Senbi, 19 Mausym 2021
Sayasy portret 20285 45 pikir 4 Mamyr, 2021 saghat 10:36

Jaujýrek. Reyhstagqa tu tikken kim?

«Mening aghalarym» seriyasynan

Jyl sayyn Jenis kýni jaqyndaghanda «Reyhstagqa alghash tu tikken kim?» degen súraqqa jauap izdeledi. Ol qazaqtyng  jaujýrek úly Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev bolatyn. Qaharmannyng erligin Úly Otan soghysy kezinde óz kózimen kórgen qarulas dostary, komandirleri týgeldey moyyndap, Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghyna úsyndy. Biraq Altyn júldyz da, mәrtebeli ataq ta basqalargha búiyrdy.

Memleket qayratkeri, akademik Múhtar Qúl-Múhammedting búl essesinde osy erlikting әrbir sәti: saghat, minutyna deyin әskery múraghattyq dәldikpen dәleldenedi.


Erlik – qaharmandyqtyng syn saghatta nayzaghayday
 jarq etken kórinisi, al onyng negizinde asyl tek
 pen qaysar ruh jatady.

Súltan SANJAR,
ortaghasyrlyq filosof

(Reyhstagqa shabuyl, 30 sәuir 1945 jyl)

Úly Otan soghysy «ejelden er degen danqy shyqqan» qazaq halqynyng qaharmandyghyn kýlli әlemge keninen pash etti.

Súrapyl soghysta Bauyrjan Momyshúlynday danqty qolbasshy, Talghat Biygeldinovtey qyran úshqysh, Nýrken Ábdirov, Tólegen Toqtarovtay erjýrek jauyngerler, Áliya men Mәnshýktey batyr qyzdar namysyn jaugha bermegen er halyqtyng danqyn asyrdy. Kezinde búl turaly әigili orys jazushysy Iliya Erenburg Kenes Odaghynyng bas gazeti «Pravdada» jariyalanghan «Qazaqtar» atty maqalasynda «Bir nemis maghan: «bizding aldymyzdan qaytpas qaysar soldattar shyqty. Ot-jalyn da toqtata almaghan olar bizge qasqaya qarsy jýgirdi. Keyin ghana maghan olardyng qazaqtar ekendigin aitty», – dep tandana jazghan bolatyn. Nemister aitsa aitqanday-aq, ottan da, sudan da qoryqpaytyn qazaqtar qan maydanda asqan janqiyarlyqpen shayqasyp, reyhstagta Jenis tuyn jelbiretti. Býgingi әngime jau ordasyna tigilgen jaynaghan tudan qazaq qaharmandyghyna mәngi ólmes eskertkish qoyghan jaujýrek batyr Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev turaly bolmaq.

Men Raqymjan aghamen ótken ghasyrdyng 80-jyldarynda ózim ýshin ýlken ómir mektebi bolghan Qazaq kenes ensiklopediyasynda qyzmet istegen jyldary tanystym.

Búl kezde ensiklopediya újymy qazaq jәne orys tilderinde әzirlengen tórt tomdyq «Qazaq SSR» qysqasha ensiklopediyasyna qyzu dayyndyq ýstinde bolatyn.

Basylymnyng aty aityp túrghanday, ol tek Qazaqstangha arnalyp, qysqasha formatta shygharylatyndyqtan, ensiklopediyagha enetin esimnamalyq maqalalargha qatang talap qoyyldy. Eger búghan deyin jaryq kórgen 12 tomdyq әmbebap basylymda Kenes Odaghynyng Batyrlaryna týgeldey oryn berilse, qysqasha ensiklopediyanyng әskery is salasy boyynsha oghan sol zamanda sausaqpen sanarlyq qazaqstandyq generaldar, eki mәrte Kenes Odaghynyng Batyrlary, A.Matrosov pen N.Gastellonyng erligin qaytalaghan qazaqstandyqtar, kenestik shyghystan shyqqan qos shynar Áliya men Mәnshýkting ómirbayandaryna arnalghan esimnamalyq maqalalar engiziletini jóninde tym kelte sheshim qabyldanghan edi. Nәtiyjesinde respublikanyng qoghamdyq, memlekettik qúrylysy, tarihy, halyqaralyq baylanystary jәne әskery iske arnalghan 1-tomnyng tórinen býgingi úrpaq ómirbayanyn bylay qoyghanda, esiminen mýlde beyhabar, tolyp jatqan revolusionerler men bolisheviktik kósemder oryn aldy.

Tomgha dayyndyq júmysy ayaqtalar kezende bas redaktorymyz, akademik Manash Qozybaev Ortalyq Komiytet basshylyghyn «respublikanyng Úly jeniske qosqan ýlesin biyiktetedi» degen dәlelmen sendirip, 1-tomgha «Reyhstagqa tu tikken» kriyteriyimen Raqymjan Qoshqarbaevty kirgizu jóninde rúhsat aldy. Ózi jaqyn aralasatyn dosy turaly maqalanyng ensiklopediyagha enetinine jas baladay quanghan ol meni kabiynetine shaqyryp:

– Múhtar, tez Raqymjan aghana tart. Ertennen qaldyrmay maqalany jazyp, aldyma qoyatyn bol, – dep jedel tapsyrma berdi.

Búl kezde Raqymjan agha «Almaty» qonaq ýiining diyrektory bolyp qyzmet atqaratyn. Ensiklopediya ghimaraty men qonaq ýy arasy jayau jýrgende bes-aq minuttyq jer. Men esimnamalyq maqalalargha qoyylatyn dәstýrli súraqtarymdy alyp, batyrdyng qabyldauyna jettim.

– Kel, bauyrym, tórlet! Manash aghang habarlasty. Asyqpay súraqtaryndy qoya ber, al dayyn bolsa qaldyryp ket, – dep Raqang birden iske kóshti.

Búl batyrdyng alpysqa endi ghana tolghan kezi bolatyn. Ortadan joghary boyly, myghym deneli, sәndi ýlgimen kiyingen, jýris-túrysy shiraq aghamyzdyng qayratty qalyng shashynda bir tal aq joq siyaqty kórindi maghan.

Tapsyrma tym shúghyl bolghandyqtan men súraqtarymdy qoya bastadym.

Ádette ensiklopediyagha enetin esimnamalyq maqalanyng kólemi mashinkagha basqanda jarty bet, әri ketkende bir paraqtan aspaydy. Onyng qúrylymy birizdi bolghandyqtan súraqtar da tym qarapayym edi. Men bas-ayaghy bir saghatqa jeter-jetpes uaqytta júmysymdy ayaqtap, ketuge ynghaylanghanda:

– Manash Qabashúlyna mening alghysymdy jetkiziniz. Áure bolmay-aq qoy kerek edi. Nәtiyjesi bolsa, habar berersizder. Bolmasa, ókpe joq, – dep, ornynan túryp, kýrektey alaqanymen meyirlene qolymdy qysty.

Osylaysha men ataq-danqy býkil Qazaqstandy sharlap ketken  batyrdyng jýzin kórip, qolyn alu qúrmetine ie boldym.

Ol kezde Kenes Odaghy boyynsha barlyq resmy mәlimet kózderinde reyhstagqa Jenis tuyn tikken Egorov pen Kantariya ghana tanylatyn. Sondyqtan әueli alaqanday maqalanyng qazaqsha núsqasyndaghy «alghashqylardyng biri bolyp Reyhstagqa Jenis tuyn tikken Sovet ofiyseri» definisiyasy senzuranyng talaby boyynsha «Reyhstagtyng kire berisine (1945 j., Berlin q.) alghashqylardyng biri bolyp polk tuyn tikken Sovet ofiyseri» bolyp ózgerdi. Osylaysha «Reyhstag» atty naqty nysan «Reyhstagtyng kire berisi» atty úsaqtana týsip, «Jenis tuy» úghymy «polk tuy» atty maghynasy tómendeu  tirkespen almastyryldy. Maqala batyrdyng suretimen ensiklopediyanyng 1984 jyly jaryq kórgen qazaqsha núsqasynda basylyp shyqty.

