Júma, 4 Jeltoqsan 2020
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Alasapyran 2565 5 pikir 30 Mamyr, 2020 saghat 12:44

Qughyn-sýrgin men asharshylyq – qazaq últyna qarsy jasalghan qylmys!

Qaydar Aldajúmanov,

Tarih ghylymynyng kandidaty, professor,
Sh.Uәlihanov atyndaghy tarih jәne etnologiya
institutynyng bas ghylymy qyzmetkeri:

Qaydar Aldajúmanov - tarihshy, Shoqan Uәlihanov atyndaghy tarih jәne etnologiya institutynyng qyzmetkeri. Almaty, 22 sәuir 2014 jyl.

(Suret Azattyq saytynan alyndy)

Asharshylyqtyng qalay bastalghanyna kelsek, Kenestik Sosialistik Respublikalar odaghynyng basshylyghy 1920 jyldardyng ekinshi jartysynda býkil el boyynsha industriyalandyru jýrgizip, ónerkәsiptik derjavagha ainaludy maqsat etti. Biraq ol kezde Kenes memleketining ekonomikalyq jaghdayy mәz emes, shetelden qaryz aludyng da mýmkindigi bolmady: aldynghy qatarly derjavalar – AQSh, Úlybritaniya, Fransiya jәne basqa elder KSRO-ny ekonomikalyq jәne sayasy blokadada ústaghan edi. Sebebi, 1917 jyly Resey imperiyasynyng ornyna kelgen jana Kenes memleketi ózining sayasiy-qoghamdyq qúrylysy boyynsha mýlde basqa memleket bolatyn. Sondyqtan shetelder KSRO-men baylanys ornatugha shekteuler qoydy, yaghny Kenes memleketin moyyndamady. Amerika Qúrama Shtattary 1917 jyly ýzilgen Reseymen resmy diplomatiyalyq qarym-qatynasyn tek 1933 jyly 30 mamyrda ghana qayta ornatty. Tipti 1929 jyldan bastap AQSh KSRO-gha qarsy ekonomikalyq soghys jýrgizdi, ol 1929-30 jyldardaghy «Úly depressiya» kezining ózinde toqtamady. Basqa elderge de Kenes memleketimen sauda-sattyq jasaugha tyiym saldy, tek qana astyq satyp alynsyn dedi. Búny Úlybritaniya, Fransiya, Italiya, tipti Bolgariyagha deyin qoldady. Industriyalandyru barysynda Kenes elining әr jerinde iri qúrylystar, temirjoldar salu bastaldy. Stalindik besjyldyqtar boyynsha Qiyr Shyghysta Amurdegi Komsomolisk qalasy, Noriliskide niykeli kombinaty, qar men múz qúrsaghan Arhangeliskide zauyttar salynyp jatty. Áriyne, olardyng barlyghyn azyq-týlikpen qamtamasyz etu kerek. Búl ýshin aldymen býkil elde sharua qojalyqtaryn biriktirip, kolhozdar qúru qolgha alyndy. Újymdastyru jónindegi sheshim 1927 jyly VKP(b) XV sezinde qabyldandy.

1929 jyly jeltoqsan aiynda KSRO-da jappay újymdastyru jýrgizu jóninde A.Yakovlev basqarghan komissiya qúryldy. Komissiya mýsheleri búl nauqannyng baghyt-baghdaryn, kólemin, ótkizu qarqynyn belgiledi. Sonda Qazaqstandy eng songhy kezekke qoyghan eken, sebebi territoriya ýlken, jol qatynasy, baylanys jýiesi joq, halqynyng kópshiligi negizinen mal sharuashylyghymen ainalysady, sondyqtan asyqpay eng sonynan ótkizu kerek. Alayda, keybir basshylardyng úsynysymen Qazaqstandaghy újymdastyrudy Reseyding ishki guberniyalarymen bir mezgilde jәne jedel qarqynmen ótkizu bastalyp ketti.

Qazaqstandaghy 1929-30 jyldary újymdastyru nauqany kóshpeli, jartylay kóshpeli halyqty otyryqshylyqqa kóshiremiz degen syltaumen óte túrpayy jýrgizildi. Azdaghan maly bar orta sharualardyng ózin qudalap, mal-mýlkin tartyp aldy. 5 mynnan astam adamdy jer audardy. Shyn mәninde ol kezde qazaq halqy kóshpeli emes, óitkeni 1930 jylgha qaray 20-30 shaqyrymgha deyin kóship-qonyp, qystauy men jaylauyna baratyndar 30-aq payyz, 5-10 shaqyrymgha ketetinder 15-20 payyz, al shyn maghynasynda kóshpeli ómir sýrgender nebary 6 payyz bolghan.

Kenes memleketining sayasatyna sәikes (búl jóninde Mәskeudegi Sayasy buronyng qújattary bar), qazaqtardyng keng baytaq jerindegi әrbir eldi mekenge mektep, emhana salmau ýshin, bәrin jinap orys poselkesi ýlgisindegi ortalyqtargha jinap qonystandyru kerek – mine, «otyryqshylandyru» degenning astarynda osynday mәsele jatyr.

