisten syrt qalmaghanyn kóremiz. Qazaq zertteushilerinin arasynda jәdidshildik kózqarasqa qazirgi kýnge deyin on bagha berip kelgenin aytugha tiyispiz. Mysaly, D. Qamzabekúly búl baghytty arnayy tújyrymdama retinde baghalaghan: «Jәdidshildik – birynghay sayasiy sipatty qozghalys emes, ol aghartu isi men ruhaniyatty tútastay qamtyghan iydeyalyq negizi bar konsepsiya, әri aghym. Konsepsiya bolatyn sebebi, onda dara aghartushylardyn oylaryna taban tiregen, iydeya men tәjiriybenin arasyn qosqan kózqarastar jýyesi bar. Al, aghym boluynyn mәnisi, ol belgili kezende Resey músylmandaryna aghartudyn bir jolyn, biraq tiyimdi jolyn kórsetti» [10, 33 b.].  Jәditshilder turaly múnday kózqaras basqa zertteushiler tarapynan da qoldau tapqanyn kóremiz. «Alash» partiyasynyn ókili Ghúmar Qarashtyn diniy kózqarasyn zerttegen B.Tayyrova Ghúmar Qarash dýniyetanymyn zerttey kele, mynaday qorytyndygha keledi: «Jәdidshildik – týrkilik әleumettik-etikalyq kenistikte payda bolghan jәne islamnyn auqymyndaghy ruhaniy janghyru jolyndaghy әleumettik subektilerdin әreketterinin jiyntyghy. Onyn týpki astary aghartushylyq prinsipteri arqyly qogham men adamdy jetildiru» [11, 35 b.]. Jalpy, tәuelsizdikten keyingi jәditshildik kózqarasqa qatysty jýrgizilgen zertteu júmystarynyn barlyghy derlik búl qozghalystyn sol kezendegi iygi yqpalyna toqtalady. Biz ony ÚGhA Filosofiya jәne dintanu GhZIY-i tarapynan jariyalanghan «Ghúmar Qarash» atty jinaqta jәditshildik baghyt-baghdaryna taldau jasay kele avtorlar mynaday qortyndygha keledi: «Osynday әr tarapty týsindirmeler men kózqarastardy negizge alsaq, bizdinshe, Qazaq jerindegi jәdidshildiktin dәstýrli islamnan nemese qadimshyldyqtan basty ayyrmashylyghy men negizgi erekshelikteri mynaday: 1. Islam dini men últtyq iydeyany kiriktirudi negizge alady. Búl ýndestiktin ózin ýsh baghytta ajyratyp kórsetip beruimizge bolady: birinshisi, músylman dininin iydeyalyq birligin, retteushilik qyzmetin últtyq ruhty óristetuge qoldanudyn ózindik bir ýlgisin jasap beredi. Ekinshisi, «músylman» men «últ» úghymynyn eshqaysysyna basymdylyq bermey, qatar alyp jýrudi jәne ony ómirlik tәjiriybede qatan saqtaudy ústanady. Ýshinshisi, últtyq birlik pen ruhty paydalana otyryp, islam dinine bet búrudy qoldaydy. Sondyqtan olar el ishindegi sayasiy-әleumettik mәselelerge belsendi týrde aralasyp otyrudy da joqqa shygharmaydy, tipti niyetimen qalaydy» [12, 68 b.]. Jәditshildiktin sol kezendegi qazaq qoghamyndaghy rolin búlay baghalau, kitap avtorlarynyn diniy-ruhani ýderister tarihy men olardyn baghyt-baghdaryn dúrys saraptay almaghandyghyn kórsetedi. Mysaly, Saduaqas Ghylmanidyn «Zamanymyzda bolghan ghúlamalardyn ghúmyr tarihtary» atty shygharmasynda qazaq dalasyndaghy din ghúlamalarynyn kópshiligi jәditshildikti qoldamaghanyn kóruimizge bolady. Ol turaly atalghan shygharmada kóptegen mysaldar bar. Olardyn barlyghyna taldau jasamay-aq, bireuine toqtalsaq, qazaq ishinde jәditshildikke qarsylyqtyn pәrmendi bolghanyn kóruimizge bolady. Mysaly, Arqagha aty mәlim bolghan qadym baghytynyn ókili Nauan Hazirettin myna jazghandary sonyn dәleli. Ol kisi: «Usul-iy jadid deganlariy 73 fiyrqanyn fiyrqa-iy najiyadan basqa bir bad fiyrqanyn zahib bolghan mazhabiy-dýr. Hususan, bad mazhabynyn payda bolghan ibtidasy Hasan Basriy zamanynda-dýr», dep, usul-iy jadittin shyghu negizin mughtazila aghymymen baylanystyrady[13, 194 b.]. Qadymshylardy da qabyl etpeytin qazaqtyn dәstýrli diniy tanymyn ústanghan aqyn-jyraular toby bolghandyghyn biz jogharyda aytyp óttik. Egerde sol kezendegi barlyq diniy baghyttardyn arajigin ajyratyp, ol baghyttardaghy erekshelikterge taldau jasay otyryp, qortyndysyn shygharghanda avtorlardyn tújyrymy basqasha bolghan bolar edi.  Olar, kerisinshe, óz oylaryn mynaday tújyrymmen odan әri bekite týsedi: «Endeshe, jәdidshildik – islamdyq sholastika men radikaldy, keritartpa baghyttargha qarsy әrbir dәuirdin zamanaui-ondy qúndylyqtarynan tys qalmaudy kózdeytin músylman dinindegi iykemdelgish-túraqty qalypty qatar alyp jýrudi quattaytyn dualistik sipatty, barynsha әmbebap konseptualdy, dinnen tamyr tútas tartqan iydeya dep tújyrymdauymyzgha bolady.» [12, 70 b.].

