Jeksenbi, 1 Tamyz 2021
Alasapyran 4339 21 pikir 4 Nauryz, 2021 saghat 13:58

Asharshylyqtyng sebepteri men saldary  

Jaqynda  Preziydent Q.K.Toqaev: «Qughyn sýrgin men asharshylyq qúrbandaryn aqtau» jayly arnayy qauly qabyldady. Songhy kýnderi osy mәsele jayly «Abai.kz» portalynda biraz maqalalar jariyalandy.

Senat tóraghasy Mәulen Áshimbaev: «Azattyq jolyndaghy aqtandaqtar: Asharshylyq zardaptaryna tarihy kózqaras» taqyrybyna arnalghan dóngelek ýstelde asharshylyq Kenes Odaghy qúramyndaghy elderding ortaq tragediyasy ekenin aityp, búl mәseleni asa sayasattandyrmaudy úsynypty.

Deputat Múrat Baqtiyarúly: «20-30  jyldardaghy asharshylyq genosid emes», dep mәlimdepti.

21 aqpanda Ómirzaq Aqjigit: «Qatty qatelesipsiz, deputat myrza», degen maqalasy jariyalandy. Avtor: «Eng ókinishtisi - osy zúlmatty Kenes Ýkimeti qoldaghan jәne úiymdastyrghan genosid ekenin әli moyyndata alghan joqpyz. Halqymyzdyng sany qazir 40-50 milliongha jetetin edi. Últymyzdyng 70 payyzy asharshylyq qúrbany boldy», dep jazypty.

Ókinishke oray, asharshylyq taqyryby boyynsha jariyalanghan maqalalardyng birazynda tereng taldau joq. Keybir últtardy joy ýshin Stalinning arnayy úiymdastyrghan sharasy dep, Kenestik jýieni kinalau basym. Mәselen Ukrainanyng últshyldary: «Ótken ghasyrdyng 20 jyldaryndaghy asharshylyq saldarynan 3 millionnan asa túrghyn opat boldy. Demek ómirge kele almaghan úrpaqtardy qosa eseptegende últ sany 8 mln adamgha kemidi. KSRO-nyn  múrageri Resey Federasiyasy 10 milliard dollar aiyp tóleu kerek», dep talap qoida.

Ótken ghasyrdyng 20-30 jyldary oryn alghan asharshylyq jayly jalang sóz ben úrangha berilmey tarihy derekterge sýiengen dúrys. Osy orayda, qart jazushy, qogham qayratkeri Ghabbas Qabyshúlynyng 19 aqpanda: «Abai.kz» portalynda jariyalanghan: «Asharshylyqtyng saldary az emes», degen   maqalasynan shaghyn ýzindi keltirgendi jón kórdim. Avtor: «KSRO kezinde  biraz qiyametter boldy, sonyng biri 1921 jyly bastalyp, 1933 jyly ayaqtalghan asharshylyq edi. Nәubet 1921 jyly Reseyden bastalyp onyng 34 provinsiyasyn qamtyp, 5 mlngha juyq adam kóz júmdy», deydi. Iosif Stalinning tapsyrysy boyynsha asharshylyq jaylaghan Resey audandaryn aralaghan jazushy Mihail Sholohov  jergilikti qaskýnem belsendiler qolhozdandyrugha qarsy jasaghan aiuandyqta shek bolmaghanyn jazady. Onyng negizgi úiymdastyrushylary Leninning sayasatyna qarsy top, sol kezde  Býkilodaqtyq atqaru komiytetining tóraghasy qyzmetin atqarghan Ya.Sverdlov (últy evrey, shyn aty men tegi: Eshua Solomon Movchovich) jәne L.Troskiy  (últy evrey, tegi Bronshteyn) bolghan eken. Olar halyqty Kenes ýkimetine qarsy qon ýshin óz adamdary arqyly neshe týrli qulyq súmdyqqa barghan. Kulaktardy biylikke baghynbaugha, baylyqtaryn bermeuge astyrtyn shaqyrghan  Avtor 1920-1921 jyldary qúrghaqshylyq saldarynan egin shyqpay,   Ukrainada 3 mln 300 myng adam asharshylyq qúrbany bolghanyn jazypty.

