Senbi, 8 Mamyr 2021
Tarih 7078 8 pikir 5 Sәuir, 2021 saghat 13:25

Myrqynyng qajygha baruy. Mekkedegi tәkiyany kim saldy?

Myrqy Múrtazaúly Jarasbay nemeresi tek Syr ónirine emes, býkil qazaqqa belgili, anyz, bay kisi bolghan. Onyng baylyghynyng kóptigi sonday, on myndaghan jylqy, týie, iri qarasy men jýz myng qoy-eshkisinen basqa, Europanyng bankilerinde altyn aqshalary saqtalghany turaly aitylady. Búl әngimege qaraghanda, Myrqy qazaqtar ishindegi eng bay adamdardyng biri bolghandyghy aqiqat.

Tarihy derekter men auyzsha әngimelerden bizge jetken maghlúmattargha qaraghanda Myrqy 1820-1825 jyldar arasynda dýniyege kelgen. Sebebi onymen qatar aty atalatyn nemere inisi Appaz 1830 jyly dýniyege kelgen. Appaz turaly tarihy derekterde tughan jәne dýniyeden qaytqan jyldary anyq jazylghan (1830-1922j.). Al, Myrqynyng tughan jyly men dýniyeden ótken uaqyty turaly naqty mәlimet tabylmady. G. Menlibaev, A. Dәrmenbaev, Z. Seyitov jәne basqa avtorlardyng shygharmalarynda «1830 jyl boluy mýmkin», degen payymdau bar. Biraq, búl tújyrymnyng naqty emestigi, onyng nemere inisining tughan jylymen sәikes boluynda bolyp otyr. Sondyqtan, ol 1820-1825 jyldary dýniyege kelgen dep aitugha bolady. Al, dýniyeden qaytqan jyldary turaly, keyin osy shygharmanyng sonyna qaray bayandaymyz.

Búl shygharma jappas Myrqygha tobyqty Qúnanbaydyng Syr ónirine kelui, olardyng Mekkege qajylyqqa baruy, Mekkede tәkiya (qonaq ýi) saluy jәne elge oraluy turaly bolady. Búl әngimeni búdan 60 jylday búryn, tarihy shygharmalardy jatqa biletin ústa-zerger Tanbayúly Núrpeyis atamnan estigen edim. Tarihy mәlimetterge toly osy әngime kóptegen boljamdar men oidan qosylghandardyng aq-qarasyn anyqtaugha septigin tiygizer degen oimen jariyalap otyrmyn.

Arqada ýsh jýzdi shaqyryp, Qúnanbay atasy Óskenbaygha as beripti. Asqa kelgender sol zamannyng jol-jolarghysymen kelip, syi-syyapat kórsetilip, bәige shauyp, kókpar tartyp, aqyn men jyraular nebir madaqtaular aityp, jiylghan júrt riza bolyp tarapty. Osy asqa arnayy Tashkentten eki ózbek aspaz aldyryp, qúrmetti qonaqtargha palau berilgen eken. Ol kezde asqa palau beru ýrdisi bolmapty. Búl janalyq Qúnanbaydyng erekshe as beruimen, danqyn búrynghydan da kótere týsipti.

As bitken son, eki ózbek eline qaytar kezde, Qúnanbay olardan: «Sizder búryn men bergen astan artyq as jasaghandardy kórdinder me?», - dep súrapty.

Ózbek aspazdyng bireui: «Kórdim. Kishi jýz, on eki ata bayúly Jappas ruynda, Myrqy, Appaz baylar atasy Jarasbaygha Tobyl boyynda as berdi. Jiylghan adamgha san jetpeydi. Tamaqtar altyndaghan kýmis tabaqtarmen tartyldy. Olardyng jaylauy arqada, qystauy Syr boyynda Aqmeshitte», - deydi.

Búl әngimeni estigen Qúnanbay Myrqy, Appaz baylarmen kezdeskisi keledi. Osy oiymen Syr boyyndaghy Myrqy men Appazdy qonaqqa shaqyrady. Shaqyrtudy qabyl alyp, ekeui Shynghystaugha sapar shegedi. Qúnanbay qonaqtaryn jogharghy dәrejede, últtyq syi-syyapatpen qarsy alady. Eldi aralatyp, sheshen biylermen súhbattastyryp, әnshi men jyrshylardyng ónerimen tan-tamasha etedi.