Áriyne, jәditshilerdin diniy sholastikadan bas tartyp, ghylym-bilimge qaray jastardy baghyttauyn dúrys dep baghalaugha bolady. Alayda, olardyn halyqtyn dәstýrli diniy tanym negizderine qarsy shyghuy halyqtyn kópshiligi tarapynan qoldau tappady. Ol zandy da. Jәditshiler týgil, qadymshylardyn ózin qabyl ete qoymaytyn qazaq qoghamynyn ózindik ereksheligi bolghandyghyn týsine almay kele jatqan jayymyz bar. Ol erekshelik – Yasauiy mәdeniyeti atalghan ruhaniy әlem bolatyn. Manghystau jyraulary, Syr sýleyleri, Qaratau atyrabynyn aqyndary, Abay, Shәkәrim, Mәshhýr Jýsip sol mәdentiyettin ókilderi boldy jәne búlardyn  qazaq arasyna ruhani yqpaly zor edi. Kez-kelgen últ-azattyq qozghalys ózinin is-әreketin halyqtyn ruhaniy-mәdeniy bolmysymen sabaqtastyra jýrgizbeytin bolsa, onda ol qozghalystyn yqpaly halyq arasynda pәrmendi bolmaytyny belgili. Osy orayda, kóp bóligi jәditshildik iydeyasymen sabaqtas bolghan Alashtyqtardyn qazaq qoghamymen etene aralasuyna olardyn ústanghan iydeyalyq baghyty kedergi bolghan siyaqty. Biz múny M.Dulatúlynyn «Mudәrris әpendige jazghan bir mәtbuim» atty óleninen bayqaymyz. Ol óleninde ol kisi bylay deydi:

«Tandaghy tәnirden» dep bizdin qazaq,

Jetti ghoy týbimizge sol ghafilat.

Qaranghy bir sarayda qamaudamyz,

Esigin kim ashady, búl jahalat? [13].

Búl jerde M.Dulatúlynyn qazaq qoghamynyn artta qaluynda qazaqy bolmystyn boykýyezdigin, nadandyghyn әshkerelep otyrghanyn kóremiz. Áriyne, búl jerde Mirjaqyp Dulatovtyn qazaqqa jany ashyp, qazaq qoghamyn qaytsem oyatamyn degen úmtylysyn kóruge bolady. Dinge qatysty ekinshi bir óleni «Qazaq halqyna diniy bir uaghyz» dep atalady. Búl ólende qazaq arasyna «zakaznoy moldalardyn» qajettigin, olardy satylyq jýyemen bir-birine baghyndyra otyryp, diniy qúrylym jýyesin qúrsa, sonda halyqtyn diniy ústanymy dúrys bolar edi degen pikirdi aytady. Alayda, ol úmtylys qazaqqa ózge halyqtyn ruhaniy-mәdeni yqpalyn arttyru arqyly emes, sol qazaqtyn ishki ruhaniy quatyn arttyru arqyly jýrgizu kerektigin týsinbedi. Onyn ýstine búl ústanymnyn qazaq bolmysyna say kele bermeytinin eskere bermeydi. Mine, búl baghyttaghy ústanymdar jalpy Alashtyqtargha ortaq bolghan siyaqty.  Búl mәseleni tereninen qozghap, әli jauaby tabylmaghan súraqtargha jauap beru ýshin әli kóp zertteu júmystary jýgizilip, jauap berilui tiyis. Alayda, biz aytyp otyrghan mәseleler Alash qayratkerlerinin últ-azattyq jolyndaghy kýresinin mәni men manyzyn tómendete almaydy. Kerisinshe, Alashtyqtar ózderinin últ-azattyq qozghalysyn qazaq ruhaniatymen sabaqtastyra jýrgizgende jenilmegen bolar ma edi?-degen oy mazalaydy. Múnday jenilis bir qazaq qoghamyna ghana tәn emes, Orta Aziyadaghy últ-azattyq qozghalysyna tәn ekendigin kóruimizge bolady. Alash qozghalysy Ontýstik qanatynyn tarihyn zerttegen, «Alash Hәm Týrkistan» atty monografiyalyq zertteudin avtory Haziretәli Túrsyn búl turaly mynaday Mústafa Shoqaydyn: «Býkil Týrkistan túrghyndarynyn kónil-kýyine yqpal jasamaq bolghan osy eki úyym – «Shuroi Islamiya» men «Ghúlamalar kenesi» bir-birimen qyrqysyp jatty. «Týrkistan músylmandar kenesi» osy ekeuin jaqyndastyra almay әurege týsti.  Osy eki úyymnyn arasyndaghy alauyzdyq bizdin últtyq tәuelsizdik jolyndaghy kýresimizdi bәsendetip, júmysymyzdy bylyqtyrdy.»-degen pikirin keltiredi de, ony ary qaray bylaysha tarqatady: «Osylaysha Týrkistandaghy últtyq memlekettilik ýshin kýrestegi diniy sipatta bayqalghan alauyzdyq qoghamdyq úyymdar men sayasiy partiyalardyn baghdarlamalyq qújattarynda naqty kórinis tauyp, odan әri terendey týsti [14, 138 b.].

