Seysenbi, 20 Sәuir 2021
Alystaghy bauyrym 3375 11 pikir 25 Aqpan, 2021 saghat 19:53

Qojaly genosiydi hәm Qarabaq soghysy...

Osydan 29 jyl búrynghy Qojaly eldi-mekenindegi qandy qasaptyng әli kýnge deyin jergilikti túrghyndar ýshin qorqynyshty týs ispettes qasiret sanalyp, al qalghan kópshilik ýshin qayghy jútqan qaraly kýn bolyp tabylatyndyghy ras. 1992 jyldyng aqpan aiynyng 25-inen 26-na qaraghan týni búrynghy KSRO-nyng 366-shy motoatqyshtar bólimshesining tikeley qatysuymen jәne jergilikti túraqsyz әskeriylerding qosalqy kómegimen Armeniyanyng qaruly kýshteri Ázirbayjan Respublikasynyng Tauly Qarabaq aimaghyndaghy Qojaly qalasyna asqan qatygezdikpen qan tógu maqsatynda basa-kóktep kirgen bolatyn. Shabuyl nәtiyjesinde 613 beybit túrghyn, olardyng qatarynda 63 bala, 106 әiel men 70 qariya óltirildi. Qoldan jasalghan qyrghyn ýstinde 487 adamnyng deneleri jauyzdyqpen bólshektendi, tipti keybiri tiriley órtelip, keybirining bastary júlyndy, taghy bireulerine auyr dene jaraqaty salynsa, keybirining bas terisi tiridey sypyryldy. 1000-gha juyq beybit túrghyn auyr jaralanyp, 1275 adam tútqyngha alyndy. Qojalynyng 150-ge juyq túrghyny әli kýnge deyin is-týssiz joghalghandar qatarynda. 8 otbasy tolyghymen qyrylyp, 25 bala túl jetim, taghy 130 bala jartylay jetim atandy.

Qojaly qalasynyng túrghyndaryn jappay ólimge kesu kezinde әzirbayjan últynyng ókilderi ghana qasaqana óltirilgendikten, búl qandy oqigha etnikalyq tazartu jәne genosid aktilerining sipatyn aldy.

Qojalyda oryn alghan qylmys – halyqaralyq qúqyqtyng imperativtik normalarynyng (jus cogens) qatang búzushylyghy bolyp tabylady. Dәlirek aitqanda, ol normalargha sәikes, memleketter men olardyng aumaghynda túryp jatqan halyqtardyng ómiri men býtindigine jәne adamy qúndylyqtargha qarsy qauip tóndiruge tyiym salynghan. Osy normalardyng ishinde, kópshilikting oiynsha, agressiyagha, otarlyq ýstemdikti ornatugha nemese ony kýshpen saqtaugha, genosidke, qúldyqqa, nәsildik kemsitushilikke, adamzatqa qarsy qylmystar men azaptaugha tyiym salulardy imperativti dep qarastyrghan abzal.

Halyqaralyq sottar men úiymdar Qojalydaghy oqighanyng qatygezdigin jәne qylmystyng bar auyrlyghyn tolyghymen moyyndady. Qasiretti oqighadan birneshe apta ótken son, 1992 jyldyng 11 nauryzynda Europa Kenesining Ministrler Komiyteti deklarasiyada «jaqyn arada oryn alghan jappay adam óltiru men qatygezdikke» qatty alandaushylyq bildirip, Ázirbayjan Respublikasynyng Tauly Qarabaq aimaghynyng túrghyndaryna qarsy baghyttalghan «zorlyq-zombylyq» әreketterin qatang týrde aiyptady.

Kóptegen faktilermen, sonyng ishinde tergeu aighaqtary jәne jazbalarmen, kuәgerlerding dәleldemelerimen, halyqaralyq BAQ-taghy habarlamalarmen, ýkimetaralyq jәne ýkimettik emes úiymdardyng qújattarymen aiqyn rastalghan Qojaly genosiydi ýshin tolyq jauapkershilikti Armeniya Respublikasy moynyna aldy.

Adam qúqyqtary jónindegi Europalyq sot 2010 jyldyng 22 sәuirindegi sheshiminde qylmystyng kvalifikasiyalanuy jәne ol ýshin jauapkershilikti moyyngha alu mәselesine kýmәn tudyrmaytyn tómendegidey eskertu jasady: «Tәuelsiz aqparat kózderinen alynghan esepterde kórsetilgendey 1992 jyly 25 aqpannan 26 aqpangha qaraghan týni Qojalynyng basyp alynuy kezinde armyan әskerleri qalagha shabuyl jasaghan. Basyp alynghan qaladan qashyp ketuge tyrysqan jýzdegen etnikalyq әzirbayjandyqtardyng óltirilgeni, jaralanghany nemese tútqyngha alynghany jayynda habarlandy». Sot shabuyl jasaudy jýzege asyrushylardyng is-qimylyn «әskery qylmystar nemese adamzatqa qarsy qylmystargha tenestirilu mýmkindigi bar asa auyr qylmystyq әreketke» jatqyzdy.