Ol zamanda әbden anyqtalyp, tekserilip, kýmәn keltirmeytin derekter ghana jariyalanatyn ensiklopediyalyq basylymdardyng bedeli erekshe bolatyn. Sol sebepti Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghyn alghan 500-den astam qazaqstandyqtardyng basym kópshiligi qaghaberis qalghan qysqasha ensiklopediyanyng tórinen R.Qoshqarbaevqa portretimen oryn berilui onyng erligin respublikalyq dengeyde resmy týrde tanudyng taghy bir belgisi retinde qabyldandy.

...Gitlerlik Germaniyanyng jýregi sanalatyn reyhstagqa atoylap kirip, onyng tura enseligine Jenis tuyn qadaghan jaujýrek qazaq jayly ol erlik kórsetken 1945 jyldyng mamyr aiynan bastap maydandyq gazetter jabyla jazdy. Azghana tirajben shyghyp, әskery ortada ghana taraytyn búl basylymdar jas ofiyserding tughan jerine jetken joq. Jasynan tomagha túiyqtau ósken jas batyr da ózi turaly kóp eshkimge jaq asha qoymady. Sondyqtan Raqymjannyng taghdyryn kýrt ózgertken 1958 jylghy Bauyrjan Momyshúlymen kezdesuine deyin onyng erligi jayly Qazaqstanda kóp eshkim bilmeytin.

Qazaqta «óser elding balasy birin biri batyr der», – degen qanatty sóz bar. Eger erligi endi ghana tanyghan úlandy ataghy jer jarghan qaharman qolbasshy dәriptese, oghan qanday teneu tabar ekenbiz. Raqannyng ómirinde tura osynday jaghday 1958 jyly boldy.

Qazaqtyng danqty batyry, qaharman qolbasshy Bauyrjan Momyshúly soghys ayaqtalghannan keyin Bas shtabtyng Áskery akademiyasyn tәmәmdap, biraz jyl әskery qyzmet atqarghan son, 1955 jyly zapasqa shyghyp, birynghay qalamgerlikke auysady.

Bauyrjan aghasyna 1958 jyly Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev esimdi jasy otyzdan endi ghana asqan maydanger jigit sәlem bere keledi. Soghys turaly bolashaq әdeby tuyndylaryna material jinap jýrgen Baukeng jas jigitting әngimesin yjdahatpen tyndap, aty-jónin, jauyngerlik ómirining úzyn-yrghasyn jazyp alady.

Kezdesu ayaqtalysymen ol ózining ókil balasynday bolyp ketken, sol kezdegi «Leninshil jas» gazetining jauapty hatshysy, keyin respublikalyq dengeydegi partiya qayratkeri bolghan  Kәkimjan Qazybaevty dereu shaqyryp alyp:

– Znaeshi ty, kto takoy Raqymjan? Men ony býgin birinshi ret kórdim. Sәlem bere kelipti. Bilesing be, kimning sәlem bere kelgenin? Eto istoricheskiy chelovek! ...Men de soghysqa qatystym. Diviziyagha deyin basqardym. Ataqty Momyshúly boldym. Moskva týbindegi shayqasty kórdim. Tórt jyl boyghy súrapyl soghystyng nebir súmdyq qiyametteri kóz aldymda. Biraq Berlindi alardaghy, Reyhstagqa tu tigerdegi qyrghyn – ol naghyz joyqyn qyrghyn! Kak voiyn, kak komandir ya predstavlyai, chto eto takoe, eto bylo neveroyatno! Raqymjan sol tozaqtyng ishinde bolghan, sol tozaqtan aman shyqqan! Jenis jalauyn tikken! Onyng ómirbayany – otpen jazylghan ómirbayan. Osydan artyq senderge, jurnalisterge, atannyng basy kerek pe?! – dep aqyryp tapsyrma beredi.

Kәkimjan aghamyz kóp úzamay Raqymjandy izdep tauyp, onymen keng otyryp súhbattasudyng nәtiyjesinde 1958 jyly 20-aqpanda «Leninshil jas» gazetinde «Reyhstagqa tu tikken qazaq» atty býkil Qazaqstandy dýr silkindirgen sensasiyalyq maqalasyn jariyalaydy.

Osylaysha Bauyrjanday ataghy jer jarghan danqty qolbasshy Raqymjanday jas batyrdyng tughan halqyna keninen tanyluyna jarqyn jol ashady.

Kәkimjan aghamyz jyl ótken sayyn Raqymjan turaly taqyryptyng qanatyn jaza týsip, týrli respublikalyq basylymdarda birneshe kólemdi materialdar basady. Keyin solardyng negizinde 1965 jyly «Kernegen kek» atty derekti povesti te jazdy. Ómirining sonyna deyin Raqymjan Qoshqarbaevtyng erligin nasihattap, oghan Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghyn beru jóninde Mәskeuge jazylghan birneshe újymdyq hattardyng jazyluyna múryndyq bolady.

Kәkeng kezinde asyghystau jazylghan «Kernegen kekti» úlghaytyp, kesekteu tuyndygha ainaldyrudy kózdegen. Keyin egde tartyp, densaulyghy syr bere bastaghan kezde sýiikti taqyrybyn sol kezde qaramaghynda istegen talantty jurnalist inisi Janbolat Aupbaevqa tabystaydy. Búl turaly maytalman qalamger ózining «Tu tikken» atty triptihynda tógilte jazdy.

Áriyne, Raqymjan jayly jariyalanghan ólen-jyr, maqala, estelikter óte kóp. Biraq solardyng ishinde batyrdy tughan halqyna qayyra tanystyrugha bastamashy bolghan qaharman qolbasshy Bauyrjan Momyshúly, qayratker-qalamger Kәkimjan Qazybaev, aqmyltyq jurnalist Janbolat Aupbaevtardyng esimderin erekshe ataghan jón dep bilemin.

Raqymjanday has batyrdyng ómirbayany tolyq zerttelip bitti me? Ol shynymen-aq Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghyna úsynyldy ma, úsynylsa tarihy qújat qayda jariyalanghan? Reyhstagqa tu tikken kimder jәne jau jýregine alghashqy tudy qadaghan kim?

Osynday sanada jamyraghan sansyz kóp súraqtargha әli kýnge deyin dәl jauap tabu qiyn, al oghan jaryq týsirer derekter býginge deyin «jeti qúlyptyn» ar jaghyndaghy qúpiya múraghattarda qattauly. Biz de solardy qolymyzgha sham alyp izdeuge shyqtyq. Bәri týsinikti bolu ýshin әueli batyrdyng ómirbayanyn qysqasha sholyp shyghayyq.

Jauynger joly

Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev 1924 jyly qazanda qazirgi elordamyz Astananyng dәl irgesinde Aqmola oblysy, Selinograd audanynyng Qyryqqúdyq eldi mekeninde dýniyege keldi.

Ákesi Qoshqarbay әdemi qonyr dauysy bar, әn-kýi, ólen-jyrgha әues, qonyrtóbel tirshilik etken jan eken. Atasy Músa dóngelengen sharuasy, ortasha ghana dәuleti bar qarapayym kópting biri bolsa, babasy Qúdayqúl jaz jaylauy, qys qystauy bólek, Qaraótkelge aty mәlim, әldi, auqatty әuletten shyghypty. Altynshy atasy Satay batyr Abylay han zamanynda túlpar minip, tu alghan erding soyy bolypty.

Raqymjan tórt jasynda sheshesinen airylsa, 1937 jyly әkesi Qoshqarbay bәz bayaghy «tegin jasyrghan baydyng balasy» degen jeleumen repressiyagha iligip, qughyn-sýrginge týsedi. On ýshke tolar-tolmasta osynshama qiyndyqqa dushar bolghan Raqymjan jol kórsetip, jón siltegen qayyrymdy jandardyng kómegimen ózi tughan audandaghy Taytóbe balalar ýiine alynady.