1929 jyldyng 1 qantaryna qarayghy statistikalyq derekke sәikes, Qazaqstanda 44 million 723 myng 200 bas mal bolghan, mal dayyndau jospary – 156 200 bas. 1930 jyly – 29 million 549 200 bas mal bolsa, memleketke 2 million 718 myng 857 bas mal ótkizu josparlanghan. 1931 jylghy derekke sәikes, 8 million 612 800 bas mal qalypty, jospar – 4 898 011 bas. Al 1932 jyldyng sonynda qalghany – 3 million 500 myng bas mal. Mine, 1929 jylgha deyingi resmy esepke engen 45 milliongha juyq maldan 1934 jyldyng 1 qantarynda 3,5 million mal qalghan!

KSRO biyligi Qazaqstangha tausylmaytyn azyq-týlik kózi bar aimaq retinde qarady. Sauda jәne jabdyqtau halyq komissariaty (Anastas Mikoyan basqarghan) jyl sayyn jospar jasaydy, Qazaqstangha mindetti týrde eng kóp mal basyn ótkizu tapsyrylady. Mikoyannyng ózi 1931 jyly qantardyng ayaghynda Almatygha keledi. Jergilikti basshylyqqa «1931 jylghy Qazaqstannyng memleketke ótkizetin mal basynyng 70 payyzyn osy qysta (et býlinbeytin kezde) tapsyryndar» dep núsqau beredi. «Shash al dese bas alatyn» sholaq belsendilerdi aidap salyp, elding qolyndaghy maldy kýshpen tartyp alady. Negizi, ol kezde memleketke alghan mal basy ýshin ótem retinde azyn-aulaq aqsha tólengen. Biraq qazaqtargha sol aqshany da bermepti.

1931 jyly A.Mikoyan Almatygha sol tapsyrmamen taghy keledi. Qazaqstanda ol kezde egin kóp emes, negizinen mal sharuashylyghymen ainalysady. Sonyng ózinde Qazaqstandy 1929 jyldan bastap jyl sayyn 52 mln pút astyq ótkizuge mәjbýrlep otyrghan. Tipti anau asharshylyq shegine jetip, halyq jappay qyrylyp jatqan 1932 jyly 42 mln 300 myng pút astyq tapsyru mindettelgen.

Arhiv derekterinde búl nәubetting adam shyghyny tirkelgen.

Demografiyada halyqtyng kemui degen úghym bar. 1930 jyly halyqqa qysym kýsheye týsken kezde Qazaqstan halqynyng sany 317 373 adamgha kemigen. 1931 jyly – 754 888, 1932 jyly – 769 160, 1933 jyly – 690 020 adamgha kemigeni tirkelgen. Barlyghyn qosqanda – 2 million 531 myng 441 adam. Onyng ishinde ashtan ólgeni, ashtyqtan qashyp jan-jaqqa ketkenderi bar. Jalpy asharshylyq jyldary ózge elge bosyp ketkenderding 330 myny elge 1935-1938 jyldary oraldy. 1940 jylgha deyin barlyghy 600 mynday adam Qazaqstangha qaytyp keldi.

Sonymen, asharshylyq jyldary qaza bolghandar – 2 million 200 myng adam. Onyng 1 million 750 myny qazaq, qalghany basqa últ ókilderi. 200 mynday adam jer auyp kelgender.

Búl statistikany 1991-92 jyldary atalghan komissiyanyng qúramynda bolghan demograf ghalym Maqash Tәtimov bizben qatar otyryp eseptep shygharghan. Atalghan sifrlardy men ÚQK-ning arhiyvindegi múraghattyq isterden aldym. Jalpy, NKVD, OGPU degen Ýkimetke elde bolyp jatqan shynayy jaghdaydy jetkizetin mekeme boldy. Osy arnayy qyzmet oblys, audandar boyynsha asharshylyqqa qatysty mәlimetterdi tirkep otyrghan.

Qazaqstandaghy mal basynyng kemui, adamdardyng qyryluy turaly derekter sol múraghattan alyndy. Atap aitarym, búl naqty derekter. Onyng ras ekenine kózim anyq jetti. Osydan 4 jyl búryn Mәskeuding memlekettik arhiyvinde material qaradym. Sondaghy qújattargha sәikes, VSIK – Býkilodaqtyq ortalyq atqaru komiytetining (qazirgishe aitqanda – ýkimet) qúramynda kóshpeli jәne jartylay kóshpeli halyqtardy otyryqshylyqqa kóshiru jónindegi komissiya qúrylghan. Múndaghy kóshpeli jәne jartylay degenning ishinde qazaq, qyrghyz, qalmaq, yakut, tuva, monghol, buryatqa deyin bar. Komissiya sol halyqtardyng statistikasyn bergen. Birinshiden, búl qújatta Qazaqstandaghy adam sanynyng kemui NKVD-dan men alghan sifrlarmen sәikes bolyp shyqty. Ekinshiden, sol qújattar boyynsha, 1930 jyldary qazaqtan basqa kóshpeli halyqtar ashtan ólmegen. Búl tek bizde bolghan súmdyq uaqigha. Kenestik sayasat osylaysha qazaqty mýlde joygha iytermelegen.

