Seysenbi, 20 Sәuir 2021
Ruhaniyat 2234 4 pikir 26 Aqpan, 2021 saghat 12:18

«Abay» serialynyng jýgi

«Medreseni jauyp, ony týrmege ainaldyru qylmys emes pe?!»

«Sonda músylman meshitining taghdyryn arhiyerey sheshetin bolghany ma!»

 «Meshitting zanyn shirkeuge, shirkeuding zanyn meshitke tanugha bolmaydy.»

6 bólimdi «Abay» serialyn kórip otyryp, Abay men general-gubernatordyng arasynda bolghan dialog pen Qúnanbaydyng auzynan shyqqan osy sózderdi estip tuyndynyng astarynda jatqan zildi salmaghyn birden anghardym. Jalpy, búl serialdyng kótergen jýgi óte auyr. Túshynyp, týsinip, astaryna ýnilip qaraghan adam kóp nәrsening bayybyna barar edi. Eng әueli búl – kórkem tuyndy. Útqyr tústary da joq emes. Kórkem shygharmagha tәn keyipkerler beynesi de sәtti órilgen. Osydan bir jyl búryn ssenariyimen tanysyp, kem-ketikterin tolyqtyrugha kenes berip, jaqsy tústaryna kónilim jibigen edi. «Bitken iske synshy kóp» deydi qazaq. Ýlken sharuanyng qanshalyqty qiyndyqpen, qanshalyqty jankeshtilikpen jýzege asatynyn eskermey, ýidey pәleni ýiip, tyrnaq astynan kir izdep, qangha singen әdetimizben miney ketetinderge onsha qayran qalmaytyn kýnge jettik. Búl endi basqa әngime… Al endi tuyndynyng kótergen jýgi qanday? Aldymen osyghan nazar salghanymyz dúrys bolar edi.