Búl qazaq halqynyng teng jartysyn jalmaghan otyz ekining asharshylyghynan keyin elding әli esin jiyp ýlgermegen kezi edi. Ata-anasy joq jetimderdi bylay qoyghanda, býkil otbasymen kýndiz-týni tyrbanyp enbek etkenderding qoly auzyna әreng jetetin. Onyng ýstine ýlken qalalar óz aldyna, alystaghy auyldyng kózi ashyq, kókiregi oyau azamattary repressiyanyng qandy shengeline týsip, elde bas kóterer túlghalar әbden azayghan edi. Sondyqtan Raqymjannyng qaryn toydyrmasa da talghajaugha jaraytyn tamaghy, qoldan kelgenshe kýtimi, temirdey tәrtibi bar balalar ýiine kelui onyng boyyndaghy jaqsy qasiyetterding erterek úshtaluyna, kópshilik ortasyna, újymdyq ómirge beyimdeluine ong әserin tiygizdi.

Batyrdyng balalar ýiindegi ómiri onyng «Jenis jalauy» atty kitabynda jan-jaqty, әserli surettelgen. Onda ony men solyn tanyp qalghan ójet úlangha әke ornyna әke bolyp, qamqor qolyn sozghan ardaqty ústazy, balalar ýiining diyrektory Saghat Sәduov pen anasynyng ornyn basqan tәrbiyeshisi, oqu isining mengerushisi Lubovi Ivanovna Kolyaginanyng esimi erekshe iltipatpen atalady.

Taytóbedegi balalar ýiinde 7-synypty bitirgen song Raqymjan Balqashtyng irgesindegi Naberejnyy poselkesinde ornalasqan FZU mektebine (fabrichno-zavodskoe uchenichestvo) oqugha týsedi.

Azamat soghysy, asharshylyq, eldi kolhozdastyru, repressiyanyng birneshe tolqyny kezderinde Kenes Odaghy boyynsha milliondaghan bala qarausyz qaldy. El ishinde júmys kýshi jetispeushilikke ainalghanda 7-synyp bitirgen jasóspirimder osynday mektepterdegi bas ayaghy 1,5-2 jyldyq oqyp-ýiretuden keyin kәsiby maman bolyp shygha keletin.

FZU jasóspirimderdi kәsipke ghana emes, әskery ómirge de beyimdeytin oqu orny boldy. Onyng oqushylary әskery uchiliyshe kursanttarynday basyna  furajka, ýstine әskery ýlgidegi birynghay forma, qysta jez týimeli shiyneli kiyip, aiylbasty beldik taqty. Olar әskerdegidey búiryqpen jatyp, búiryqpen oyanatyn. Júmysqa barsa da, qalagha shyqsa da, sap  qúrap, top-tobymen jýretin. Osynday «kazarmalyq sosializm» tәsili әli buyny bekip, búghanasy qatyp ýlgermegen jas balalardy qatang tәrtipke baghynyp, berilgen tapsyrmany mýltiksiz oryndaugha ýiretti.

Újymdyq orta kez kelgen adamdy shiratady. Taytóbedegi balalar ýiinde әjeptәuir tәjiriybe jinap, kópshilik ortagha tez beyimdelgen Raqymjan óz qatarlastarynyng arasynan suyrylyp algha shyghyp, topjarghandyq qasiyetimen tanyla bastaydy.

Balalar ýiinde ýirengen orysshasy da kóp septigin tiygizip, ústazdar úigharymymen auyldan kelgen ózi siyaqty qaradomalaqtargha orys tilin ýiretumen de ainalysady.

FZU-da jastardy bilim alyp, kәsip iygeruge ghana emes, óner men sportqa da baulydy. Múntazday kiyinip, tәrtipti, úqyptylyqty jany sýietin Raqymjan sporttyng birneshe týrin, әsirese konikiymen mәnerlep syrghanudy mengerip, qalalyq jarystargha qatysa bastaydy. Dombyrada, mandolinada qúiqyljata oinaudy ýirenip, mektep orkestrinde óner kórsetedi.

Balqashta oqyp jýrgende Raqymjannyng qiyn-qystau jaghdayda kim-kimge de qol úshyn beruge әzir túratyn er minezi qylang bergen erekshe oqigha bolady. Qaqaghan qysta konikiymen alansyz syrghanap jýrgen balalardyng biri ayaq astynan oiylghan múzdan sugha ketip, batugha ainalady. Raqymjan sýiekten óter suyqqa qaramastan oiyqqa sekirip týsip, batyp bara jatqan jas qyzdy tura kelgen ajaldan aman alyp shyghady.

Býkil Kenes Odaghy boyynsha 1940 jyly FZU formaty ózgerip, onyng ornyna kәsiby uchiliysheler ashyla bastaydy. Osylaysha Raqymjan 16 jasynda FZU-daghy oquyn ayaqtap, orta bilim alghandyghy jóninde kuәligimen tughan auylyna oralady.

Anasynan erte aiyrylyp, әkesi abaqtyda otyrghan ony auylda anyrap qalghan әjesi Áliman ghana qarsy alady. Ógey sheshesi Ýndemes Qoshqarbaydan mýlde kýder ýzip, basqa bireuge kýieuge shyghyp ketipti.

Ol kezde auylda orta mektepti bitirgenderdi bylay qoyyp, qara tanityndardyng ózi siyrek bolatyn. Sol sebepti balalar ghana emes, «sauatsyzdyqty joiy» nauqany boyynsha bilim alugha úmtylghan auyldyng ýlken-kishisi birdey Raqymjannan sabaq alady. Onyng ústazdyghy tym úzaqqa sozylghan joq, kelesi jyly Úly Otan soghysy bastaldy.

Ol kezde Raqymjan 17-ge ayaq basqan bozbala ghana edi. Jasy tolmaghanyna qaramastan óz erkimen maydangha súranyp eki ret aryz beredi. Kelesi 1942 jyly tamyz aiynda 18-ge toluyna eki ay qalghanda onyng ótinishi qabyldanyp, әsker qataryna alynady. Raqymjan әueli maydangha shaqyrylghandardy alghashqy әskery dayyndyqtan ótkizetin Kókshetaudaghy 367-atqyshtar polkynda qyzmet etedi. Múnda kóbinese orys tiline shorqaq, keyde ony mýlde bilmeytin Orta Aziyadan kelgen qyrghyz, ózbek, týrikmen, tәjik soldattary shoghyrlanghan edi. FZU-de jartylay әskery ómirge beyimdelgen, tәrtipke, óz isine myghym Raqymjandy komandirleri birden bayqap, núsqaushy etip qoyady. Ol osy polkte 1943 jyldyng jazyna deyin serjant sheninde qyzmet atqarady.

Eki tilge birdey jýirik, eti tiri, shiraq, shymyr janghaqtay jas jigit әskery dayyndyq bitken song birden maydangha attandyrylmay, sol kezde Bishkek qalasynda ornalasqan Tambov jalpykomandalyq jayau әsker uchiliyshesine jiberiledi.

Áriyne, әskeriyler onyng ómirbayanyn múqiyat teksergen. Búl soghystyng alghashqy kezendegi ashy jenilisterden Qyzyl Armiya sabaq ala bastaghan kez edi. Kishi ofiyserlik qúramgha әskery tehnikany tez arada mengere alatyn, oqugha beyim, qiynshylyqqa tózimdi, tepse temir ýzetin jas azamattar kóbirek alyna bastaghan. Osy túrghydan kelgende balalar ýiinde tәrbiyelengen, FZU-da oqyghan, onyng ýstine ústazdyq tәjiriybesi bar, serjanttar kursynan ótken Rahymjan ofiyserlik ýshin dayyn túrghan kadr edi. Solay bolyp shyqty da.

