Júma, 27 Qantar 2023
Bәse... 5593 15 pikir 17 Qantar, 2020 saghat 12:13

Qazaq erteden eginshilikpen ainalysqan

Qazir qazaqtyng jynyn keltiretin orysshasy «rasteniyevodstvo» degenning qazaqsha kalikasy «ósimdik sharuashylyghy» jana sóz payda boldy. Aghayyn-au, búl ata-babamyz kәsip etken, ónimin nәsip etken «dihanshylyq» degen sóz emes pe? Bireuler tipti qazaq «baqshalyq//ogorodi» degendi bilmegen degen uәjgha qúdayday senetin boldy. Ári qalamynyng jeli, qolynyng ebi barlar qazaq jermen ainalyspaghannan keyin eki ret ashtyqqa úshyrady dep salaqúlash kósemsózdik maqala jazudy ýrdiske ainaldyrdy. 

Qazaq ýy janyna taldan ózge eshtenke ekpegen, eginin ózen-su boyyna salghan. Dihanshylyq kәsipten Soltýstik pen orysy basym Shyghys aimaqtaghy qazaqtardy mәngige ajyratqan patsha ókimeti men orys otarshylary. 

Soltýstik pen orysy basym Shyghys aimaqtaghy qúiqaly jerlerdegi qazaq suarylmaly eginshiligi jayly kóp nәrse bile bermeymiz. Qazaq jerimiz keng dep maqtanghanymen onyng 20 payyzy ghana suarylmaly eginshilikke jaraydy. Jәne elimizdegi Ile, Talas, Syr, Ertis siyaqty iri ózenderding bәri óz bastauyn ózge  memleketten alady. Qalghany gektaryna 2-3 sentner ghana ónim beretin shól jәne shóleyt ónirler. Qazaqtar Ámu, Syr, Ile, Talas, Jayyq jәne Ertiske keng kólemde egin ekken júrt. HIH ayaghynda qazaq rulary han iyemiz Abylaydyng asyl armanyn jýzege asyryp, birte-birte jer emuge kóshe bastady. Biraq búl ýrdisting keng etek almay, mýldem toqtaluyna әueli Ontýstikte Qapal, Almaty, Shyghysta Altay, Shimoynaq siyaqty dәstýrli eginshilik damyghan ónirlerding qazaqtan tartyp alynuy, keyin últymyzdy qalghan Jayyq, Ertis syndy eginshiligimiz damyghan irili-úsaq ózen-sulardan aiyrghan 1867 jylghy Patsha jәne 1900 jyldarghy Stolypinning «Jer reformasy» óz kedergisin keltirdi. Qúiqaly jerdegi ózen men shóleyt jerdegi ózenning óz aiyrmashylyghy bar. Suarylmaly eginge paydalanyluynyng óz ereksheligi bar. Qazaqtar egindi ózen boyyn salyp, negizinen tary ekken. Ári Tarbaghatay jaqta Qarauyz atamyz tipti jerdegi ózen suyn taudyng qyrqasyna shygharyp egin salghanyn kónekóz shejireshi aqsaqaldarymyz jyr qylyp aitady. Belgili aqyn Qalqaman Sarinning babalary týrkistandyq qojalar salghan toghan men aryqtyng kóne silemderi Abay audanynyng Arhat ónirinde saqtalyp qalghan. Búl mәsele «qazaq kópsheli halyq bolghan» degen jalghan mifti últymyz ýshin dәleldeudi kerek etpeytin aksiomagha ainaldyru ýshin әldebireulerge qajet. Jerimizde qazir qazaqy qara eseppen sausaq býger bolsaq, 9-10 myngha tarta 7-8 myng jyldyq tarihy bar baghzy qalalar men kentterding orny bar. Olar zerttelmeydi óitkeni nomad halyqtyng nomad tarihshylaryna týkke keregi joq. 

300 jylgha sozylghan qazaq-jonghar soghysy ózbek-qazaq eginshiligine qolbaylau bola almady. Qazaq eginshiligining keng beleng aluy 1850 jyldargha túspa-tús keledi. Biraq Patsha ókimeti Ertis pen Jayyq ózenine 40 shaqyrymgha deyin qazaqtardy jolatpau turaly zang shyghardy. Al, qazaqtar egin egip jýrgen ózen-kólder kózden búl-búl úshyp, Reseyden kóship kelgen «qara shekpenderge» tartyp alynyp berildi. Tipti Ontýstik ónirlerimizdegi qazaq-jonghar soghysy kedergi keltire almaghan dәstýrli eginshilik damyghan jerler de ortarlaushy biylikting zorlyghymen qazaqtardan tartyp alyndy.