Men Qazaqstan, Mәskeu arhivterining qúpiya grifteri alynghan múraghattyq isterinen 1921-22 jylghy asharshylyqtyng statistikasyn arnayy qaraghan edim. Búl ashtyqtyng 1930 jylghydan eleuli aiyrmashylyghy bar. 1921 jyly mamyr aiynda Kenes ýkimetine elding kóptegen jerinen habar týse bastaydy, sebebi, kóktemgi egisten keyin quanshylyq pen ziyandy jәndikterding kesirinen qyltanaq bolyp shyqqan egin qúryp ketti. Sodan mamyr-mausym ailarynda tekseru jýrgizilip, jaghday anyqtalady. Sol 1921 jyldyng jazynda Leninning ózi «Búrynghy Resey imperiyasynyng ornyna kelgen jana Kenes memleketi osynday qiyndyqqa dushar bolyp otyr, sondyqtan biz әlemdik qauymdastyqtan jәrdem súraymyz» dep, әlemdik qauymdastyqqa ýndeu jariyalaydy. Sóitip, Amerikalyq kómek qory (ARA – American Relief Administration), Nansen qory, Úlybritaniyadaghy Kvakerler qoghamy siyaqty halyqaralyq úiymdar ashtyq jaylaghan KSRO-gha kómek kórsetip, azyq-týlik jibergen. Arhivte shetelden kelgen kómekting mólsherine deyin bar. Ayta keterligi, azyq-týlikti jan-jaqqa jibergen kezde negizinen jol boyyndaghy orys eldi mekenderine kómek kóbirek berilip, alystaghy qazaq auyldaryna jetpey qalghan.

Al 1931-33 jyldary Qazaqstanda halyqtyng ashtan qyrylyp jatqanyn shetel bilgen joq. Aytalyq, Mәskeudegi arhiv qorlaryndaghy halyqaralyq Qyzyl krest, Qyzyl jarty ay qayyrymdylyq qoghamdarynyng qyzmeti turaly múraghattyq isterde Qazaqstan turaly bir de bir sóz joq. Tek Ukrainanyng batysynda, Reseyde adamdar ashtan qyrylyp jatqany jәne olargha atalghan qoghamdar tarapynan kómek kórsetilgeni turaly derekter bar.

Ashtan qyrylghan halyq zorlyq-zombylyqqa shydamay kóteriliske shyqty. Alghashqy qarsylyq 1929 jyly Qostanay oblysynda Batpaqqarada bastaldy (qazirgi Jangeldiyn, Amangeldi audandary). Kóterilisshiler audan ortalyghy Batpaqqarany basyp alyp, partiya, atqaru komiytetteri basshylaryn tútqyngha alady. Biylikti taratyp, ózderining Halyq kenesin qúrghan. 1929 jyly qyrkýiekting ayaghynda Amangeldi kóterilisine qatysqan Omar Barmaqov degen aqsaqaldy han saylaydy. Tartyp alynghan astyq pen maldy halyqqa qaytaryp beredi. Sóitip olar bir apta biylik jýrgizedi. Odan keyin bolishevikter jan-jaqtan әsker әkelip, kóterilisti kýshpen basty. Jauapqa tartylghan 530 adamnyng qatarynda OGPU ýshtigining ýkimimen O.Barmaqov atu jazasyna kesildi.

Mikoyan mal basyn jappay ótkizuge tapsyrma bergen 1930 jyldyng aqpan aiynda ontýstik Qazaqstandaghy Sozaq audanynda kóterilis búrq etti. Búl kóterilis arnayy dayyndalghan. Búryn bolys bolghan Súltanbek Sholaqov degen azamattyng bastauymen 400-dey adam jinalady, keyin 700-ge jetedi. Kóterilisti basugha Tashkenttegi Lenin atyndaghy әskery mektepting kursanttaryn әkeledi (ózbek, qyrghyz, týrkmen, tәjik, t.b.). 350 kursant, attyng ýstine bólshektep tiyep alghan zenbirekteri bar, tangha jaqyn Qaratau jotasynan ótip Sozaqqa kelip týsedi. Qandy shabuyldan kóteriliske qatysqan 394 adam qaza tabady. Búl kóterilis turaly qújattardy KGB-ning arhiyvinen kórdim, sonyng ishinde kóterilisti basqarghan, shtabqa mýshe bolghan 6 adamgha akti jasalypty.