Ol bir jyldan astam uaqyt Bishkek qalasynyng dәl ortasynda ornalasqan әskery uchiliyshede bilim alyp, tynghylyqty dayyndyqtan ótedi. Uchiliyshede soghysqa týrli jaraqat alyp, tylgha jiberilgen, soghystyng qyr-syryn jaqsy biletin, qoldanystaghy jana tehnikany erkin mengergen saqa komandirler sabaq berdi. Oqu ornyn bitirer kezde ózi kópten kýtken quanyshty oqigha bolyp, partiya qataryna kandidat retinde qabyldandy. Osydan tura jiyrma kýn ótkende, Raqannyng óz jazbalary boyynsha – 1944 jyldyng 30 qyrkýieginde onyng ómirinde eshqashan úmytylmaytyn taghy bir oqigha oryn alady.

Ony uchiliyshege әkesi izdep keledi. Jazyqsyz jazagha tartylyp, habar-osharsyz ketken, әldeqashan óldige sanalghan әkesi tiri eken. Saghynysqan әke men bala jylap kórisedi.

Ákesi Qoshqarbay osydan bir ay búryn týrmeden bosap, birjolata aqtalyp elge kelipti. Auylda Raqymjanmen hat alysyp túratyn, balalar ýiinde birge oqyghan Rayhan esimdi qyzdan úlynyng meken-jayyn alyp, eshkimge jaq ashpay, tura Bishkekke tartqan beti eken.

Uchiliyshe basshylyghynan әkesi kelgendigin aityp, rúhsat súrap, ony Osmonqúl atty tanys qyrghyzdyng ýiine әkeledi. Aghyl-tegil әngimelesip, ishtegi syrdy aqtarysady. Raqymjan jas baladay qúraq úsha jýgirip, әkesine ýlken iltipatpen qyzmet etedi. Taytóbedegi balalar ýiinen bastap, kýni keshe partiya mýsheligine kandidat bolyp qabyldanghanyn jyrday etip aityp berdi.

Úlynyng kisi qyzyghatynday tamasha azamat bolyp óskendigine әbden riza bolghan Qoshqarbay qoshtasar kýni ishtegi syrdy ózi ashyp, eshbir jazyghy joqtyghyn, tek  atasy Qúdayqúl bay bolghanyn, biraq ol baylyqtan óz әkesi Músagha eshtene qalmaghandyghyn jetkizedi. Kóre almaytyn aghayyn «tegin jasyrghan baydyng túqymy» dep syrtynan aryz jazypty. Onyng sony jeti jylgha sozylghan qughyn-sýrginge úlasqan.

Qoshqarbay naghyz azamat eken. Balasyna bar shyndyqty jayyp salyp, jalghyz úlymen qoshtasar aldynda: «dýniyege әkelgenim bolmasa, saghan eshbir paydam tiymedi, ózine ziyany keler bolsa, menen bas tartam deseng de eshbir ókpem joq» degen sózderdi aitady.

Qúshaqtasa tabysyp, kónilsizdeu qoshtasqan әke men balanyng bir-birin týsinui ýshin әli talay uaqyt kerek edi.

Shyndyghynda uaqyt bәrin ornyna keltiredi. Raqymjan әkesi turaly ataq-danqy dýrildep túrghan 1976 jyly jaryq kórgen «Jenis jalauy» atty kitabynda eshtene jazbaghan. Tek osy kitaptyng 1984 jyly basylghan «Shabuyl» atty oryssha núsqasynda әkesi, ata-babasy turaly, jogharydaghy kezdesu jayynda maghlúmattardy qosugha tәuekel etken.

Áskery uchiliyshede ótken jyldan astam uaqyt Raqymjannyng jas ofiyser retinde qalyptasuyna ghana emes, jalpy keyingi ómirinde óshpestey iz qaldyrady. Ol ómirbayandyq kitabynda maydannan oralghan saqa ofiyserler  –uchiliyshe basshysy polkovnik Dementiev, podpolkovnik Savchenko, mayor Antonov, leytenant Baturinderding esimin erekshe qúrmetpen ataydy.

Raqymjan әkesimen kezdesuden tura bir ay ótkende – 1944 jyly qazan aiynda kishi leytenant shenimen uchiliysheni ýzdik tәmәmdap, soghysqa attanady. Búl kezde maydan shebi Kenes Odaghynyng shekarasynan shyghyp, Polisha jerine qaray auysqan bolatyn. Jas ofiyser vzvod komandiyri retinde qan maydangha kiredi.

Qoshqarbaev qyzmet etken әskery qúramalar men onyng komandirleri turaly derekter aldaghy uaqytta әli talay ret kezdesetin bolghandyqtan, olargha da týsinikteme berip ótkendi jón kórdik.

Kishi leytenant R.Qoshqarbaev general-mayor S.N.Perevyortkiyn qolbasshylyq etetin 79-atqyshtar korpusy qúramynda qyzmet etti. Keyin dәl osy korpustyng qúramalary Berlinge alghashqylardyng biri bolyp kirip, reyhstagty alady. Komkor Perevertkin general-polkovnik dәrejesine deyin kóterilip, Berlindi alugha qatysqan erligi ýshin Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghyn iyelenedi.

Korpus qúramynda toghyz әskery qúrylym boldy. Raqymjan sonyng general-mayor V.M.Shatilov basqarghan 150-atqyshtar diviziyasynyng qúramynda shayqasty. Reyhstagty alugha qolbasshylyq etkeni ýshin Batyr ataghyna ie bolyp, soghystan keyin general-polkovnik dәrejesine deyin ósken komdiv Vasiliy Mitrofanovich Shatilov 90-nan erkin asyp, bertinde – 1995 jyly dýnie saldy. Ol – Raqymjandy batyl ofiyser retinde baghalap, ózining әskery jazbalarynda onyng erligin ýnemi atap ótip, keyin birneshe ret Batyr ataghyn beru jónindegi úsynystargha qoldau kórsetken ayauly jan.

Qoshqarbaev 150-atqyshtar diviziyasynyng qúramyndaghy podpolkovnik A.D.Plehodanov basqaratyn 674-atqyshtar polkynyng qúramynda boldy. Aleksey Dmitriyevich Plehodanov 1938 jyldan bastap Qyzyl Armiya qatarynda bolyp, finn soghysyna qatysqan, Úly Otan soghysyna saqa ofiyser retinde kirgen tәjiriybeli komandir edi. Minezi tik, tipti shataqtau bolghan. Sol sebepti Batyr ataghynan qúr qalghan. Raqymjandy syilap, onyng erligin layyqty baghalay bilgen.

Qoshqarbaev 674-atqyshtar polkynyng qúramyndaghy 1-batalionda vzvod basqardy, al búl bataliongha Raqymjan úrysqa alghash kirgende kapitan A.S.Tverdohleb jetekshilik etti. Soghysqa deyin qarapayym mehanizator bolghan, ómirlik tәjiriybesi mol, qaramaghyndaghy soldattar men ofiyserler syrtynan «Batika» dep erekshe qúrmetpen ataghan Aleksey Semenovich Tverdohleb óte qamqor komandir edi. Kezekti bir úrys sәtinde kombattyng ordinaresi qarday boraghan oq astynda qalady. Raqymjan búiryq kýtpesten komandiyrining kóz aldynda әlgi soldatty jaughan oqtyng astynan aman alyp shyghady. Búiryqsyz әreket jasaghany ýshin ózgelerge kóz qylyp eskertu jasasa da, erligine erekshe riza bolghan Tverdohleb jas qazaqty airyqsha jaqsy kórip ketedi.

Raqymjan tughan әkesindey syilaghan qamqor komandir jeniske sanauly kýnder qalghanda Berlinning dәl irgesinde 28 sәuir kýni oqqa úshyp, onyng ornyn kapitan V.IY.Davydov basady. Dәl osy Davydov batalionynyng jauyngerleri kenes әskerleri ishinen birinshi bolyp jau ordasy – reyhstagqa  búzyp-jaryp kiredi.

