Seysenbi, 13 Sәuir 2021
Birtuar 3773 12 pikir 12 Qantar, 2021 saghat 12:13

Altynsarin men Atatýrikti ne baylanystyrady?

Juyrda Qazaqstan telearnasynda belgili jurnalist Darhan Ábdikting Ybyray Altynsarin turaly «Ústaz» atty derekti filimi shyqty. 

Biyl últ ústazynyng tughanyna 180 jyl tolady. Osyghan oray biz atalghan filimdegi negizgi oilar men derekterdi avtordyng óz sózimen oqyrman nazaryna úsynudy jón kórdik.

Resey imperiyasy týrki halyqtaryn asqan qatygezdikpen shoqyndyrdy

1739 jyly 10 sәuirde Reseyding Ekaterinburg qalasyndaghy «Áulie Ekaterina» shirkeuining aldyndaghy alanda orys әskeriyleri jergilikti tatarlar men bashqúrttardy kýshtep jinaydy. Jinalghan kópshilikting ortasyna egde jastaghy әieldi baylap alyp shyghyp, alang ortasyndaghy baghangha tanady. Búl zorlyqpen shoqyndyrylghan bashqúrt әiel Kishibiyke Bayrasova edi. Ol qúldyqtan qashyp óz saltyna, óz dinine, óz dәstýrine qayta oralghany ýshin ólim jazasyna kesilgen.

«Resey imperiyasyndaghy otarlau sayasatynyng ereksheligi - otarlanghan eldi mindetti týrde tilinen jәne dilinen aiyru, shoqyndyru. Imperiyanyng iyleuine eng aldymen týrki halyqtarynan - noghaylar, tatarlar, bashqúrttar, chuvashtar týsti. Búl últtardy shoqyndyru asqan qanypezerlikpen jýrgizildi»,- deydi Darhan Ábdik.

Imperiyanyng shoqyndyru sayasatyn asqan qatygezdikpen jýrgizgenderding biri týrki nәsilinen shyqqan tatar myrzasy - Qútlymúhamed Mәmeshúly Tevkelev. (1674-1766) Hristian dinin qabyldaghannan keyingi aty-jóni Aleksey Ivanovich Tevkelev bolyp ózgergen.

Tarihshy Vladimir Viytevskiy 1736 jyly onyng bir ghana ekspedisiyasy turaly:

«Tevkelev 50-ge juyq auyldyng tas-talqanyn shyghardy. Bashqúrttardy jýzdep qoragha qamap, órtep jiberdi. Erkekterdi eng qatygez jolmen azaptap óltirdi. Al, әielderi men bala-shaghasyn soldattaryna taratyp berdi»,-dep jazdy.

18 jasar Altynsarin men missioner Iliminskiyding kezdesui

Alayda, az halyqtar tarapynan shoqyndyru sayasatyna qarsylyq kóbeyedi. Kýshtep shoqyndyrylghan bashqúrttar, chuvashtar men basqa da halyqtar jappay óz dinine ótedi. Endi aila tәsildi ózgertu ýshin qanypezerlerding ornyna «meyirimdi» missionerler keledi. Solardyng biri – týrki halyqtaryn shoqyndyru iydeyasynyng basty iydeology Nikolay Ivanovich Iliminskiy. Ol shyghys, onyng ishinde týrki tilderining bilgiri bolghan.

1859 jyly 36 jasynda Iliminskiy Orynbordaghy shekara komissiyasynda audarmashy bolyp júmys istep jýredi. Sol jerde jergilikti orys-qazaq mektep internatyn altyn medalimen bitirgen 18 jasar qazaq jigiti Ybyray Altynsarinmen tanysady.

«Búl kezdesu - qazaq halqynyng taghdyryn aiqyndaghan jәne sol arqyly qazaq últynyng bolashaghyna әser etken kezdesu boldy. Dәl osy kezdesuden Altynsarin men Iliminskiyding 30 jylgha sozylghan qarym-qatynasy bastaldy.

Ol Ybyraydan Qúdaydyng ózi jaratqan shyn pedagogtyq qasiyetti bayqaydy. Oghan keregi de sol edi»,- deydi filim avtory.

Eng alghashqy últtyq mektepting últtyq oqulyghy hәm Altynsarin múrasynyng júmbaghy

1861 jyly Altynsarin Orynbordan Torghay bekinisine qazaq balalaryn oqytugha jiberilui tiyis edi. Alayda resey imperiyasy qazaq balalaryn oqytugha asyqpaydy.

Mektep 1864 jyly ashylady. Kerek qarjynyng basym bóligin jergilikti ziyaly qazaqtar jinap beredi.