Búl kóterilisting taghy bir ereksheligi bar. Qazaqstan ol kezde jeke respublika atalghanmen, Kenes memleketining bir bólshegi. Yaghni, halyqaralyq qauymdastyq ýshin KSRO – basty obekti. Sozaqta bolghan kóteriliske dem berip, aidap salushynyng biri – jergilikti halyq arasyna sinip ketken, osynda on jylday túrghan Asadulla Osmanoghly Ibragim degen aghylshyn tynshysy. Qazaqsha biletin ol ózin aughandyqpyn deydi, emshilik qasiyeti bolghan, qazaqtan әiel alghan. Sol keyde «Tashkentten dәri-dәrmek alyp kelemin» dep 1- 2 ay joq bolyp ketedi eken. «Bizge Aughanstannan 1 million әsker keluge dayyn túr, myna Kenesting zorlyghyna qarsy shyghyndar» dep ýgitteydi halyqty. Endi qazir ontýstikting keybir adamdary «Asadulla Ibragimoghly degen keremet jaqsy azamat bolghan» dep әspetteydi. Ol Sozaqty kóterilisshiler basyp alghan kezde audan basshylaryn, sol jerde auruhana, mektep salyp jatqan 12 orysty bauyzdap óltirip, qúdyqqa tastatady. Al kóterilisti basugha Tashkentten әsker kelgende jarty kýn búryn qashyp ketken. Asadullany 20 kýnnen keyin Qazaly stansasynda temirjol vagonynyng ishinen ústaydy. Men onyng tergeu kezinde bergen jauaptaryn oqydym, alghashqy 3 jauabynda «aughandyqpyn» deydi, al tórtinshi jauabynda shynyn moyyndap, irandyq ekenin aitady. Iran 1918 jyldary aghylshyndardyng yqpalynda bolghany ras. Olar Asadullany barlaushylar mektebinde oqytady. Sóitip Baku arqyly Samarqangha ótkizip, odan Tashkentke jibergen. Sodan Sozaqqa kelip ornalasqan. Arasynda basshylarynan tapsyrma alyp túrady. Mine, shetel barlau qyzmeti Qazaqstanda bolyp jatqan oqighalardy paydalanyp, ishten ylang salu, t.b. әreketter jasaghan. 1920 jyldary basmashylar qozghalysyna dem berip, qozdyrghan da aghylshyn barlauy bolatyn. Asharshylyq jyldary búdan basqa Aday, Yrghyz, Qaraqúm, Abyraly, Shoqpar kóterilisteri boldy. Eng ýlken kóterilis Aqsu-Býien audanynda bolghan, jetekshisi – Beysetbay Qyliyev. Býkil Qazaqstan boyynsha 1929 jylghy kýzden 1932-ning ayaghyna deyin 80 mynnan astam adam qatysqan qandy kóterilister bolghan.

Jazalau nauqany 1937-38 jyldary jappay sayasy repressiyagha úlasty. Jalpy kenestik biylik óz rejiymine qauipti dep tapqan toptardy búghan deyin de tazalaghan bolatyn. 1928 jyldyng jeltoqsanynda sharualardy újymdastyru nauqanyna kiriser aldynda, býkil KSRO boyynsha Azamat soghysy kezinde bolishevikterge qarsy shyghyp, Kolchak, Denikin әskerinde bolghandar aldyn ala tútqyndaldy. Onyng ishinde «Shuro-i-Islamiya», «Shuro-i-ulem», «Turk oda¬my markaziyat firkasiy», «Alashorda» siyaqty últtyq úiymdargha qatysqandar bar. Olar Kenes memleketinde ótkiziletin jappay újymdastyru nauqanynda basty qarsylas boluy yqtimal degen oimen aldyn ala qoghamnan alastatyldy.

1937-38 jyldary qúrban bolghan basshy qyzmetkerlerding deni tikeley osy asharshylyqqa qarsy shyqqany ýshin jazalandy. Men arhivte kóptegen tergeu qújattarymen tanystym. Kenestik biylik asharshylyq nәubetin bireulerge jabu niyetimen repressiya jýrgizdi. Oghan qosa, KSRO-ny biylep otyrghan bolishevikter partiyasynyng óz ishinde de birlik bolmady. Stalinmen biylikke talasqan L.Troskiy, L.Kamenevterding jaqtastary kóp edi. Olar Lenin qaytys bolghannan keyin partiya ishinde fraksiyalyq kýres jýrgizdi. 1927 jyly Qazan tónkerisining on jyldyghy kezinde Mәskeude, Leningradta resmy biylikting demonstrasiyasymen qatar Troskiy, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Buharin óz demonstrasiyasyn ótkizip, qaqtyghys tughyzugha deyin barghan. Sol kezding oppozisiyasy ghoy. Osydan keyin Kenes biyligi L.Troskiydi Almatygha jer audarugha sheshim qabyldaydy. 1928 jyly qantarda Mәskeuden poezgha otyrghyzyp, Pishpekke, odan Almatygha jetkizedi. Qazirgi «Kók bazar» manyndaghy «Týrkistan» qonaqýiining ornynda ol kezde eki qabatty aghashtan salynghan ýlken ýy bolghan. Troskiydi sonda ornalastyrady. Jergilikti OGPU organy baqylauda ústaydy, tipti angha shyghugha, balyq aulaugha da rúqsat etiledi. Shetelmen hat almasyp otyrady. Biraq astyrtyn qadaghalauda bolghan. Sonda Troskiydi kóremiz dep barghan qazaqtar bar. 1928 jyldyng jeltoqsanynda kenestik biylikke qarsy júmysyn toqtatpaghany ýshin Troskiydi Mәskeuge aldyrtyp, Týrkiyagha quady. Sodan toghyz jyldan keyin, 1937-38 jylghy qughyn-sýrgin kezinde Troskiydi kóruge barghan adamdardy tauyp alyp jazalaghan. Taghylghan aiyp – Troskiyden arnayy tapsyrma alyp, qastandyq әreket jasady-mys.