Keyipkerimizding erligin bayandau barysynda esimi birneshe ret atalatyn onyng qarulas dostary men komandirleri turaly qysqasha mәlimetten song batyrdyng jauyngerlik jolyna oralayyq.

Ol ómirbayandyq kitabynda: «12 qantar kýni Vislo-Oder operasiyasyn bastaghan 1-Ukrain armiyasy jappay shabuylgha shyqqanyn bildik, bizding diviziya qúramyna kiretin 1-Belarusi maydany búl operasiyagha eki kýnnen keyin qosyldy», – dep jazady. Búl leytenant Qoshqarbaev qatysqan alghashqy shayqas bolatyn.

Úly Otan soghysynyng eng sheshushi kezeninde danqty qolbasshylar marshal G.Jukov pen marshal IY.Konevting basshylyghymen jýzege asqan «Vislo-Oder operasiyasyna» tek Kenes Odaghy tarapynan 2 millionnan astam әsker qatysty. Polisha jerining basym bóligin fashisterden azat etip, kenes әskerlerin Berlin baghytyna shygharghan dәl osy shayqasta jas ofiyser R.Qoshqarbaev erligimen erekshe kózge týsip, diviziya komandiyri V.M.Shatilovtyng óz qolynan 1-dәrejeli Otan soghysy ordenin alady.

Birden múnday biyik marapat iyelengen jas qazaqtyng erligi de joyqyn bolatyn. Oder ýshin shayqasta shabuyldaushy  batalion qúramynda aiqasqa týsken leytenant Qoshqarbaev jau transheyasyna birinshi bolyp sekirip, qolma-qol úrysqa kirisedi. Granatasymen dereu jau pulemetshisining kózin joyyp, nemisting óz pulemetimen ózderine oq jaudyrady. Dala oghlanynyng búl erligi jyrtqyshty óz apanynda jayratyp salyp, onyng ýiirin jalghyz ózi bauday týsirumen birdey naghyz jaujýrektik edi. Osynyng bәrin óz kózimen kórgen polk komandiyri A.Plehodanov Raqymjandy birden birinshi dәrejeli marapatqa úsynghan.

(Raqymjan Qoshqarbaevtyng 1-dәrejeli Otan soghysy
 ordenine úsynghan marapat qújaty)

Batystan AQSh pen Úlybritaniya bastaghan odaqtastar ashqan ekinshi maydan nemis shekarasyna keuley kirgende, asqan jyldamdyqpen nebәri 20 kýn ishinde jýzege asyrylghan «Vislo-Oder operasiyasynyn» nәtiyjesinde kenes әskerleri Berlinning irgesine deyin jetti. Eki jaq ta Berlindi birinshi bolyp alugha órshelene úmtyldy.

Kenes әskerlerining gitlerlik Germaniyany talqandaudaghy sheshushi ýlesin aiqyndaghan Berlin operasiyasy turaly kenes tarihshylary, jazushylary, osy oqighagha qatysqan qolbasshylar myndaghan enbekter jazdy. Kenes Odaghy tarqap, temir shymyldyq ysyrylghannan keyin qúpiya qújattar ghylymy ainalymgha týsip, aqiqat ashyla bastady. Berlindi alu jahandyq soghystyng sheshushi sәtindegi asa quatty әskery kýshterding qatysuymen ótken joyqyn operasiya ghana emes, әlemdik sayasat sahnasyndaghy ýlken oiyn bolghandyghy da aiqyndaldy.

Kenes әskerleri 1944 jyldyng sonynda el aumaghyn  jaudan týgeldey tazartyp, Polisha territoriyasyna taqap keldi. Búl kezde soghys bastalysymen qaru-jaraq, әskery tehnika, azyq-týlikpen kómegin ayamay-aq kelgen AQSh pen Úlybritaniya basshylyghy KSRO azghana uaqytta óz elin basqynshy jaudan týgeldey bosatyp, endigi jerde Shyghys Europany fashizmnen azat etu arqyly olardy óz yqpalyna – kommunistik lagerige tartugha әreket jasaytynyn aiqyn sezdi. Osy túrghydan kelgende jau astanasyn birinshi bolyp alghan elding Europadaghy eng quatty memleket – Germaniyanyng bolashaqta qanday sayasy baghyt ústanatynyn aiqyndauda sheshushi roli atqaratynyn eki jaq ta da birdey týsine bildi.

Sheteldik tarihshylar «odaqtastar әskery shyghyn asa kóp bolatynyn aldyn-ala boljap, Berlindi aludan sanaly týrde bas tartty» deydi, al tarihy qújattar basqasha sóileydi. Sayasatkerler Berlin ýshin shayqasty ekinshi maydan ashylmay túryp-aq bastap ketken bolatyn.

AQSh preziydenti F.Ruzvelit 1943 jyldyng 9 qarashasynda «Ayova» linkorynyng bortynda túryp, ekinshi maydan barysynda AQSh Norvegiya men Daniyany, Bremen men Gamburg portyn, soltýstik-batys Germaniyany tez arada basyp alu kerektigimen qosa «Biz Berlinge deyin jetuimiz kerek. Sonda Kenesterge onyng shyghysyna deyingi aumaq búiyrady. Biraq Berlindi mindetti týrde Qúrama Shtattar aluy kerek», – dep kesip aitady. Al 1945 jyldyng 1 sәuiri kýni U.Cherchilli Ruzvelitke: «Orys armiyalary esh kýmәnsiz býkil Avstriyany basyp alyp, Venagha kiredi. Eger búghan qosa Berlindi alatyn bolsa, onda bizding ortaq jenisimizge dәl solar sheshushi ýles qosqan siyaqty әsireqyzyl úghym qalyptasuy mýmkin... Sondyqtan men sayasy túrghydan alghanda, biz Germaniyanyng shyghysynan neghúrlym ary qaray jyljuymyz kerek dep esepteymin. Eger Berlin qolymyz jeter jerde bolsa, esh kýmәnsiz ony biz aluymyz kerek», – degen qúpiya jedelhat jibergen.

Bayqaysyz ba, odaqtastar strategiyalyq josparlarynda әldeqashan Berlinning taghdyryn óz paydasyna sheship qoyghan. Kenes tarapyna búghan qosa Germaniya basshylyghynyng odaqtastargha Berlindi beybit jolmen beru turaly jasyryn kelissóz jýrgize bastaghany belgili bolady.

Áriyne, Stalin de qarap jatpady. Búl kezde alghashqy nobayy 1944 jyldyng qarashasynda jasalghan «Berlin operasiyasy» jospary dayyndalyp, ony tek әskery qúramalardyng dispozisiyasyna oray naqtylau ghana qalghan edi. Cherchilliding jedelhatyna Ruzvelitting jauaby jetip ýlgergenshe, 1945 jyldyng 3-sәuirinde Berlindi aludyng jospary býge-shigesine deyin kórsetilgen, Stalin qol qoyghan arnayy Diyrektiva shyghady. Dәl osy qújat negizinde 16-sәuir kýni Úly Otan soghysynyng eng songhy shabuyly bastaldy.

Keyin belgili bolghan derekter boyynsha, nebәri 23 kýnge sozylghan osy operasiyada kenes әskerlerining shyghyny qaytys bolghandardy, jaralanghandaryn qosa eseptegende 361 367 adamgha jetken. Soghystyng taghdyry әldeqashan sheshilip qoyghan kezde sayasi, әskery bedel ýshin osynshama adamnan aiyrylu aqylgha syya qoymaytyn shyghyn edi.