Osylaysha Soltýstik pen Shyghysta, qazaq dihanshylyghy mýldem óshti. Ol ýshin otarshylar eginshilik jerlerdi tartyp alyp – bir, qazaq dihandaryna auyr salyq salyp – eki, jer emuge arnayy rúqsat bermey – ýsh  soyqan salyp, qúiqaly jerler jattyng qolynda qalyp, alash júrty adam tózgisiz shól men shóleyt aimaqtargha yghystyryldy. 

Maly joq, kәsibi men nәsibi bolghan eginshilik jerinen aiyrylghan qazaq amalsyz orysqa jalshy boldy. Búl shara әueli 1830-1850 jyldar arasynda jýzege asyryldy. 1850-1880 aralyghynda halyq tolquy oryn alyp, ózen-sudy tartyp alu az-maz kidirdi. Biraq, keyin 1880-1912 jyldargha sozyldy. Sóitip, ór qazaq mal sonynda ghana salpaqtaghan óz elining esh qúqyqsyz qúlyna ainaldy. «Elu jylda el jana» deydi halqymyz. Bar-joghy 80 jyldyng ishinde ózen boyyndaghy eginshilik jersiz qazaq nomad bolyp shygha keldi. Al, shóleyt aimaqtaghy ortalyq jәne ontýstik-shyghys jerlerdegi ózen-sulargha egin egushiler qazaq arasynda mýldem bolmady. Al, bәri orystar tartyp alghan ónirlerge egilip, osy ónirdegi aghayyngha malgha aiyrbastalatyn. Endi aqsha shyghyp, arzan baghaly orys astyghy salyqtan kóz ashpaghan qazaq dihandaryna sor bolyp, Jayyq pen Ertis boyyndaghy jerlerinen aiyrylyp, eriksiz orysqa jalshy boldy.

Orys-qazaqtardan zorlyq kórgen Jayyq dihanshylarynyng júmys izdep ishki Reseyge aghyluy, olardyng sanynyng qansha bolghanyn amal ne tarihshylarymyz auyzgha almaydy. AQSh kitaphanasynda jonghar shapqynshylyghy kezinde qazaqtardy 10 payyzy, odan keyin 25 payyzy eginshilikpen ainalysqany turaly naqty derek bar. Búl derekti orys basqynshylary óz statistikalyq derekterinde ýnemi býgip qalyp, qazaq tarihshylarynyng nazarynan jasyryp keledi. Qazaqtar qyrghyz ben manghúl siyaqty 100 payyz kóshpeli emes, jartylay kóshpeli el. Sonda dәl qazirge deyin, babalarymyzdyng ótken barsha tarihyna kýl shashyp, bizdi tek nomad qylyp kórsetu kimge kerek bolyp otyr? 

Tarihshylarymyz qazaq kóshpeli bolghan degen ghylymy әnderine salyp, eginshilik jerlerding qalay tartyp alynghany turaly sóz etpeydi. Tek jayylymdar, qystaular, kýzemder, jaylaular tartyp alyndy dep zar jylaydy. Patsha men Qyzyl otarshylar osylay 1920 jәne 1930 jyldardyng asharshylyghyna negiz saldy. 

Endi bir kezderi qazaqtar aiyrylghan kól-ózen boyy jat júrttyqtar óz eline aua kóshkendikten elsiz-júrtsyz en qalyp barady. Al, osy ónirlerdegi qazaqtarda qolyna ketpen alyp, dihanshylyqpen jer emu dәstýri joq. Sondyqtan, biylik basyndaghylar suarylmaly egin salugha jaramdy jerlerdi qazirgi jekening qarauynan alyp, memleket qarauyna alyp, vahtalyq әdispen Ontýstik qazaqtarynyng qauymdasa iygeruine jaghday jasauy kerek. Dihanshylyq dәstýri joq, orys fermerlerining ózenge deyingi jerdi jyrtyp tastauynyng bir ghana mysalyn: ShQO Boroduliha audanyndaghy Qyzyljar ózenining qazirgi auyr ekologiyalyq ahualynan kóremiz. Búl ózen-kól manyn jyrtyp tastau kelensizdigi Shyghys pen Soltýstikte jappay oryn alyp otyrghan ómir shyndyghy. 

Ontýstiktegi bauyrlarymyzgha osy ózen-sulargha iyelik etip, túqymdyq jylyjaylaryn salyp alugha qarjy bólip, dihanshylyq kәsibin dóngeletuge mýmkindik berilse, kóp nәrse útar edik. 

Ábil-Serik Áliakbar

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