Qazaqstanda 1920 jyldary, odan keyin 1937-38-de sayasy repressiyagha úshyraghandardyng jalpy sany –125 myng adam. Onyng ishinde 25 myny atylghan.

Ashtyq kýsheygen kezde Qazaqstandaghy lauazymdy qyzmettegi túlghalar ortalyqqa birneshe dýrkin hattar jazghany mәlim. Demek, kenestik biylik Qazaqstanda ashtyq bolyp jatqanyn bildi. 1932 jyly 17 qyrkýiekte Mәskeude Stalinning qatysuymen Bolishevikter partiyasy Sayasy burosynyng mәjilisi ótip, «Qazaqstannyng auyl sharuashylyghy, onyng ishinde mal sharuashylyghy jóninde» degen qauly qabyldanady. Qaulynyng kólemi bir jarym-aq bet, ishinde asharshylyq turaly bir de bir sóz joq. Tek azyq-týlik tapshylyghy bolyp jatqany ghana aitylady. Osy Qaulynyng ózi jarty jyldan song ghana oryndala bastady. 1932 jyl – asharshylyqtyng eng shegine jetken jyly, adam etin jeu faktileri boldy. Búl jóninde joghary jaqqa týsken aryzdardyng bәrinde jazylghan. Biraq qaulyda aitylmaydy. Kenes Odaghynyng eng joghary organy – Sayasy buro mәjilisinde búnday mәseleni qarap, qauly qabyldau ýshin belgili bir qújattyq negiz boluy kerek, men osynday negizdemeni izdestirdim. Sóitsek, qauly qabyldaugha negiz bolghan materialdar arnayy qúpiya saqtaugha jiberilsin degen núsqau bolghan eken. Sayasy buronyng ózi qúpiya mekeme, sonda qúpiyadan qúpiya jasalyp otyr ghoy. Sol sebepti Mәskeu arhivterinen múnday qújatty tabu mýmkin emes.

Jalpy, Qazaqstandaghy 1930 jyldardaghy asharshylyqty zertteu kenestik tarih ghylymynda jabyq taqyryp boldy. Jaghday tek 1980 jyldardyng sonyna qaray ózgerdi. Demokratiyalyq kýshterding yqpalymen búrynghy aqtandaqtar, jabyq mәseleler turaly aitugha mýmkindik tudy. 1988 jyly qarasha aiynda býkil Kenes Odaghynda birinshi ret Sh.Uәlihanov atyndaghy tarih jәne etnologiya instituty «Qazaqstandaghy jәne Orta Aziya respublikalaryndaghy újymdastyru: tarihy jәne taghylymy» degen taqyrypta býkilodaqtyq konferensiya ótkizdi. Oghan Qyrghyzstan, Týrkmenstan, Ózbekstan, Tәjikstan, Reseyden ghalymdar keldi. Sonda túnghysh ret Qazaqstanda 1930 jyldardaghy halyqtyng ashtan qyryluyn zertteu kerek degen mәsele qoyyldy. Búl bastamany kótergen sol kezdegi institut diyrektory, ataqty ghalym Manash Qozybaev bolatyn. Mine, asharshylyqty zertteu osy konferensiyadan keyin bastaldy.

1991 jyly Kenes memleketi taraghannan keyin, Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Jogharghy kenesine demokratiyalyq jolmen jana deputattar saylandy. Sonyng ishinde akademik Shahmardan Esenov, Manash Qozybaev, Salyq Zimanov siyaqty ghalymdar boldy. Manash aghamyz deputat retinde 1930 jyldardaghy asharshylyq pen jappay sayasy repressiyanyng sebep-saldaryn zertteu jóninde mәsele kóterdi. Sóitip, 1991 jyly 11 qarashada Qazaqstan Respublikasy Jogharghy Kenesining 1920-30 jyldardaghy asharshylyq jәne jappay qughyn-sýrgin sebepterin zertteu jónindegi arnayy komissiyasy qúryldy. Komissiya qúramyna Jogharghy sottyng tóraghasy, bas prokuror, belgili tarihshylar men zanger ghalymdar kirdi. Men de sol komissiyanyng mýshesi boldym. Búghan deyin ÚQK (NKVD) arhiyvinen Sozaq, Yrghyz kóterilisteri turly tergeu materialdaryn qarau ýshin Ýkimetke hat jazyp jýrip qiyndyqpen rúqsat alghan edim. Sondyqtan komissiya qúramyna Últtyq qauipsizdik komiyteti tóraghasyn, respublikanyng Bas prokuroryn, Jogharghy sot tóraghasyn, ishki ister ministrin engizu jóninde úsynys jasadyq. Olar ózderine qarasty mekemelerdegi jabyq qújattargha qol jetkizuge kómek kórsetuge tiyis edi. Óitkeni bizding arhivterde «qúpiya» degen grifter alynbaghan bolatyn.