Armeniya Respublikasynyng tarapynan tuyndaghan halyqaralyq gumanitarlyq qúqyq jәne adam qúqyqtary turaly zannamanyng óreskel búzushylyqtary qataryna nysana talghamaytyn shabuyldardy, sonyng ishinde beybit túrghyndardy óltirudi, tútqyngha alu men kýshtep ústaudy, әskery tútqyndar men tútqyngha alynghan beybit túrghyndargha kórsetilgen jәbir men tiyisti sot sheshimisiz óltiru siyaqty zansyz әreketter jatady.

Qojalydaghy beybit túrghyndargha qarsy shabuyldargha halyqaralyq qúqyqta anyqtalghan genosid qylmysynyng kelesi elementteri keledi: actus reus - jappay kisi óltiru jәne fizikalyq nemese psihikalyq densaulyqqa auyr zalal keltiru; әskery kýshter shabuyldaytyn arnayy nysana toptyng boluy jәne nәsildik, etnikalyq, últtyq nemese diny túrghydan erekshelenetin topty tolyghymen nemese ishinara joygha degen naqty genosidtik niyetting boluy. Beybit túrghyndardy tolyghymen nemese ishinara qúrtugha baghyttalghan qasaqana niyetting naqty jәne aiqyn dәlelderi Qojalyda jasalghan qylmystyng genosid әreketine jatatyndyghyn rastaydy.

Armeniyanyng Ázirbayjan Respublikasyna qarsy әskery agressiyasy kezinde oryn alghan Qojaly genosiydi jәne adamzatqa qarsy baghyttalghan basqa da qylmystar halyqaralyq gumanitarlyq qúqyq jәne adam qúqyqtary turaly zandy, atap aitqanda 1949 jylghy Jeneva konvensiyalaryn, Genosid qylmysynyng aldyn alu jәne ol ýshin jazalau turaly konvensiyany, Azamattyq jәne sayasy qúqyqtar turaly halyqaralyq paktini, Ekonomikalyq, әleumettik jәne mәdeny qúqyqtar turaly halyqaralyq paktini, Azaptaulargha jәne basqa da qatygez, adamgershilikke jatpaytyn nemese ar-namysty qorlaytyn is-әreketter men jazalau týrlerine qarsy konvensiyany, Nәsildik kemsitushilikting barlyq nysandaryn jong turaly halyqaralyq konvensiyany, Bala qúqyqtary turaly konvensiyany jәne Adam qúqyqtary men negizgi bostandyqtaryn qorghau turaly konvensiyany óreskel búzady.

Halyqaralyq jauapkershilikke qatysty negizgi erejeler 2001 jyldyng 9 tamyzynda Birikken Últtar Úiymynyng halyqaralyq qúqyq komissiyasynyng qabyldaghan jәne Bas Assambleyanyng 2001 jyldyng 12 jeltoqsanynda memleketterge úsynghan Memlekettik jauapkershilik turaly baptarynda bayandalghan.

1-bapta: «Memleketting kez kelgen halyqaralyq zansyz әreketi sol memleketting halyqaralyq jauapkershiligin tudyrady», al 2-bapta: «Memleketting kez-kelgen halyqaralyq zansyz әreketi (a) qanday-da bir is-әreketting halyqaralyq qúqyq normalaryna sәikes memleketke jýktelgen jaghdayda ghana oryndy bolady; jәne (b) búl zansyz әreket sol memleketting halyqaralyq-qúqyqtyq mindettemesin búzu bolyp sanalady», - dep jazylghan.

Memlekettik jauapkershilik turaly baptardyng 4-babynyng 6-týsiniktemesinde memlekettik organdargha: «tek ortalyq memlekettik organdar, joghary dengeydegi sheneunikter nemese memleketting syrtqy baylanystaryna jauapty adamdar ghana jatpaytyny atalyp kórsetilgen. Olardyng qataryna kez-kelgen mindetti atqaratyn jәne iyerarhiyanyng kez-kelgen dengeyinde, onyng ishinde audandyq nemese tipti jergilikti dengeyde qyzmet atqaratyn kez-kelgen tiptegi nemese klassifikasiyadaghy memlekettik organdar kiredi», - delingen.