Berlin operasiyasyn marshal G.Jukov pen marshal IY.Konev jýzege asyrdy. Kezinde «Jenis marshaly» dep asyra dәriptelgen Jukov Berlin operasiyasyn tez, jyldam ayaqtap, oghan birinshi bolyp basyp kiru ýshin osynday orasan zor shyghyndargha barghan. Qaharman qolbasshy Bauyrjan Momyshúlynyng «Tórt jyl boyghy súrapyl soghystyng nebir súmdyq qiyametteri kóz aldymda. Biraq Berlindi alardaghy, Reyhstagqa tu tigerdegi qyrghyn – ol naghyz joyqyn qyrghyn!», – degen ashyna, ashulana sóileuining astarynda osynday syr bar edi.

Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev 1945 jyldyng sәuir aiynda jan alysyp, jan berisken qyrghyn soghystyng eng súrapyl shayqasyna kiredi. Ol ómirbayandyq kitabynda Oderge shyqqan son-aq komandovanie býkil ofiyserlik qúramgha Berlin men onyng ainalasyndaghy ózen, kól, orman, derevnya, qalashyqtar, asa manyzdy nysandar belgilengen karta taratqanyn jazady.

Berlin operasiyasy shenberinde Raqymjan men onyng qarulastary 20-sәuir kýni Pretseli eldi mekenin, al kelesi kýni Berlinning irgesindegi Karov qalasyn alady. Osy shayqasta jau oghy onyng ong qabaghyn jyryp ótip,  basyna jaraqat týsedi. Sonda Raqymjandy erekshe jaqsy kóretin kombat Tverdohleb: «Múnday oq ótpeytin baspen sen әli jýz jyl jasaytyn balasyn!», – dep qaljyndaydy. Búdan keyin әriptesteri ony «Neprobivaemyi» dep atap ketedi.

Tverdohleb basqarghan batalion jauyngerleri jau astanasyn qaq jaryp aghatyn Shpree ózenining jaghasyna shyqqanda, kombat barlyq ofiyserlerge Berlinning qaq jýregi sanalatyn Kyonigsplas alany, onda ornalasqan «Gimmler ýii» dep atalyp ketken ishki ister ministrligining ghimaraty men «105» sifrmen tanbalanghan reyhstag jәne odan tómen ornalasqan Brandenburg qaqpasy belgilengen ýlkeytilgen kartany kórsetip, aldaghy uaqytta osynday basty nysandardy bes sausaqtay bilu kerektigin qatang tapsyrady.

Dәl osy jinalys kezinde kombatty telefon arqyly polk shtabyna shaqyrady. Syrtqa shyghyp, jyldam shtabqa bettegen mayorgha osynyng aldynda oq tiyip, әldeqashan óldige sanalghan nemis ofiyseri esin jiyp, granata laqtyrady. Tórt jyl boyyna san shayqastan aman shyqqan esil er osylaysha kezdeysoq ajaldan qaza tauyp, onyng ornyn kapitan Davydov basady. Erteninde marshal Jukov pen Konevting әskerleri jau ordasyna basyp kirip, onyng әr kóshesi, әr oramy, әr ghimaraty ýshin keskilesken shayqas bastaldy.

Berlindi qaq jaryp aghatyn Shpree ózeni reyhstag ornalasqan alang túsyna kelgende doghaday iyiledi. Doghanyng sol jaghynyng tómendeu túsynda Kyonigsplasqa shyghatyn Molitke kópiri bar. General-mayor Shatilov basqaratyn 150-atqyshtar diviziyasy qúramyndaghy eki polk (674 jәne 756) әskerleri reyhstagqa shabuyl aldynda týgeldey osy kópirding auzyna shoghyrlanady. Kópirden ótken jerde әueli Shveysariya elshiligining ghimaraty, odan keyin «Gimmler ýii» ornalasqan. Fashistik Germaniyanyng eng jauyz basshylarynyng biri, SS reyhsfureri Gimmlerding shtaby dәl osy ghimaratta bolatyn. Soghys kezinde adam balasyn azaptau men qinaudyng nebir jantýrshigerlik týrlerin oilap tauyp, konslageriler ashqan Gimmlerding shtabyn talqandau onyng jauyzdyghyn jaqsy biletin әrbir kenes soldaty ýshin jaudan kek qaytarumen para-par edi.

«Gimmler ýiinen» qighashtap Kyonigsplasty, yaghny «Koroli alanyn» kesip ótseniz, aldynyzdan fashizm ordasy – reyhstag shyghady. Kenes әskerlerining basty nysany osy eki ghimarat boldy. «Berlin operasiyasy» barysynda jenis tuyn dәl osy ghimaratqa tigu josparlandy.

Jenis tuy

Reyhstagqa shabuyldy basqarghan 150-atqyshtar diviziyasynyng komandiyri Shatilov: «Reyhstagty tórt batalionmen shabuyldau jóninde sheshim qabyldandy. Onyng kombattar Davydov pen Logviynenko basqaratyn ekeui 674-shi Plehodanov polkynan bolsa, kombattar Neustroev pen Kliymenkov basqaratyn ekeui Zinchenko polkynan edi», – dep jazady (Shatilov V.M., Reyhstag ýstindegi tu. M., 1975, 53 b.).

Kapitan Davydov bastaghan Raqymjannyng bataliony әueli Molitke kópirining auzyndaghy Shveysariya elshiligi ornalasqan ghimaratqa lap qoyady. Ertenine tansәride tas qamal bolyp bekinip, SS-ting tandauly ofiyserleri men soldattary qorghaghan 5 qabatty ghimaratqa joyqyn shabuyl bastalyp, Raqymjan men onyng qarulas serikteri «Gimmler ýiine» alghashqylardyng biri bolyp basyp kiredi.

Búl turaly oqighany óz kózimen kórgen «Pravda» gazetining әskery tilshisi Martyn Merjanov «Tanertengi asa quatty artilleriyalyq atystan keyin «Gimmler ýiinen» alangha oq jaudyrghan nysandar toqtap, ghimarattyng qalyndyghy eki metrden asatyn qabyrghasy qaqyray bastasa da, әli qúlaghan joq edi. Ony fashisterding tandauly bataliondary qarudyng barlyq týrinen oq atyp, jantalasa qorghap baqty. Biraq oghan leytenant Qoshqarbaev óz vzvodymen kýl-talqany shyqqan esikten atoylap basyp kirdi», – dep jazady (Merjanov M., Ol osylay bolghan. M., 1975).

Týske qaray «Gimmler ýiinin» 1-qabaty týgeldey jaudan bosatylyp, 2-qabat ýshin aiqas bastalady. Fashisterding jantalasa qorghanghany sonshalyq,  úrystyng osy bóliginde Raqymjan vzvodynyng teng jarymy oqqa úshady.

Bekingen jau әr qabat, әr bólmeni ólermendikpen qorghaydy. Ghimaratty tez arada jaudan bosatugha búiryq alghan kenes әskerleri 30 sәuir kýni tang aldynda «Gimmler ýiin» týgeldey fashisterden tazartyp shyghady.

«Gimmler ýiinde» 30-sәuir kýni leytenant Raqymjan Qoshqarbaevqa partiya biyleti tabys etiledi. Búl turaly komdiv V.M.Shatilov: ««Gimmler ýiinin» jertólesinde partkomissiyanyng otyrysy boldy. Onda vzvod komandiyri, komsomol mýshesi, qazaq, 1924 jyly tughan leytenant Raqymjan Qoshqarbaevty partiya qataryna qabyldandy», – dep jazady.

Bala kezinen «halyq jauynyng balasy» dep qaghaju kórip, alang kónil ósken Raqymjan ózi armandaghan partiya biyletin tós qaltasyna basqanda onyng esimin әlemge әigileytin tarihy erlikke sanauly saghattar ghana qalghan bolatyn.

Kóp úzamay sol sәt te kelip jetti.

Partiya biyletin alyp, tóbesi kókke jetkendey kónil-kýide túrghan Raqymjandy  kombat Davydov shaqyrady.