Sonymen, bir jyl boyy zertteu jýrgizu nәtiyjesinde komissiya «Qazaqstanda 1930-jyldary bolghan asharshylyq genosidtik sipatta boldy» degen qorytyndygha keldi. Búl tújyrym tarihshylar tarapynan ashyq aitylyp, býkil elge jariyalandy.

Al keybir sheteldik ghalymdar asharshylyqqa qazaqtardyng kóshpeli ómir sýrui sebep bolghanyn aitudan tanar emes. Búnyng sebebi terende jatyr. Negizi Batys elderi Kenes memleketine qatysty birjaqty taptauryn kózqaras bar. Mysaly, Robert Kindler degen Germaniya tarihshysy «Stalinskie kochevniki» degen enbek jazdy. Olar ýshin Stalin – synaugha ynghayly obekt. «Stalin – jauyz. Bәrine kinәli sol». IYә, solay ekeni ras, biraq búl ishki faktor ghana. Alayda búdan basqa syrtqy – ekonomikalyq, sayasy faktorlar bar emes pe? Eger Amerika, Fransiya, Úlybritaniya sol kezde KSRO-men qalypty ekonomikalyq-sayasy qarym-qatynas jýrgizse Qazaqstandaghy tragediya bolmas ta edi! Tipti bolghan kýnning ózinde múnday masshtabta emes, az kólemde bolar edi. Áli kýnge deyin Batys elderi ýshin búrynghy Resey imperiyasy, odan keyin Kenes memleketi mәngi bәsekeles, solardy qalayda túqyrtu, kinәli kórsetu olar ýshin manyzdy.

1991 jyly nauryz aiynda Qyrghyzstangha baryp, asharshylyq jyldary sol elge bosqyn bolyp barghan qazaqtar turaly qújattardy bir ay boyy qaradym. Ol kezde KSRO әli bar. Qúpiya qújattardy qaraugha rúqsat beretin KGB anyqtamasy qolymda. Qyrghyz KSR Ýkimetining Arhiv isteri jónindegi memlekettik komiyteti boldy, sonyng basshysy Biybinúr Qúrmanova degen jasy kelgen adam eken. Men aldymen sol kisige kirip, qanday maqsatpen kelgenimdi aittym. Sonda ol: «Qazaqtar, senderding kýndering tudy. Asharshylyqta talay qazaq qyrylyp edi. Men ol kezde jas komsomolmyn,biz brigada qúryp, Pishpekting kóshelerinen ashtan ólip jatqan qazaqtardy jinap jerleytinbiz» dedi. Ózi keyin jauapty qyzmetter atqaryp, Qyrghyzstan komsomoly ortalyq komiytetining hatshysy bolghan. Sodan qúpiya bólim qyzmetkerin shaqyryp alyp, maghan qajetti qújattyng bәrin berudi tapsyrdy. Qazir býkil baspasózde, kitaptarda, internette jýrgen asharshylyq kezindegi súmdyq suretter sol Qyrghyzstan arhiyvinen tabylghan. Ishinde adam etin jep otyrghan әielderding sureti, qazanda qaynap jatqan balanyng denesi, shópting ýstinde jatqan balanyng basy, t.s.s. Sol suretterdi tauyp әkelgen – men.

Ókinishke qaray, keyinnen asharshylyq tragediyasyn saudagha salghandar da kezdesti. Derekti kino týsirushi Qalila Omarov pen jazushy Valeriy Mihaylov ashtyq jayynda «Nәubet» degen filim týsirmek boldy. Solar filim jasau kezinde qinalyp, bizding Tarih institutynan kómek súrady. Institut diyrektory M.Qozybaev osy mәselemen ainalysyp jýrgen meni shaqyryp alyp, kómek berudi tapsyrdy. Sodan telestudiyada erteden keshke deyin otyryp ssenariyin qayta jazdyq. Filimdi jasau kezinde men Q.Omarovqa ózim arhivten tapqan jiyrma shaqty suretti berdim. Sonymen filim shyqty. Biraq, rejisser Q.Omarov konsulitant retinde qatysqan mening aty-jónimdi ataudy artyq kóripti. Halyqtyng tragediyasy ghoy dep ýndemedim. Institut diyrektorynyng orynbasary bolyp jýrgenimde bir kýni maghan Finlyandiya, Germaniya jurnalisteri keldi, qoldarynda baghanaghy suretter. Qaydan aldyndar desem, «bizge Q.Omarov satty» deydi. V.Mihaylov «Kazahstanskaya pravda» gazetine ashtyq turaly maqala jazyp, suretti ózi tapqanday jariyalap jiberdi. Derekting qaydan alynghanyn aitu onyng mindeti ghoy. Mine, asharshylyq tragediyasyn saudagha salyp, jeke basy ýshin paydalanushylar da bolghanyn aitu kerek.