Osy saparynda Myrqy ózining Mekkege qajylyqqa barugha niyet etip jýrgendigin aitady. Qúnanbay da barghysy keletindigi turaly jetkizedi. Ekeui qajylyq jolgha birge barugha sóz baylasady. Biraq, Qúnanbay qarjy jinap, eki jyldan keyin jolgha shyghatyny jayly bayandaydy.

Ol kezdegi eng ynghayly jol Aqmeshit arqyly Shalqargha baryp, odan әri qaray poyyzben Orynborgha jetu. Orynbordan taghy poyyzben Qara teniz porttarynyng birinen kemege otyruy kerek edi. Kememen Ystanbúlgha, sosyn Beyrutqa, әri qaray kólikpen Sham nemese IYerusaliymgha soghyp, keruenmen Mekke men Medinagha jetedi eken.

1870 jyldary Orynbor – Tashkent temir joly Shalqar stansiyasyna deyin salynyp, poyyz qatynaydy. Ol turaly qypshaq elinen sol kezde qajylyqqa barghan Mәtibay aqynnyng óleni dәlel:

Sәlemde Torghaydaghy qalghan júrtqa,

Atamyz batyr Qoblan, anam Qúrtqa.

Qayyrly sapar bolsyn dey kóriniz,

Salauat aitqan sayyn bizdi úmytpa.

Shalqardyng kelip týstik qalasyna,

Sәlemde arghyn, qypshaq balasyna.

Kelgen jan búl dýniyadan qaytpaq kerek,

Riza bop jer men kókting arasyna.

Baruda Orynborda bes kýn jattyq,

Allanyng kesim etken dәmin tattyq.

Toghyz kýn Ystanbúlda eru bolyp,

Qarjylar qylady eken sauda-sattyq.

Súltannyng konsulynan biylet aldyq,

Tәuekel parahodqa jýgim saldyq.

Jol eken kýn tәulik Qara teniz,

Mýdirmey Ystambulgha jetip bardyq . . .

Áziret Hamzagha jayau bardym,

Ahat taudyq týbine tayau bardym.

Kólik joq ystyq kýnde jayau jýrip

Ár jerde bir otyryp, esim tandym.

Bireui ziyarattyng meshit Qaghba,

Kóp adam namaz oqyp túrdyq sonda.

Múzdalina tauyna qayta shyghyp,

Minada qúrban aityp shaldyq jolgha.

«Qajy Mekkege qalay baryp keldin», degende Mәtibay aqyn aitqan eken. «Ol kezde iysi qazaq jerinen qajylyqqa baratyndar Mekkege attanar aldynda, Orynborgha jinalady. Bәri mәjilis qúryp, әngime-dýken qyzdyryp, aqyndargha ólen-jyr aitqyzady. Men ortagha ýlken oramal jayyp, barlyghyn maqtap jyr tóktim. Olar birinen-biri asyryp ortadaghy oramalgha aqsha tastady. Osylay jol qarajatymdy jinap aldym».

Qúnanbay men Myrqyda osy Shalqar arqyly Mekkege qajylyqqa barugha kelisipti. Eki jyldan keyin Qúnanbay sapargha dayyn ekenin aityp habar beredi. Myrqy da jol qarajatyn qamdap, Qúnanbay kelgen song Aqmeshitten Shalqar arqyly jolgha shyghugha úigharady. Qúnanbay jolda Týrkistangha soghyp, qasyndaghy nókerleri, qosshylarymen taghy basqa shygharyp salushylaryn ertip, Aqmeshitke keledi. Ol kezde Syr ónirining talantty azamattary men aqyn-shayyrlary Búhara, Samarqan, Tashkent siyaqty ortalyqtarda arabsha diny oqu oqysa, Qazan, Peterbor, Orynbor, Ufa siyaqty iri qalalarda oryssha bilim alatyn edi. Solardyng biri Búharada bilim alyp, medrese ashyp, bala tәrbiyelegen Qaljan ahun edi. Qaljannyng Qúnanbaymen kezdesuin Ardaq Nazarov aityp, jazyp jýr, sondyqtan qaytalamay-aq qoyayyq. Tek, ol Qúnanbaydyng qajygha bara jatqan saparda ekenin naqty aitpaydy.

Shalqarmen Aqmeshitting arasy suyt jýrgende tórt-bes kýndik jol. Birde týstenip otyrghanda qajylyqqa qarajat jinau turaly әngime bolady. Qúnanbay: «Qarajatty aghayyndarym jinap berdi», deydi. Sonda Myrqy aitqan eken:

-Sizding qarajatynyz jesir qatyn men jetim balanyng kóz jasy eken ghoy, - deydi.