Kombat Raqymjangha barlyq mәn-jaydy týsindirip, oghan reyhstagqa birinshi bolyp tu tiguge attanatyn alghashqy topty basqarudy úsynady. IYә, búiryq emes, úsynys. Bas tartugha әbden bolady, biraq Raqymjan birden kelisimin berdi. Saghat tili tura 11-di kórsetkende qúramynda agha leytenant Sorokiyn, serjant Lysenko, efreytor Bulatov, qatardaghy jauyngerler Provatorov, Oreshko, Pachkovskiy, Brehoveskiylerden túratyn shabuyldaushy top Raqymjannyn: «Algha, er sonymnan!» degen búiryghymen jau ordasyn betke alyp, «Gimmler ýiinin» terezesinen tas tóselgen Koroli alanyna sekirip týsedi.

Raqymjan qyzyl materialdan jasalyp, býrkenshik qaghazgha oralghan tudy gimnasterkasynyng ishine tyghyp, syrtynan belbeumen myqtap baylap alady.

Búl kezde Kyonigsplas alanyna qarudyng barlyq týrinen oq qarsha borap, ólim seuip túrdy. Eger alanda ornalasqan ghimarattarda 5000-gha juyq SS-ting tandauly әskerleri ornalassa, tek reyhstagtyng ózin 1000-nan astam jau әskeri jantalasa qorghap baqty.

Eng sheshushi sәtke qatysty oqighanyng órbuin Raqymjan aghanyng kitaby boyynsha bayandar bolsaq, bastapqy toptan Grigoriy Bulatov ekeui suyrylyp algha shyghady. «Gimmler ýii» men reyhstagtyng arasy – bar bolghany 360 metr. Ár metri tútas ghúmyrgha tatityn osy aralyqty ekeui jer bauyrlap 7 saghatta jýrip ótedi. Birinshi bolyp reyhstagqa jetip, iyghyna Bulatovty shygharyp, ghimarattyng kire berisindegi ekinshi qabattyng terezesine Jenis tuyn qadaydy. «Keshki saghat jetining shamasynda reyhstagta ýsh batalion boldy. Ýsheui de bizding 150-shi diviziyanyng bólimderi edi», – dep jazady Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev.

Ómiri boyy tura joldan taymay, adaldyqtan attamay, aryna daq týsirmey ótken has batyrdyng bayandauyndaghy bar shyndyq osynday. Endeshe Raqymjannan keyin jetken Egorov pen Kantariyanyng qalaysha Jenis tuynyng avtory atanyp, reyhstagqa shabuyldyng әr sәtin «Gimmler ýiinen» baqylap túrghan býkil komandirlerding kóz aldynda alghash tu tikken Raqymjan men Grigoriyding erligi óz dәrejesinde baghalanbauynyng syry nede?

Endi osyghan keleyik.

Úly Otan soghysynda týbegeyli betbúrys oryn alyp, Jenis sәti jaqyndaghan kezde – 1944 jyldyng 6-qazanynda Jogharghy Bas qolbasshy Staliyn: «Fashist aiuandardy óz apanynda janyshtap, Berlin ýstine Jenis Tuyn jelbiretu kerek», – degen sózderdi aitady. Dәl osy sәtten bastap Jenis tuyn tigu barlyq kenes әskerlerining ghana emes, onyng aty jer jarghan danqty qolbasshylardyng da eng ýlken arman-maqsatyna ainalady.

Reyhstagqa shabuyldy general-mayor Shatilov basqarghan 150-atqyshtar diviziyasy úiymdastyrdy, al búl qúrylym general-polkovnik V.Kuznesov qolbasshylyq etetin 3-Ekpindi armiyasynyng qúramynda edi.

Kenes әskerleri Berlinge basyp kirer aldynda osy tәjiriybeli komandarmnyng tapsyrmasy boyynsha 3-Ekpindi armiyanyng qúramyndaghy 9 diviziya men brigadanyng sanyna sәikes qyzyl tular әzirlenedi, biraq eshkim oghan resmy týrde «Jenis tuy» mәrtebesin bermegen. Sonyng besinshi nomerlisi Shatilov diviziyasyna tabys etiledi. Komdiv ony tigudi 756-polktyng komandiyri Zinchenkogha tapsyrady, al Qoshqarbaev podpolkovnik Plehodanov basqaratyn kórshi polktyng qúramynda edi. Shatilov asa jauapty tapsyrmany oryndau ýshin qansha batyl bolsa da minezi shәlkem-shalystau, shalt qimyldaytyn Plehodanovtan góri, kóbinese ailamen, amalmen is jasaytyn Zinchenkony tandaydy. Búl Plehodanovqa onsha únanqyramay, ol reyhstagqa eng jaqyn ornalasqan óz qaramaghyndaghy 1-batalion komandiyri Davydovqa tez arada qolda bar materialdan qyzyl tu әzirlep, ony qaytse de kórshi polk jauyngerlerinen búryn reyhstagqa tigudi tapsyrady. Al kombattyng tandauy әrqashan sabyrmen qimyldap, aqylymen әreket etetin, erjýrektigimen aty shyqqan Raqymjangha týsedi.

Reyhstagqa birinshi bolyp tu tigu iydeyasy jalghyz Plehodanovqa emes, jau ordasyna tayap kelgen ózge de qúrylym (diviziya, polk, batalion, rota) komandirlerining oiynda boldy. Sol sebepti tu tiguge úmtylghan shabuyldaushy toptardyng qatary toghyzdan әldeqayda kóp edi jәne olardyng reyhstagqa aman jetkenderi Raqymjannan keyin de ghimarattyng arghy-bergi betterine óz tularyn qadap ýlgeredi.

Ýsh birdey polktyng sarbazdary reyhstagqa jayghasyp, onyng basym bóligi jaudan tazartylghannan keyin Zinchenko keshki saghat on shamasynda reyhstagqa jetedi. Shtabtan әskery kenes bekitken №5 armiya tuyn aldyryp, ony ghimarattyng tóbesine tigudi búiyrady. Osylaysha 30 sәuirden 1 mamyrgha qaraghan týnde, dәlirek aitqanda 1 mamyr kýni týngi saghat 3-te Egorov pen Kantariya leytenant A.Berestting basshylyghymen reyhstagtyng tóbesine 3-Ekpindi armiya shtaby bekitken tudy jayghastyrady.

Kantariya men Egorovtyng tuy reyhstag tóbesine tigilgen tórtinshi tu bolghan, biraq oghan deyin bekitilgen ýsh tudy nemis mergenderi men artilleriyasy atqylaghan oqtar úshyryp týsirip otyrghan.

Aytpasa shyndyqtyng atasy óletin bolghandyqtan, oqighany resmy biylik jyldar boyy sanagha sinirgen jalghan tújyrymmen emes, oq-dәri iysi anqyghan jertólelerde, shynnyng jýzinde jazylghan derektermen dәleldep kóreyik.

Reyhstagqa alghashqy shabuyl 30 sәuir kýni tanerteng bastaldy. Ghimaratqa bekingen múzday qarulanghan jau әskeri atoylaghan toptyng betin qaytaryp, alanda az ghana uaqytqa tynyshtyq ornaydy. Dәl osy kezde Raqymjan toby tu tiguge attanady. Týski saghat 13.30-da ekinshi joyqyn shabuyl bastalady. Búl kezde jer bauyrlap jyljyghan Qoshqarbaev pen Bulatov ghimaratqa jaqyndap qalghan edi. Osy sәt turaly ol óz kitabynda: «Eki jaqtan jiberilgen snaryadtyng bәri birdey bizding dәl tóbemizge tayap úshyp jatqan siyaqty. Reyhstag taghy da týtin men shannan kórinbey ketti. Artilleriya atysy bir saghattay tónirekti tópelep, jer dýniyeni solqyldatty. Edәuir uaqyt ótken song reyhstag jaqtan boraghan oq sәl sayabyrsyp, kók týtin be, kóterilgen shang ba, aldymyz búlynghyr túman bolyp ketti. Osy bir búlynghyr sәtti paydalanyp jýgirsek, jau bizdi reyhstagqa jetkenshe kórmey qaluy mýmkin edi, sondyqtan algha úmtylugha bel bayladyq», – dep jazady.