Sonday-aq, bizding qoghamda 1918, 1921, 1930 jyldardaghy asharshylyq turaly qisynsyz pikirler bar. Mәselen, «1918 jyly Týrkistan respublikasynda 1 million qazaq ashtan qyrylghan» deydi. Joq, ol kezdegi Týrkistan respublikasynda 1 million qazaq bolghan emes. Búl respublikanyng qúramyna qazirgi Tәjikstan, Qyrghyzstan, Ózbekstan, Týrkmenstan kirgen. Sol «Týrkistan avtonomiyalyq respublikasynda 1 milliongha juyq adam ashtyqqa úshyrady» dese, ol basqa mәsele. Mәselen, men ÚQK arhiyvinde asharshylyq, kóterilister men qughyn-sýrginge qatysty tergeu isterin qarap alty jarym ay otyrdym. Múnda Syrdariya (qazirgi Qyzylorda, Ontýstik Qazaqstan oblystary), Jetisu oblystary (qazirgi Jambyl, Almaty oblystarynyng aumaghy) halqynyng 1918, 1920-21 jyldardaghy statistikalyq mәlimetterin qaradym. Sonda eldi mekender túrghyndarynyng sanynan 418 myng adam kemigen, olardyng barlyghy týgel qyrylghan joq, basqa jaqqa auyp ketkenderi bar. Mine, sol Týrkistan avtonomiyaly respublikasy basshylarynyng biri Grigoriy Safarov «Týrkistan respublikasynda bir milliongha juyq adam asharshylyqqa dushar bolyp, qiyndyq kórip jatyr» dep aitqan eken. Endi ony bireuler baspasóz betinen ilip alyp, anyghyna jetpesten, «1918 jyly 1 mln, 1921-22 jyly 2 mln adam qaza bolghan, tarihshylar múny eskermeydi» deydi. Búl úshqary pikir.

Ashtyq mәselesin zertteu isi jalghasyp jatyr. Degenmen, múraghattardyng ashyqtyghy, qarajat jaghynan da qiyndyqtar bar. Mәselen, qazir Ózbekstan bizdi óz arhivterine jibermeydi. 1991 jylghy tamyz aiynda (Mәskeude býlik bolghan kez) men Tashkent arhiyvinde bolghan edim. Arhiv ol tústa ashyq, onyng ýstine qúpiya qújattar qaraugha rúqsatym bar. Sonymen 20 kýn otyryp Ózbekstan ýkimetinin, Halyq komissarlar kenesining múraghattyq isterin qaraghanda osy elge ashtyqtan bosyp barghan qazaqtar turaly bir de bir qújat taba almadym. Bir isti ashqanda «Sovet narodnyh komissarov Uzbekskoy SSR» dep jazylghan resmy blanktegi qauly túr, biraq paraqtyng jartysy jyrtyp alynghan. Atauy: «Rassmotrenie voprosa ob ustroystve kazahov-golodobejensev». Yaghni, asharshylyqtan bosqyn bolyp kelgen qazaqtardy ornalastyru jónindegi qauly. Asyghys júlyp alynghan boluy kerek, bas jaghy qalyp qoyghan. Aqyryndap zaldyng mengerushisinen «Biz ózbek eline 200 mynnan astam qazaq bosqyn bolyp ketkenin bilemiz. Biraq búl jóninde bir de bir qújat joq» dep, júlyp alynghan betti kórsettim. Sonda janaghy qyzmetker Sharaf Rashidov basshy bolghan kezde asharshylyqta kelgen qazaqtar turaly qújattardyng kózin jong turaly arnayy núsqau bolghanyn aitty. Sóitip arhivterdi tazartqan, búl isterdi arnayy saqtaugha berdi me, әlde mýlde qúrtyp jiberdi me, ol jaghy belgisiz. Bәlkim, oblystyq arhivterde bar bolar. Al Tashkentting ortalyq memlekettik arhiyvinde jaghday osynday.