-Al, sen qarajatty qaydan aldyng – deydi Qúnanbay namystanyp.

-Men qarajatty ózim jinadym. Myndaghan malym bar. Qoqan, Hiua, Búhara siyaqty eldermen orystar arasynda keruenmen sauda-sattyq jasaymyz. Mening qoltyghymnyng astynda «tay túyaq» altyn bar. Jolgha qarajat jetpey jatsa, sony júmsaymyz, – deydi Myrqy.

Osy әngimege nazar salsaq, Myrqynyng sol zamanda saudamen ainalysqan asa bay adam bolghandyghy belgili bolyp otyr. Búdan basqa Jappastan shyqqan kórnekti aqyn Kenshibay Jaghabayly qyzy Aqsúlumen aitysqanda Myrqy turaly bylay dedi:

Talaspa bizding Jappas balasyna,

Aytar ma múnday sózdi aghasyna.

Ýiler bar Myrqy salghan óz kýshimen,

Aqmeshit, Perovsk qalasynda.

Ol ýiding әr bólmesi bitken deydi,

Otyz bes – qyryq myng tenge shamasyna.

Ýilerin sizding elding kórip jýremiz,

Jappastyng jete almaydy qorasyna.

Sonymen qatar, jogharyda Qúnanbaygha Myrqynyng baylyghy turaly aitqan, eki ózbekting sózin, aitystaghy Kenshibay aqynnyng myna sózi dәleldep túrghanday:

Jappastyng sap-sary altyn jighan mýlki,

Maymandos keledi onyng barsha júrty.

Shyghady qyz-bozbala seruenge,

Ýstine masatymen kiyip qúlpy.

Búl eldi eshbir adam qylmaydy ósek.

Jaqsyny kýnә bolar jaman desek.

Ýiinde altyn ayaq, kýmis tabaq,

Jinaghan qazynada bolmas esep.

Tay soyyp, qozy ornyna qonaghyna,

Tóseydi qaly kilem qymbat tósek.

Keltirilgen óleng joldarynan, aspazdardyn: «Palaudy altyndaghan kýmis tabaqtarmen qonaghyna tartty», degeni dәleldenip otyrghan joq pa? Yaghni, Myrqynyng baylyghy turaly aitylghan әngimeler tarihy shyndyqqa negizdelgen bolyp túr.

Z.Seyitov (biologiya ghylymdarynyng doktory, professor) jazghan kitapta: «Myrqynyng atasy Jarasbay, onyng balasy Múrtazada bay bolyp, danqy orystyng aq patshasyna da jetipti. Patsha Jarasbaydy balalarymen Sankt-Peterburgke shaqyryp, týrli syilyqtar beripti. Sol kezde syigha berilgen altyn shatyr 1928 jylghy tәrkileude talan-tarajgha týsipti», - deydi. Jarasbaydyng Peterborgha baruy turaly Kenshibay aqyn bylay jyrlaydy:

Ayryqsha Jylkeldining saltanaty,

Nashargha jәne qanday marqabaty.

Baylyghy, myrzalyghy, bәri say kep,

Patshagha Peterborda bilindi aty.

Osy keltirgen ýzindide, Jarasbay әuletinin, onyng ishinde Myrqy men Appazdyng erekshe zor baylyqqa ie bolghandyghy qazaq eline ghana belgili bolyp qalmaghan. Patsha ýkimeti de habardar bolghangha úqsaydy. Orys patshasynyng qabyldauynda bolyp, qymbat baghaly syilyqqa ie bolu óte siyrek kezdesetin uaqigha. Sondyqtan, Myrqynyng Mekkege qajylyqqa «tay túyaq» altynmen baruy da, barghan jerde izin qaldyrugha talaptanghandyghyn kórsetedi. Sol maqsatynyng oryndaluy, onyng Mekkege tәkiya (qonaqýi) saluy edi.

Myrqy men Qúnanbay bastaghan qarjylar Mekke qalasynyn, әkiminen tәkiya salugha jer súraydy. Ákim qúrylys salugha jerding azdyghyn aityp, shygharyp salady. Qajylar qalayda, qajylyqqa kelgender toqtaytyn qonaqýy saludyng jolyn izdeydi. Sóitip әkimge «bir ógizding terisindey jer beriniz», - deydi. Onday jerge ne istey alady dep, oilaydy әkim. Kelisim baylasyp, «bir ógizding terisindey» jer beruge úigharym jasaydy. Qajygha barghan qazaqtar bazargha baryp, ógizding terisin satyp alady. Ony taspa qylyp tiledi. Ógiz terisinen úzyn jip taspa jasalady. Mine osy jippen qorshaghan jerge tәkiya (qonaqýi) salugha rúqsat alady.