«Yanvaridyng 8-i kýni mening kópten kýtken isim ornyna kelip, mektep ashyldy. Oghan 14 qazaq balasy kirdi. Bәri de jaqsy, esti balalar. Men balalardy oqytugha qoygha shapqan ash qasqyrday óte qyzu kiristim. Búl balalar da mening aiyzymdy qandyryp, nebәri ýsh aidyng ishinde oqy biletin jәne oryssha, tatarsha jaza biletin boldy»,- dep jazady Altynsarin Iliminskiyge hatynda.

Odan son, Ybyray alghashqy últtyq mektepting alghashqy oqulyghyn jazugha kirisedi. Sebebi, tatar moldalarynyng shúbar tilinen sharshaghan qazaq balasy alghash ret ózining ana tilinde jazylghan kitapty qolyna aluy tiyis edi.

Mәselening biri - onyng qanday alfavitpen jazylatynynda.

«Moldalar úsynatyn tatar, arab, pasy kitaptarynyng bәri adamnyng sanasyn ulap, tek topastandyra týsedi. Al, qazaqtargha әrbir adam balasynday oqu barysynda oilandyratyn, bilimge jeteleytin óz tilinde úghymdy etip jazylghan kitaptar qajet.

Altynsarinning Iliminsiyke jazghan haty, 1862j.»

Altynsarin orys alfaviytine qarsylyq bildirip kóredi. Biraq, Iliminskiyding bedeli basym bolghandyqtan, amalsyz kónedi. Sóitip, 1879 jyly alghashqy qazaq oqulyghy «Qazaq hrestomatiyasy» kirillisa negizinde jasalghan әlipbiymen jaryq kóredi.

Darhan Ábdikting aituynsha, Altynsarinning qazaq balalaryna jazghan әngimeler men ólenderindegi ýni shynayy meyirimge, mәrttikke toly. Al, kerisinshe, orys basshylaryna jazghan hattarynda ol әsire iltipatshyl, jasandy sypayy. Altynsarin múrasyndaghy eng ýlken júmbaq ta osy-mys.

Ústazdyng  armany

Ybyray Altynsarinning  armany - hrestomatiyanyng ekinshi bólimin jazu edi. Búl turaly ol 1880 jyldyng sәuir aiynda múghalim, Iliminskiyding shәkirti Katarinskiyge jazghan hatynda bylay dep bayandaydy:

«Búl bólimde men mýmkin bolghanynsha, tolyq týrde jaratylys tarihy turaly, geografiya men tarih turaly, azdap  himiyadan, fizikadan, tehnikalyq óndiris týrlerinen týsinik bergim keledi.

Qazaq halqynyng qazirgi jaghdayynda asa manyzdy búl júmysty oidaghyday atqaryp shyghuyma Qúday taghala tek kýsh pen ghúmyr bergey.

Dúrys paydalansa, búl is - qazaq halqynyng kelbetin ózgerter edi»

Alayda provaslav missionerlerine qazaq balalarynyng múnday sauattylyghy mýldem kerek emes. Iliminskiy búl turaly:

«Mektepterdegi sauattylyq...orfografika men garamtika mýldem qajetsiz. Al, búratana halyqtargha arnalghan oqu oryndarynda tipten ziyan»,-deydi.

Qalqaman Jaqyp, professor, Ybyraytanushy:

-«Ybyraydyng bilim beru jýiesi eki satydan túrdy. Birinshisi - sauat beru. Qazaq balalarynyng sauatyn ashu. Ekinshi, jogharghy satysy - mamandyqty iygeruge jol ashu. Ol aghash sheberi bola ma, temir ústasy bola ma, qolóner me, kilem, alasha toqy ma, kerek deseniz Ybyray qyz balalargha әrtýrli shópting qosyndysynan qalay shóp jasaudy ýiretti»

Missionerlerge qarsylyq hәm Ybyraydyng soqqygha jyghyluy

1872 jyly Efimiy Malovtyng jetekshiligimen músylmandyqqa qarsy maghynadaghy qaghaz kitaptar shygharu komissiyasy qúrylady. Iliminskiyding әdistemesi boyynsha qazaq tiline 307 kitap audarylady.Onyng 288-i taza provaslav hristian uaghyzy. Múnyng bәri qazaqtargha tegin taratyldy. Múnday missionerlik әdebiyet Altynsarin ashqan mektepterge de tyqpalana bastaydy.

«Sizge óte bir qayghyly habar jetkizuge tura kelip otyr. Bizding Aleksandr Gregorevich Bessonov sirә esinen aiyrylghan bolar deymin. Áytpese onyng óz oqushylaryna istegen soraqylyqtaryn basqasha týsindire alar emespin. Baqsam, ol oqytushylar mektebining ýshinshi jәne tórtinshi klastarynda oqushylardyng narazylyghyna qaramastan, bir ay boyy Injil men onyng paryzdaryn uaghyzday bastapty. Nәtiyjesi - ol oqushylargha qatygezdik pen yzaqorlyq tanytyp, songhylary oqudan bas tartqan. Jaghday onyng óz shәkirtterin alayaq dep atap moynyndarynan iyterip shygharuyna deyin ushyqqan.