Jalpy jәditshildik qozghalys turaly osy kýnge deyin zertteushilerdin pikiri әli bir arnagha toghysqan joq. Onyn bir-eki mysalyn jogharyda keltirdik te. Biraq bir mәsele moyyndaluy tiyis. Ol – jәditshilerdin týp negizi uahhabiylikke baryp tireletinin moyyndau. Biz sol kezde ghana jәditshilerdin tarihtaghy roline, sonymen birge, qazirgi kýngi elimizdegi diniy-ruhani ahualgha etken yqpalyna dúrys taldau jasap, baghalay alamyz. Kezinde tәuelsizdiktin alghashqy jyldarynda jәditshildik qozghalysqa berilgen on bagha, elimizge uahhabiylik iydeologiyanyn kedergisiz enuine tikeley yqpal etti. Ókinishke oray, búl mәsele әli ghylymiy túrghydan taldanyp, óz baghasyn alghan joq. Múnday mәsele bizde ghana qalyptasyp otyrghan joq. Edil boyy músylmandary da jәditshilik zardabyn әli tartyp otyr. Ol turaly kezinde uahhabiyler qolynan qaza tapqan Tatarstan muftiyinin orynbasary  Valiolla Yakubov haziret tatar halqynyn dәstýrli dini men salt-dәstýrin, mәdeniyetin jan-tәnimen qorghaghan túlgha edi. Ol ózinin dәstýrshildik  baghyty men uahhabiylikten keletin qauipti qanday bolatynyn «Islam tradisii» atty maqalasynda jazghan bolatyn. Ol maqalada mynaday joldar bar: «Odnako spravedelivostiy radiy nado otmetiti, chto reformatoramiy dviyjet svoe ponimanie problemy, voshiyshenie protestantizmom, reformami, hotya oniy ne zadumyvayutsya, horoshiy liy reformy, polezny li oni, kak sotnosyatsya s tatarskim etnosom? ...Zadacha dnya – preodolenie evrosentrizma v poznaniiy realinosti, formirovanie uvajeniya k sobstvennomu narodu, ego dostiyjeniyam. Inache je etot strannyi simbioz vahhabizma iy djadidizma, obedinivshihsya v atake na mazhab iy tradisiyu mojet pobediti, no sredi obediyteley, kak eto vsegda byvaet, ostanutsya toliko vahhabity. Neobhodimo trezvaya osenka, - radi chego iy dlya kogo zatena vsya eta voznya, komu eto vygodno i chto nas jdet. Nemeskuyu intelegensiyu privlekaliy v fashizme patriotizm iy vozmojnosti revansha, no vmeste s nimi oniy poluchiliy mnogo eshe chego. Takim obrazom, reformatory pomagaya seychas vahhabitam unichtojiti mazhab iy svyazannuuyu s nim tradisionnuyu tolerantnosti tatar, ostanutsya na ediyne s vahhabizmom so vsey ego obskurantistkoy prelestiyu predsatvlenii: antromorficheskim ponimaniyem Boga, ksenofobiyey iy neterpimostiyu. Mojet byti, lushche uchitisya na chujih oshibkah iy ne povtoryati pestovaniya pusti iy svoego «musulimanskogo» no vse je fashizma.» [14[11, 35 b.].].  Ol osy kýrestin basynda boldy jәne osy jolda ózin qúrban etti. Ókinishke oray, búl qatelikti biz de basymyzdan ótkerip otyrmyz. Ghasyrlar boyy zaryghyp kýtken tәuelsizdik uahhabiylerdin últsyzdandyru úranynyn qúrbandyghyna aynalady?- ma degen qauip kýn sanap artyp keledi. Qazirgi meshitke baryp, uaghyz tyndap jýrgen jastardyn 90 payyzynyn diniy tanymynda uahhabiylik tanymgha qaray auytqu bar. Búl qazaqtyn ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan diniy tanymy men sol tanym negizinde qalyptasqan mәdeniyeti de solyp barady degendi bildiredi.

 

Paydalanylghan әdebiyetter:

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  9. Materialy kruglogo stola posvyashennoy k problemam djadidizma.
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Jandarbek Zikiriya Zamanhanúly, Qoja Ahmet Yasaui atyndaghy Halyqaralyq qazaq-týrik uniyversiyteti, «Yasaui» ghylymiy-zertteu ortalyghynyn agha ghylymiy qyzmetkeri

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