Myrqy qoltyghyna tyghyp aparghan «tay túyaq» altynyn osy tәkiyany salugha júmsaydy. Qúrylys ayaqtalghan son, qajylar qúdayy jasaydy. Ol turaly Shәkәrim qajy jazyp ketken. Tәkiya ýy kishi jýz Jappas Myrqy qajynyng atyna jazylu kerek edi. Biraq belgisiz sebeptermen Dosjan qajynyng atyna jazylypty. Jazylu sebebi ol kisining Mekkede biraz jyl túryp, elge keyin oraluy bolsa kerek. Qanatbay sopy men onyng kýieu balasy Súltan Mekkede túryp qalady. Búl turaly kóptegen jazba mәlimetterde keltirilip jýr.

Qajylar paryzdaryn ótep, Ystambúl arqyly elge qaray jol jýredi. Qara tenizde kemede kele jatqanda, Myrqy qajy kenetten nauqastanyp, qaytys bolady. Kemede qaytys bolghandardy tas baylap, sugha tastau mindettelgen. Myrqyny da solay tenizge tastaydy. Mine, «Myrqynyng mazary joq» degen qanatty sóz sodan qalghan.

Mekkeden qaytqandar Orynbordan Shalqargha kelgen son, Qúnanbay qajy Yrghyz – Torghay – Qarqaraly arqyly eline ketedi. Myrqynyng qasyndaghy kisiler Aqmeshitke keledi. Aghayyngha estirtip, tughan tuystaryna kónil aityp, as beredi. Qayghymen jýrip, aghayyndargha aitylghan Mekkedegi qonaqýy úmyt bola bastaydy.

Qajylyqqa baryp kelgen Qúnanbay elinde Mekkede tәkiya salghan júmystary turaly anyz qylyp, barghan jerde aityp jýredi. Mine osy jaghdaylargha baylanysty Mekkege jay saluda tek Qúnanbaydyn ghana aty atala beredi. Odan basqa, Sovet ýkimeti Myrqy әuletin tәrkilep, aghayyndary qashyp basqa elderge jer auyp ketti. Songhy jyldary tәuelsizdikting arqasynda ótkenimiz ornyna kelip, joghalghandarymyz tabylyp, tarihy әdilettilik ornap keledi. Solardyng biri, el esinde saqtalghan Myrqynyng qajylyqqa baryp, tәkiya (qonaqýi) saluy bolyp otyr. Qúnanbay men Dosjan qajylar búl isting basy-qasynda bolyp, Myrqygha kómektesken. Biraq, tәkiya (qonaqýi) salugha júmsalghan qarjy Myrqynyki bolghan. Sol sebepti, ol ghimarat Myrqynyng atyna jazylu kerek edi. Asyghyp elge qaytqandyqtan, sol jaqta biraz uaqytta qalghan, arabsha óte sauatty Dosjan qajygha qújattardy rәsimdeu tapsyrylghan shyghar. Mine, sondyqtan tәkiya (qonaq ýi) sol kisining atyna jazylghan bolyp túr. Búl turaly Shәkәrim qajy da rastap otyr: «Men paqyr 1905 jyldan 1906 jylgha qaray, qajylyqqa barghanda tәkiyany kórdim. Menen búryn qajylar kirip qalghan eken, olardy renjitpey pәter alyp týstim. Biraq Súltan aitty: tәkiya osy kýnde kishi jýz Dosjan qajynyng atyna jazuly eken, ne sebebi eken bilmedim dedi», - dep jazghan.

Qarjyny tәkiyagha kim tólegeni turaly bylay dedi: «Marqúm qajy (Qúnanbaydy aityp otyr) birde sóz retinde tәkiya ýidi satyp alushy bolghanymen basty qarjyny tólegender Kishi jýzden barghan qajylar dep aitqan-dy. Mýmkin osynday sebeptermen Dosjan atyna jazyluy,»- dep óz oiyn qorytady.