Armyan jazushysy Markar Melkonyan «Arabo» jәne «Aramo» dep atalatyn eki armyan әskery otryadtarynyng jauyngerlerining qatygezdigin erekshe atap ótedi jәne olardyng Qojalynyng beybit túrghyndaryn qalay qyryp-joyghanyn egjey-tegjeyli sipattaydy. Onyng aituynsha, qalanyng keybir túrghyndary óz jerinde bosqynnyng kýiin keship, shamamen 10 kilometr qashyqtyq jerge qashyp ýlgerip, qauipsiz baspanany endi taptyq dey bergende «armyan soldattary olardyng izderine týsip, ústaghan bolatyn».

Sarbazdar «úzaq uaqyt boyy jambastaryna jasyrghan pyshaqtaryn suyryp, jazyqsyz adamdardy ayamastan pyshaqtay bastady». Qojaly genosiydi kezinde basyp alynghan Ázirbayjan territoriyasyndaghy zansyz qaruly toptardyng bas qolbasshysy bolghan. S.Sarkisyannyng kelesi sózderi Qojaly qasiretining shynayy sebepkerleri kim ekendigin aiqyn kórsetedi: «Qojaly oqighasyna deyin әzirbayjandar bizben әzildesuge әlderi jetedi dep oilady. Olar armyandar qarapayym halyqqa qarsy qoldaryn kótere almaydy dep oilady. Biz búl [stereotipti] búza aldyq. Mine, jaghday solay boldy».

Armeniya Respublikasynyng memlekettik jauapkershiligi halyqaralyq zannamagha qayshy keletin әreketterine, yaghny halyqaralyq qylmystyq qúqyqtyng qarapayym jәne sharttyq normalaryna sәikes, qaruly qaqtyghys jaghdayynda Qojaly qalasynda jasalghan keybir is-әreketterine baylanysty. Halyqaralyq qylmystyq qúqyq búzushylyqtar ýshin jauapkershilikti moyyndaryna sol is-әreketterge qatysqan adamdar, olardyng sybaylastary alady.

Halyqaralyq jauapkershilikpen qatar, Armeniyanyng mindettemelerine múnday әreketterding toqtatyluy, olardyng endigide qaytalanbauy siyaqty tiyisti kepildikter beru jәne restitusiya, kompensasiya men satisfaksiya týrindegi keltirilgen zalal ornyn óteytin ótemaqy beru kiredi.

Armeniya Respublikasy adamzatqa qarsy qylmystaryn 2020 jyly Ekinshi Qarabaq soghysy kezinde Ázirbayjannyng beybit túrghyndaryna qasaqana shabuyl jasaumen jalghastyrdy. Armeniya 2020 jyly soghys alanynan әldeqayda tys ornalasqan Gyandja, Barda jәne Terter siyaqty Ázirbayjan qalalarynyng beybit halqy men infraqúrylymyna qarsy baghyttalghan shabuyldary arqyly taghy bir mәrte 1992 jyldyng oqighasyn qaytalady. Eng soraqysy, búl joly adamdardyng jappay ólimine әkeletin qarular, sonyng ishinde klasterlik bombalar men zymyrandyq jýieler qoldanylyp, beybit túrghyndar arasynda joghary shyghyndargha әkep soqtyrdy. Ázirbayjan Respublikasy Bas prokuraturasynyng mәlimeti boyynsha, zymyrandyq jәne artilleriyalyq shabuyldardyng nәtiyjesinde 100-den astam beybit túrghyn, onyng ishinde 12 bala men 27 әiel qaza tapty, 423 beybit túrghyn jaraqat aldy. 5000-nan astam túrghyn ýiler men kópqabatty ýiler, 76 әleumettik nysandar, onyng ishinde mektepter, auruhanalar men balabaqshalar, 24 óndiris orny, 218 sauda nysandary, 51 qoghamdyq tamaqtanu orny, 41 әkimshilik ghimarat jәne 19 ghibadat orny qiratyldy. 1992 jylghy Qojaly genosiydi de, 2020 jyly beybit túrghyndardy bombalau da Armeniya Respublikasy biyligining Ázirbayjannyng beybit túrghyndaryna qarsy qasaqana jýrgizgen sayasaty men jýieli zorlyq-zombylyq әreketterining aiqyn dәleli.

Armeniya men Ázirbayjan arasyndaghy úzaq merzimdi beybitshilik pen tatulyqtyng ornauyna kedergi bolghan basty sebep - sonau uaqyttan beri qylmys jasaghandardyng jazasyz qaluy ekendigi haq. Osylaysha, qaqtyghys kezinde jasalghan halyqaralyq jәne adam qúqyqtarynyng óreskel búzushylyqtary turaly bar shyndyqty anyqtau, jәbirlenushilerge ótemaqylar beru jәne múnday zang búzushylyqtardyng qaytalanuyn boldyrmau jolynda tiyisti sharalar qabyldau qajettiligi - búl shynymen eki elding tatulasu ýderisine qajetti aspektiler.

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