Ybyraydyng Katarinskiyge jazghan haty»

Shyn mәninde múnday әdebiyet oqulyqtaryn Katarinskiy men Iliminskiy 1862 jyly aq qazaq mektepterining baghdarlamasyna bekitip qoyghan. Alayda, Altynsarinning qazaq mektebimen qazaq balalarynyng bolashaghyna óz kózqarasy bolghan.

Altynsarin missionerlerge jauap beru ýshin qazaq balalaryna himiya, fizika siyaqty tehnikalyq pәnderdi oqytugha baghyttalghan hrestomatiyanyng ekinshi bólimin jazudy toqtatugha mәjbýr bolady. Onyng ornyna 1884 jyly  «Músylmashylyq tútqasy» degen kitaby jaryq kóredi. Biraq búl oqulyqta da Altynsarin dinge últtyq sipa berip, ony qazaqtyng mýddesine búrady. Sondyqtan ol namaz ishinde nemese qúran ayattaryn, arabsha dúghalardy óz tilinde oqugha ýndeydi.

Búl missionerlerge degen ashyq qarsylyq edi. Sol ýshin ol oblystyq gubernatorlardyng tergeuinde bolady. Búdan son, 1889 jyly Obaghan auylynda berilgen asta Tólebay Kóbekúly degen adam Ybyraydy soqqygha jyghady. Búl kezde ústazdyng densaulyghy nashar, jasy gde tartqan edi...

Sóitip, 1889 jyly Ybyray Altynsarin jýrek auruynan, qúsadan qaytys bolady.

Altynsarin men Atatýrikti ne baylanystyrady?

Qyrymda, Baqsha saray qalasynda tatar aghartushysy Ismail Gasprinskiyding múrajayynda «Músylmashylyq tútqasynyn» bauyryna Ybyray óz qolymen jazyp tabys etken ekzemplyary saqtalghan.

Altynsarinnen keyin Gasprinskiy týrki músylman medreselerine Ybyraydyng ýlgisi boyynsha, zayyrly ghylym pәnderin (himiya, fizika, biologiya) engizip, reformatorlyq Jәdid qozghalysyn bastaydy.

Jәdid qozghalysy - barsha týrki halyqtaryn dýmshe moldalardyng nadan uaghyzynan bas kóterip, zayyrly ghylymdargha bet aluyna, dindi últtyq túrghydan payymdaugha jeteleydi.

Jәdidshildik - Osman imperiyasy qúldyraghannan keyin Mústafa Kemali Atatýrik bastaghan jana týrik elitasynyng qalyptasuyna yqpal etti.

XX ghasyrdyng basynda tatar, bashqúrt, noghay, qúmyq, ózbek sekildi barsha týrki halyqtarynyng zayyrly últshyl intelliygensiyasyn tәrbiyelep shyghardy.

Al, Altynsarin shәkirtteri - Alashtyqtar. Bilimdi, parasatty olar Ybyray mektepterining týlekteri edi. Sol sebepti qazirgi qazaq memlekettigining atasy Álihan Bókeyhanov 1925 jyly mausymnyng 23-i kýni Ahmet Baytúrsynovqa jazghan hatynda:

«Altynsarynyng balasy Ybyray haqynda ózing jazghanyng dúrys bolady. Ol sening aghang emes pe? eger ol qazir ómir sýrse sendey bolar edi. Al, sen erterek dýniyege kelgende onyng isin jasaryng haq»,- deydi.

Tólen Ábdik, jazushy:

«Qazaqtyng jerinde orystandyru mektebi boldy. Jәne soghan mýlde qarama-qarsy últtyq sanany saqtap qalugha arnalghan Ybyray Altynsarinning mektebi boldy. Ol últtyq sanany saqtap qalu ýshin ózi qolynan oqulyq jasady. Qazaqtyng anyz-әngimelerinen, auyz әdebiyetinen oghan ózining shyghrmalaryn qosyp, tarihty qosyp túnghysh ret hrestomatiya jasady. Islam dini degen pәn engizdi. Ásirese onyng әigili Bir Qúdaygha syiynyp, kel, balalar oqylyq degen sózi O, boje, hrani, sarya degen dúghagha qarama-qarsy bolyp estiledi.

Al, eng bastysy ne deseniz, Ybyraydyng mektepteri - el qamyn oilaytyn tútas bir mektep tәrbiyeledi. Sol mektepte oqyghandardyng biri Ahmet Baytúrsynov pen Mirjaqyp Dulatov. Odan әri ol elimizding Tәuelsizdigi ýshin kýresken Alash qozghalysyna, Alash iydeyasyna jalghasty».

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