Qajygha «tay túyaq» altynmen barghan Kishi jýz Jappas Myrqy tәkiya jaygha qarjyny tólegen bolyp túr. Al basqa qajylar jer satyp alugha, jәidi salugha rúqsat mәmilesin jasauda kelissózder jýrgizip kómektesken. Sondyqtan, tәkiya jәidi salugha sol kezde birge barghan barlyq qajylardyng ýlesi bar, - dep aitugha boldy. Biraq, Qúnanbaydan basqalarynyng aty atalmauy marqúmdardyng aruaghyna qiyanat bolady. Qasiyetti Mekke jerinde Qazaq atynan tәkiya salghan Myrqy, Qúnanbay, Dosjan siyaqty qajylardyng attary qatar atalu kerek. Búl keyingi úrpaqqa paryz.

Qorytyndy

Jazylghan әngimening derekterge negizdelgendigin eske ala otyryp, tómendegidey qorytyndygha kelip otyrmyz:

1. Qajy Myrqy Múrtazaúly 1820-1876 jyldary ómir sýrgen. Onyng 1875-76 jyldary Mekkege qajylyq sapargha Qúnanbay, Dosjan, Qasynbek datqa, Shәbden batyrmen birge barghandyghy belgili. Búl turaly Gh. Menlibaev enbegining 207 betinde: «1975 jylghy Resey imperatory elshisi Stambúldan Orynbor general-gubernatoryna 25 qazaq Mekkege bara jatyr. Olardyng sheteldik tólqújatsyz kelgendigin habarlaydy», - dep jazylghan. Sapargha bara jatqandar beseu, al habarda nege 25 adam, - dep jazylghan súraq tuyndaydy. 25 bolatyn sebebi qajylardyng qasynda 3-4 kisi jolbasshysy men kómekshileri bolady. Mysaly, jogharyda aitylghan Mәtibay aqyn Torghaylyq bolys Qypshaq Baymúratqa erip barghan.

2. Myrqy qajy sapargha «tay túyaq» altyn alyp barady. Ol sol zamannyng asqan bayy edi. Onyng baylyghyn sumúryn Oraz, Jappas qúrmanay Kenshinbay jәne basqa aqyn jyrlaghan. Búl maghlúmattar Z.Seytov, Gh.Menlibaev, A.Dәrmenbaev enbekterinde jәne Aytystar jinaghynda tolyq bayandalghan.

3. Mekkede tәkiya jaydy (qonaqýidi) barghan qajylar birigip, bir-birine kómektesip salghan. Biraq, qarajatyn Kishi jýz Bayúly Jappas Myrqy tólegen bolyp túr. Búl turaly Qúnanbay qajynyng nemeresi Shәkәrim Qúdayberdiúly jazyp ketken. Sondyqtan, Mekkedegi tәkiyany salghan Myrqy, Qúnanbay, Dosjan dep aitu kerek. Jәne de, Mekkede qazaqtar birneshe tәkiya saldy degen jansaq pikir. Sebebi qonaqýiding jerining ózi qymbat túrady. Basqa qajylyqqa barghandardyng Myrqy siyaqty kóp qarajaty bolmaghan.

4. «Myrqynyng mazary joq» degen sóz teniz ýstinde kenetten qaytys bolghandyghyn bildirip túrghanday. Olay bolmasa, Myrqy siyaqty asa bay adamnyng mazary bolmauy mýmkin emes? Sol sebepti, Myrqy qajy 1876 jyly kemede qaytys bolghan degen, dúrys mәlimet siyaqty. Á. Dәrmenbaev enbeginde «1870 jyldan keyin tarihy qújattarda Myrqynyng aty kezdespeydi», - dep jazylghan.

 Ádebiyetter:

  1. Gh. Menlibaev, Qazaq halqy ejelgi ru – taypalary men Jappas tarihy, Qyzylorda – Qaghanaty, Qyzylorda, 2015.
  2. M. Ghalym, Qypshaqtar ( halyq halyq turaly) , KMU, Kókshetau, 2012.
  3. Z. Seitov, Jizni-miyg, deni-vechnosti, Almaty, 2011.
  4. D. Dosjanov, Abay ainasy, Almaty, 1994.
  5. Sh. Qúdayberdiúly, Týrik, qyryghyz-qazaq hәm handar shejiresi, Almaty, 1991.
  6. Q. Isabay, S. Bayjan-ata, Qajygha barghan qazaqtar, Almaty, 1996.
  7. Aytys, 1,2 tom, Jazushy, Almaty, 1964.
  8. A. Dәrmenbaev, Amanat, Qyzylorda-Qaghanaty, Qyzylorda,2020.

Shegebay Núrseyitov, professor

Abai.kz

8 pikir