Ótken jyldan beri últymyzdyng sany, asharshylyqtyng sebepteri men saldaryna nazar audaryp, aqparat jýiesinde jariyalanghan biraz derektermen tanysyp shyqtym. Qazaq handyghyn qúrghan Kerey men Jәnibekting biyligi túsynda halyq sany 700 mynnan aspaghan, Qasymhannyng kezinde bir milliongha taqapty, demek 300 jylda 1,5 ese ghana kóbeygen kórinedi. Tabighy ósim tómendigining basty sebepteri jút jyldarynda qaytalanatyn asharshylyq pen indetterden kóshpendi halyqtyng qyryluy jәne jongharlar  shapqynshylyghy bolghan kórinedi. Songhy bir ghasyrda últymyz ýsh ret asharshylyqqa úshyrapty. Belgili aghartushy jәne tarihshy, Alash partiyasynyng qayratkeri Múhamedjan Tynyshbaevtyng derekterine sәikes, 1897 jyly qazaqtardyng sany 3,5 mln bolghan kórinedi. 1916-1918 jj tabighy apat saldarynan bolghan asharshylyqpen qatar, sýzek, tyrysqaq, oba jәne t.b. indetterden 1,5-2 milliongha juyq adam opat bolypty. Áriyne azamat soghysynyng saldary da bolghan. 1926 jyly Qazaq AKSR-da 6 mln 128 myn  túrghyn tirkelse, últymyzdyng sany 3 mln 627 myn, 1930 jyly sәikestire alghanda 5 mln 837 myng jәne  4,5 mln bolypty. 1921-1922 jyldary jaz ailaryndaghy qúrghaqshylyq pen qystyng ýskirik ayazynan maldyng 80 payyzgha juyghy qyrylyp, bir milliongha juyq qandastarymyz asharshylyqtan kóz júmghan kórinedi. 1921 jyly 1 jeltoqsanda panasyz qalghan ash jalanash balalar sany 128 myng bolsa, 1922 jyly 1 nauryzda 408 myngha jetken.

Kenes ýkimeti ornaghannan keyin balalardy oqytu jәne halyqqa dәrigerlik  kómek kórsetu ýshin halyqty otyryqshylyqqa kóshiru qajet bolady. 1926 jyly 70 payyzdan astam qandastarymyz kóship qonyp júrgen eken, tek tórten birine juyghy ghana túraqty qonystanghan. Túrghylyqty halyq mal sharuashylyghymen ainalysatyndyghyn eskere otyryp, újymdastyrudy keyingi qaldyrmaq bolady. Biraq 1924-1933 jyldary respublikanyng partiya basshysy qyzmetin atqarghan F.IY.Goloshekin (últy evrey, aty jóni Shaya Isikovich) respublikada «kishi qazan tónkerisin jasau qajet», dep iske  kirisedi. 1928 jyly 826 myng qojalyqtardyng 11268 kәmpeskelenedi, sol jyly 6 mln 509 myng iri-qara mal men jylqy, 18 mln qoy, 1930 jyly jalpy alghanda 29 mln 549 myng mal bolsa, 1931 jyly 8 mln 612 myn, 1935 jyly   mal sany on esege juyq kemip, 3,5 milliony qalady. 706 myng sharuaqojalyqtardyng 5 payyzy nemese 42 myny auhattylar bolghan eken.  Kórshiles jatqan Qytay men Mongholiyagha bas saughalap qashqandar bir milloinan asa jylqy men qoylardy aidap ótkeni jayly derekter bar. Qolhozdandyrugha qarsy keybir baylar malymyz kedey kepshikke tiymesin dep әdeyi qyrghan. Qaranghy halyqty: «Kolhoz dúrys, biraq maldarynmen qosa, qatyn qyzdaryng da ortaq bolady», dep aldaghan. Kәmpeskeleu jәne jappay  újymdastyru jyldary Atbasar, Yrghyz, Ertis, Shu, Balqash, Sarqan, Jetisu jәne t.b. aimaqtarda myndaghan adamdar kóterilisterge qatysqan. Sozaq audanynda bolghan kóterilisti Ibadulla degen irandyq azamat, aghylshyn memleketining tynshysy úiymdastyrghan.

Resey ghalymy, professor A.Ya.Alekssenkonyng derekterine sәikes, 1926 jyly qazaqtar 3 mln 968 myn, ózbekter 3 mln 955 myng bolsa, 1937 jyly 2 mln 862 myng jәne 4 mln 350 myn. Demek bizding últymyz 28%-gha azaysa, kórshimiz 15% -gha kóbeygen. Avtor 1930 jyly Qazaqstanda halyq sany 1mln 860 myngha nemese 47,9%-gha kemigenin jazady. Siriustyng mәlimetine sәikes,  1931 jyly últymyzdyng sany 4 mln 236 myng bolsa, 1937 jyly 2 mln 862 myn. 1930-1933 jyldary oryn alghan asharshylyqtan halyq sany 1,8 mln-gha qysqarghan, onyng ishinde shetelderge aughany shamamen 600-700 myn. S.A.Neyshdadttyng 1957 jyly Almatyda shyqqan: «Sosialisticheskie preobrazovaniya ekonomiky Kazahstana» degen enbeginde: Qytaygha jәne basqa kórshi memleketterge 1 mln 30 myng qazaq kóship ketkenin, olardyng 617 myny qayta oralmaghanyn kórsetedi.

Tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory Qaydar Aldajúmanovtyng derekteri boyynsha 1930-1933 jyldar aralyghynda últymyzdyng sany 2 mln 531 myng adamgha azayghan, olardyng ishinde asharshylyqtan opat bolghandarmen qatar, alys jәne jaqyn shetelderge aughandar bar. 1931-1932 jj Qytay, Iran men Aughanstangha shamamen 1 mln 130 myngha juyq qandastarymyz qonys audarghan, olardyng 454 myny elimizge qayta oralghan. Qytay derekkózderindegi mәlimetke qaraghanda, Shynjang ólkesinde 1936-1937 jj túryp jatqan 4 mln 360 myng halyqtyn  930 myny qazaqtar bolghan. 1953-1954 jj olardyng 417 myngha juyghy Qazaqstangha kóshken. Jazushy Qabdesh Júmadilovtyng mәlimetine sәikes, 1953 jyly 400 mynnan asa qandastarymyz Altay ólkesinen    Otanyna oralghan.

Tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory Býrkit Ayaghannyng derekterine sәikes, 1929-1933 jyldary Qazaq AKSR-de 22933 adam qylmystyq jazagha tartylghan. Olardyng ishinde, M. Dulatov, M. Júmabaev, S.Seyfulliyn, I. Jansýgirov, T. Rysqúlov siyaqty belgili túlghalar men alash qayratkerleri bar, 3386 adam atu jazasyna kesilgen. A.Ya.Alekssenko sol jyldary KSRO boyynsha 700 mynnan asa adam repressiyagha úshyraghanyn, olardyng 158 myngha juyghy sayasy kózqarastary ýshin jazagha tartylghanyn jazypty. Vikiypediyada Troskiyding seriktesi F.IY.Goloshekin terror úiymdastyrugha qatysy bar jәne Qazaqstanda újymdastyru kezinde asyra siltep, óreskel qateler jiberip,  asharshylyq jasaghany ýshin 1940 jyly sotqa tartylyp, 1941 jyly qarashada atu jazasyna kesilgeni jazylypty. Ol Samara qalasynyng manynda jerlenipti. 1961 jyly aqtalyp, beyitining basyna stalindik  repressiya qúrbany degen belgi qoyylghan kórinedi.

Endi últymyzdyng sany boyynsha songhy derekterge kóz jýgirtsek, 1939 jyly   KSRO-da ózbekter sany 4 mln 845 myng adam bolsa, 1989 jyly 16 mln 698 myn. Qazaqtar sәikestire alghanda 3 mln 100 myng jәne 8 mln 136 myn,        demek elu jylda kórshimizding ósimi tórt esege juyq, bizdiki 2,3 ese ghana.    2020 jyly Ózbekstanda halyq sany 32 mln-gha jaqyndasa, bizde18 mln 896  myn, onyng 70 payyzgha juyghy qandastarymyz. Búl arada Qazaqstan halqynyng eki milliongha juyq ósimin Qytay men Mongholiya, Ózbekstannan jәne t.b. kórshi elderden oralghan qandastarymyz qamtamasyz etkenin eskeru qajet. Olardyng otbasy eki ýsh balamen shektelmeydi, kóbinese kóp balaly.

Jer tyrmalaghan kórshimiz ózbekter bizding últ siyaqty asharshylyqtan qyrylghan joq. Jeri kóbinese tau tasty, jabayy andar men qústargha bay negizgi kәsibi mal baghu, qyrghyzdar da nәubәtten aman qalghan, asharshylyq jyldary biraz otandastarymyz osy elde pana tapty. Osyghan oray, Ghabbas Qabyshúlynyng «Abai.kz» portalynda jariyalanghan maqalasynan shaghyn ýzindi keltirgendi jón kórdim. 1947 jyly 7 synypta oqyp jýrgende әkesining bir tuysymen әngimesi esinde qalypty. Ákesi: asharshylyqtan búl auyldaghy  73 týtinning 32 tiri qalghanyna shýkirshilik dedik. Qayyndyda 41 jannyng ony ghana aman qaldy. Sol jyldary bir otyrysta komissiya tóraghasy: «Áy joldastar ýsh auyldyng da ormany ang men qústargha toly emes pe? Solay bola túra halyqtyng ashtan ólgeni qalay?», dep súrapty.

Qoryta kele aitarym, ótken ghasyrdyng otyzynshy jyldary asyghys jýrgizilgen jappay újymdastyru saldarynan bolghan asharshylyq saldarynan biraz qandastarymyz qyryldy. Últymyzdyng keleshigin oilap    solaqay sayasatqa qarsy shyqqan alash qayratkerleri men belgili túlghalar «halyq jauy» dep aiyptalyp, úzaq merzimge týrmege toghytyldy, birazy  atyldy. Osynyng bәrine Kremlde otyrghan bir-eki adam men tútas orys halqy kinәli dep oilau dúrys emes. Ózimizding aramyzdan shyqqan «shash al dese bas alugha dayyn» sholaq belsendiler men atqaminerler az bolghan joq. Biraz alash ardagerlerining týbine aryzqoylar men jalaqorlar jetti. Olar býgingi tanda   Goloshekin siyaqty jazyqsyz repressiyagha úshyraghandar qatarynda boluy mýmkin. Eng bastysy últymyz jalqaulyqty, jatypisherlikti, kórealmaushylyqty qoyyp, taza enbek etip, sonyng jemisin kórui kerek. Býgingi tanda qoghamda beleng alghan jemqorlyq pen paraqorlyq elimizding bolashaghyna kólenke týsirude. Ol jayly arnayy maqala dayyndap jatyrmyn. Jaqyn arada «Abai.kz» portalyna jibermekpin.

Múrat Qoyshybaev

Abai.kz

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