Qazaqstandaghy asharshylyq jayynda әlemdik qauymdastyqtyng moyyndauy mәselesine kelsek, sheteldik ghalymdar qazaq tilinde jazylghan enbekterdi oqymaydy, bilmeydi. Negizinen oryssha basylymdargha jýginedi. 1998 jyly «Nasilistvennaya kollektivizasiya y golod v Kazahstane 1931-33 godah» atty men shygharghan orys tilindegi jinaq sheteldik ghalymdargha mәlim. Sonday-aq, «Krestiyanskie dviyjeniya soprotivleniya» degen 50 bettik ýlken ghylymy maqala da sheteldik basylymdarda jariyalandy. Onda Qazaqstandaghy sharualar kóterilisterine sholu jasalyp, kóptegen derekter qamtyldy.

Ukrainada bolghan «Golodomor» bolsa, óte sayasilandyrylghan mәsele. Ol Kenes odaghy men AQSh sekildi derjavalardyng ózara bәsekelestiginen tuyndaghan. Sonday-aq ukrain diasporasynyng shetelde yqpaldy túlghalary kóp. Olar ashtyq mәselesin sonau 1960 jyldary-aq kótergen. Amerika ghalymy Robert Konkvest kitabyn solardyng sózine sýienip jazdy. «Golodomor» sodan kópke belgili boldy. Odan beride Resey men Ukraina arasynda teketires bastaldy. Olar osyny paydalanyp ashtyq mәselesin BÚÚ dengeyine deyin jetkizdi.

Qazir elimizde asharshylyqtyng tarihi, sayasy baghasy berilmegeni jóninde sóz qozghalyp jýr. Asharshylyq tragediyasyn zertteu isi bastalghan 1992 jyldan beri kóp uaqyt ótti. Endi qazir keybir úiymdar, jekelegen jurnalister asharshylyqty tarihshylar eshqashan zerttemegendey synay tanytady. «Kórmes týieni kórmes» degendey, olar Qazaqstandaghy asharshylyq tarihyn ózderi jana ashyp jatqanday kórsetedi. Búny kópshilik bile bermeytin bolghan son, әriyne, olargha senedi. Shyn mәninde mýlde olay emes. Tarihshylar sol memlekettik komissiya qúrylghan 1991 jyldan beri kóptegen arhivterdi kóterip, zertteuler jýrgizip keledi. Olardyng ghylymy enbekteri arnayy jinaqtarda, oqulyqtarda bar.

Komissiya júmysynyng qorytyndysy jayly maqalalar 1992 jyly 21-22 jeltoqsanda «Egemen Qazaqstan», «Kazahstanskaya pravda», «Halyq kenesi», «Sovety Kazahstana» gazetterinde jaryq kórdi. Sonday-aq, 1998 jyly «Qazaqstandaghy 1931-33 jyldardaghy kýshtep újymdastyru jәne asharshylyq» atty jinaq qúrastyryp, sol jinaqqa ózimiz jazghan komissiya qorytyndysyn tútastay berdik. Odan keyin tarihshy Júldyzbek Ábilhojin ekeumizding «Etnosiyd» atty kólemdi maqalamyz «Egemen Qazaqstannyn» 1992 jylghy 30 mamyrdaghy nómirining birinshi betinen bastap jariyalandy. Yaghni, «genosiyd» – bir halyqqa qarsy jasalghan qyrghyn bolsa, «etnosiyd» – etnosqa, últqa jasalghan qyrghyn. Sóitip, biz «Qazaqstanda 1930 jyldary bolghan asharshylyq – qazaq últyna qarsy jasalghan qylmys» dep tújyrymdadyq jәne sony dәleldedik.

1930 jyldardaghy Qazaqstanda bolghan asharshylyq – búryn- sondy bolmaghan alapat tragediya. Soghys óz aldyna, al beybit uaqytta adamdardyng osylay qyryluy adamzat tarihynda eshqashan bolghan emes. Sebebi, elimizde túrghan 6 millionday halyqtyng 2 million 200 myny, yaghny 40 payyzgha (!) juyghy qyrylghan. Bir millionnan astamy shet elderge bosyp ketti. Búny Ukrainadaghy ashtyqpen salystyrugha kelmeydi. Ol kezde ukrain halqynyng sany 40 milliongha juyq bolatyn (3,5 million adamynan airyldy). Eki elde túratyn halyqtyng sanyna shaqqanda Qazaqstandaghy asharshylyq adam aitqysyz sipatta ótkeni anyq kórinip túr. Kenestik biylikting qazaq halqyna evolusiyalyq jolmen emes, kýshpen basqa damu ýlgisin tanuy onyng dәstýrli sharuashylyq jýiesining búzyluyna әkep soqty. Sonyng saldarynan qazaq halqy jartysyna juyghynan airyldy. Búl óz kezeginde til ayasynyng taryluyna, últtyq mәdeniyetine, salt-dәstýrine joyqyn kesirin tiygizdi. Sondyqtan asharshylyqty etnosid dep qabyldaugha tiyispiz.

Jazyp alghan Dina Imambaeva

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Qosymsha: Fotoda Almatydaghy asharshylyq qúrbandaryna arnalghan eskertkish. Avtorlary: Dulat Ýsenbaev, Aydos Býrkitbaev, Qanat Beguliyev.

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