Áueli Abaydyng әlemin tanu ýshin ol ómir keshken zamannyng sayasiy-әleumettik astaryna mәn bere qaraghanymyz jón. Mine, osy túrghydan men kórkem serialdyng eng ýlken eki arnasyna airyqsha toqtalghym keldi. Tuyndynyng astarynda jatqan ýlken eki arnanyng ózegi óte salmaqty. Bir arnasyndaghy mәsele – qazaqtyng ruhany bodandyghy, dilinen, dininen aiyryluynyng alghashqy satysy yaghny imperiyanyng shoqyndyru sayasaty. Al endi ekinshi arnasyndaghy tartystyng ózegi – eldi ala tayday býldirgen bolystyq biylikting zardabynda jatyr. Mine, eki taqyrypqa ýnilsen, ekeuining de maqsaty qazaqty býldirude, basybayly bodandyqqa iytermeleude jatyr. Osy jaghdaydy kórkemdik túrghydan sәtti kórsete alghan. Bir nazar audararlyq mәsele – patsha ýkimetining 1865 jylghy «Obrusiytelinaya palata» dep ashqan mekemesining qazaqtardy shoqyndyryp, orystandyrudyng bir kórinisi – «Prihodskaya shkola» manynda jinaqtauyn tuyndynyng bólekshe jetistigi dep qarasaq bolady. Meshitterdi jabu, Abay oqyghan Ahmet Riza medresesining jabylu tarihy ýkimining qazaqtardy orystandyru, hristian dinine shoqyndyru jolyndaghy әreketteri óte oryndy kórsetilgen. 1865 jyly 5 shildedegi Ekinshi Aleksandr patshanyng qolymen resmy sayasy qújat retinde jazylghan raskriptige sýiene otyryp, eki nәrsege airyqsha nazar audaryldy. Onyng biri – qazaqtardyng bәrin birynghay biylep-tósteuding janasha jýiesin jasap, yaghny «jana nizam» dep atalatyn erejeni 1867 jyldan bastap ómirge naqtyly endiru maqsaty kózdeldi. Ekinshiden, serialdaghy detalidar qazaqtardy pravoslavie dinine endiruding bar mýmkindikterin qarastyru arqyly kózdelgen orystandyru sayasatynyng týpki maqsatyn menzeydi. Talay syrdy býgip jatqan tarih qatparlaryna ýnile qarar bolsaq, patshaly Resey imperiyasy óz qolastyna engen kóp tildi búratana halyqtardyng ghasyrlar boyy tútynyp kele jatqan jazuy men diny nanymyn isten shygharyp, mýlde shoqyndyryp jiberu sayasatyn tym erte kýnnen bastaghanyn XIV ghasyrdaghy shuvash, mordva, komy halyqtarynyng tarihynan kóremiz. Mysaly, komy halqynan shyqqan svyashennik Stefan 1383 jyly episkop dәrejesine kóterildi. Ol orys grafikasy negizinde komy alfaviytin jasap, missionerlik qyzmet atqardy, nemese XVI ghasyrdaghy Reseydegi Qasym handyghynyng songhy múrageri Sayyn Bolathannyng shoqynyp, óz atyn ózgertip Samson atanghany da tarihtan belgili jәit. Búl – shoqynghan búratana ataulynyng ata-anasy qoyghan esimi mindetti týrde ózgertilip, onyng aty men familiyasyn orysshalap qoyatyn dәstýr sol tústa-aq qalyptasqanyn anghartady. Resey patshalyghynyng eng senimdi iydeologiya maydanynyng asa belsendi toby – missionerlerding bar amal-aylasy, kýsh-quaty tatar halqyn shoqyndyrugha júmsalghany tarihtan mәlim. Búl mәseleni týpkilikti jýzege asyrudy missioner ghalym Iliminskiy qolgha aldy. Osy kýres ýstinde ol kertartpa resmy pedagogikanyng ókili retindegi ózi jasaghan pedagogikalyq missionerlik jýiesin tatarlargha endirdi. Iliminskiyge deyin-aq 1802 jyly qaruly kýshpen shoqyndyrylghan on myndaghan tatar pravoslavie dininen bas tartyp, óz dinine qayta bastady. Al 1803 jyly Svyatoy sinod tatarlardy qayta shoqyndyrugha búiryq berdi. Daghystandyqtardy shoqyndyrugha shetel missionerleri kelip aralasty. Al Iliminskiy bolsa sheteldik missionerlerding osy túrghyda jýrgizgen sayasatynyng tәjiriybesin ýirenip, ýlgi alu ýshin shetelderge jiberildi. Óitkeni búl kezde patsha ýkimetining dinge endiru, orystandyru isi kýshine enip, býkil Sibir, Kavkaz, Volga boyy halyqtaryn tútas qamtydy. Endigi әreket órisining auqymynda aldymen qazaqtar, artynsha Orta Aziyalyq halyqtar túrdy. Biraq búl ólkeni orystandyru, shoqyndyru ýrdisi jaghdaygha, uaqytyna qaray baghdarlanyp, halyqtyng diny nanym men salt-dәstýrindegi ereksheligine oraylastyra jýzege asyryldy. Ásirese missioner ghalymdar aldymen qazaq elining ruhany bolmysy men ótkendegi tarihy jolyn, psihologiyasyn, minez-qúlqyn, salt-sana dәstýrining ereksheligin, biyleu jýiesin, yaghny ózderine qajet buyndy da úrymtal tústaryn tereng zerttey otyryp, missionerlik sayasatynyng strategiyalyq negizderi men taktikalyq әdisterin, maqsattaryn anyqtap otyrdy. Qazaqtyng minezin әbden zerttegen missionerler basqaru jýiesinde týbegeyli zerttep, bolystyq jýieni engizdi. Mine, qazaqtyng býlingen túsy osydan bastalady. Búl auqymdy taqyryp serialdyng tútas mazmúnyn, maqsatyn aiqyn kórsetipti.

Júrt arasyndaghy pikirlerding keybireu­lerine terendey nazar sala qaraghanymda bayqaghanym – kópshilik filimning astaryndaghy jogharyda keninen qauzalghan mәselege mәn bermegen tәrizdi. Eger búl derekti filim bolsa, onda jón-jobasy da basqasha bolar edi. Al kórkem tuyndynyng aty – kórkem tuyndy. Keybir kishi-girim elementterge shúqshiyp, filimning masshtabyndaghy iydeyagha nazar salmay, ala-qúla pikir aitushylardy bayqadym. Filim Abay zamanyn tútastay qamtyghan. Abay beynesi ózgeshe. Halyqqa jaqyn, el arasynda jýrgen, adamy bolmysy, pende retindegi tynystary da kórinis tapqan. O basta ssenariydi oqyghanymda Abay men Shoqannyng kezdesip, sol zaman bolmysynda oryn alghan sayasiy-әleumettik mәselege qarym-qatynasyn, janasha talap dengeyin suretteui avtordyng shygharmashylyq tabysy dep baghalaghan edim, ókinishke qaray, ol túsy filimde kórsetilmepti. Al endi Qúnanbay obrazy ózgesheligimen kózge týsti. Búrynnan taptauryngha ainalghan obrazdan bólek. Aqtalghany, jana kózqaraspen baghamdalghan әdiletti Qúnanbaydy kórdim. Dәl osynday ózgeshe somdalghan taghy bir keyipker – Orazbaydyng túlghasy. Tútastay alghanda sujettik jelide Orazbaydyng salmaghy da basym. Onyng da óz shyndyghy bar. Sonshama taytalasqa týsip jýrse de, kisiligin kórsete alatyn qazaqtyng minezi bayqaldy. Orazbay obrazy da janashyldyghymen quantty. Osy sekildi Jiyrenshege de, Bójeyge de toqtalugha bolar edi. Obrazdardyng barlyghy da kónilge qonymdy. Jalpy alghanda, tarihy taqyryptaghy shygharma hronika men dәiek­ke ghana sýiense, onyng әseri kórermenge sonshalyqty yqpal ete qoymaydy. Filimde kórkemdik sheshim molynan qamtylghan. Kýnirenip, qyr basynda otyratyn, adam retindegi Abay beynesi útymdy shyqqan. Aqynnyng qúsalanuy, qapalanuy, filimning finalynda sәtti berilgen. Onyng arman-tilegining «Aq kememen» úshtastyryluyn da erekshe atap kórsetetin kórkemdik sheshim dep baghalaugha bolady.

Shygharmanyng basty maqsaty – tarihta bolghan oqighany bayandap beru ghana emes, tarih arqyly býgingi sanagha yqpal etu. Sol maqsat­ty oryndaghan tuyndynyng biri ekeni sózsiz. Teledidar salasynda juyrghy jyldardan beri tarihy taqyryptardaghy kórkem serialdardyng shet jaghasyn kórip, bayqap jýrmin. Progress bayqalady. Preziydent maqalasynda da: «Tarihy taqyryptardaghy tuyndylardy kóbirek týsiru kerek», – degen jaqsy oy aityldy. Alashorda tarihyn arqau etken «Tar zaman» siyaqty tәp-tәuir telefilimder kóbeye týsse, úrpaqtyng últtyq sanasyn oyatugha qadam jasaghanymyz bolar edi. Abay әlemin kórkem tuyndygha arqau etken shygharmashylyq toptyng da izdenisi kóp. Jogharyda aitqan tarihy telefilimderdi búghan deyin de týsirip, qalyng kórermenge úsynghan eken. Demek, kóshke jol ortadan qosylghandar emes. Abay әlemin, Abay obrazyn tanu ýshin әli de talay júmystar atqarylady ghoy, Hәkimning 175 jyldyghyna arnap, últtyq arnanyng halqyna ýlken tartu jasaghany tәuelsiz sananyng bir mysqaly boldy dep qaraugha bolady.

Mekemtas Myrzahmetúly,

abaytanushy ghalym, filologiya ghylymdarynyn
doktory, professor

Abai.kz

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