Dәl osy úmtylysta olar reyhstagqa jetip ýlgeredi.

Al endi oqighanyng bas-ayaghyn jinaqtap kóreyik. Olar saghat tili tura 11-di kórsetkende shabuylgha attanghan. Jer bauyrlay jyljyp reyhstagqa jaqyndaydy. Saghat týski bir jarymda ekinshi shabuyl bastalady. Onyng dәl  uaqyty oqighagha qatysqan barlyq qúrylymdardyng bayanattarynda naqty kórsetilgen. Ekinshi shabuyldaghy artilleriyalyq atys Raqymjan kórsetken «bir saghattay» uaqytqa sozylghan. Ol sәl sayabyrlaghanda Qoshqarbaev pen Bulatov reyhstagqa jýgire jetip, tu tigip ýlgeredi.

Eger ekinshi shabuyl saghat bir jarymda bastalyp, ol Raqymjan esteliginde atap kórsetilgendey, bir saghattay uaqytqa sozylsa, Qoshqarbaev pen Bulatov reyhstagqa jetip, tu tigip ýlgergen mólsherli uaqyt saghat eki jarym bolyp shyqpay ma?

Endeshe, Raqymjan óz kitabynyng qazaqshasynda ony «keshki 6», orysshasynda «18 saghat 30 minut» dep jazghan.

Bar kiltipan osy aradan shyghady. Batyr dәl osylay jazbaghan. Ony solay isteuge mәjbýrlegen, tipti búl derekti әskery senzura óz betinshe qosqan. «Ou, sonda qalay, batyrgha әmir jýrushi me edi?», – deui de mýmkin býgingi zaman oqyrmandary. «Kenes zamanynda batyrdy bylay qoyyp, qajet bolsa qolbasshygha da tarihy derekti óz qolymen ózgertkizgen», – deymiz kommunistik zamannyng talay qiytúrqysyn basynan ótkizgen biz.

Osy materialdy dayarlau barysynda Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev erligine qatysty aqiqat shyndyqty tarih tereninen arshyp alu ýshin biz bir kezdegi KSRO Qorghanys ministrliginin, qazirgi RF Qorghanys ministrligining Ortalyq múraghatyna (RF QMOM) arnayy ótinish joldap, batyrgha qatysty búryn esh jerde jariyalanbaghan әskery qújattardy aldyrghanbyz. Osy sauapty iske qatysqan barlyq azamattargha alghysymyzdy aita otyryp, endi solardyng bir parasyna kezek bereyik.

Jenis tuy tigilgen oqighanyng izi suymay-aq alghashqy bayanatty Raqymjannyng polk komandiyri Plehodanov jazghan. Onda bylay delingen: «Komandir vzvoda razvedky 1 sb l-nt KAShKORBAEV y razvedchik vzvoda polkovoy razvedky kr-s BULATOV v 14.30 vodruzily znamya nad reyhstagom. V 14.40 1 y 2 sb polnostiu voshly v reyhstag, ochishaya nijniy etaj y podvalinye pomesheniya» (RF QMOM, 1390-qor, 1-tizim, 76-is, 174-175-better.

(Raqymjan Qoshqarbaevtyng erligi kórsetilgen
polk komandiyri A.Plehodanovtyng bayanaty)

(Úrys jaghdayynan dәl habar beretin әskery múraghat qújattaryn týpnúsqa tilinde keltirudi jón sanadyq). Eki paraqtan aspaytyn әskery tilmen qysqa da núsqa jazylghan «Opisanie boya za Reyhstag» atty búl qújatta shabuyldyng barysy әr minutyna deyin dәlme-dәl kórsetilgen, sonyna «Plehodanov» dep siya qaryndashpen shiyrshyqtap qol qoyylghan. Tipti bayanat sonynda «chto budet vrati Zinchenko prospavshy v podvale» degen sózder jazylghan. Eger polk komandiyri qol qoyghan resmy qújatqa tómengi shendi ofiyserlerding ózgeris týsire almaytynyn jәne bayanatta komdiv qolymen jazylghan eskertpeler joqtyghyn eskerer bolsaq, múnday әskery etikagha syimaytyn kekesindi tirkesti Plehodanov jazuy mýmkin dep shamalaymyz.

Soghys jaghdayynda әr diviziyanyng barlyq әskery qimyly múqiyat tekserilip, ózge bayanattarmen, onyng ishinde barlaushylar maghlúmatymen salystyrylghannan keyin әbden naqtylanghan derekterdi qattap otyratyn «Jurnal boevyh deystviy» deytin arnayy qújaty bolady. Endi Raqymjan shayqasqan 150-atqyshtar diviziyasynyng osynday jurnalyna ýnilip kóreyik.

Onda: «Leytenant KOShKARBAEV y razvedchik 674 sp BULATOV pervymy podpolzly s polkovym krasnym znamenem y v 14.25 30.4.45 vodruzily ego na ploshadky lestnisy glavnogo sentralinogo vhoda v reyhstag s zapadnoy storony. Toliko s nastupleniyem sumerkov 30.4.45 v zdanie reyhstaga s yujnoy y sentralinoy chasty vorvalisi 674 sp; s severnoy 1/756 sp», – delingen (Sonda, 1390 qor. 1-tizim, 1-is, 22-23 better).

(«Jauyngerlik qimyl jurnalynda» anyq kórsetilgen erlikting bayany)

Búl – bir ghana polktyng emes, tútas diviziyanyng әskery shejiresi sanalatyn asa manyzdy qújattan alynghan derek. Múnda da tudyng 30-sәuir kýni 14 saghat 25 minutta tigilgeni qolmen qoyghanday anyq kórsetilgen.

Endi 150-atqyshtar diviziyasynyng tarihy formulyaryna nazar audaryp kóreyik. Onda: «V 13.00 30.4.45 g. artilleriya, minomety y RS otkryly unichtojaishiy ogoni po protivniku. Artobrabotka prodoljalasi v techenie 30 minut. V 13.30 nachalsya shturm protivnika. ... V 14.25 30.4.45 g. leytenant KOShKARBAEV y razvedchik BULATOV 674 sp po-plastunsky podpolzly k sentralinoy chasty zdaniya y na lestniyse glavnogo vhoda postavily krasnyy flag... V 18.00 30.4.45 g. byl povtoren shturm reyhstaga... Rota Siyanova pervaya vorvalasi v sev. chasti reyhstaga, a boysy 1 y 2 (bataliona) 674 sp s sentralinoy y yujnoy storony», – delingen (Sonda, 1390-qor, 1-tizim, 22-is, 192-193 better).

(Atqyshtar diviziyasy tarihy formulyaryndaghy jazba)

Múnda artilleriyalyq atystan keyin ekinshi shabuyldyng saghat bir jarymda bastalyp, Raqymjan jazghanday, «bir saghattay uaqyt ótkende», yaghny 14 saghat 25 minutta leytenant Qoshqarbaev pen jauynger Bulatovtyng jer bauyrlap reyhstagqa jetip, tu tikken uaqyty minutyna deyingi dәldikpen kórsetilip, ózgelerding de aty-jóni naqtylana týsken.

Kezinde osy qújattargha qol qoyghan komdiv Shatilov keyin óz esteliginde: «Tórtinshi qabatta ornalasqan mening pozisiyamnan alanda jýgirgen, qúlaghan, kóterilgen adamdardyng súlbasy kórinip túrdy... Men ong jaqtaghy kolonnanyng túsynan alqyzyl Tudyng jarq etkenin kórdim. Dәl sol sәtte 14 saghat 30 minutta men Plehodanov pen Zinchenkodan bir mezgilde eki bayanat qabyldadym », – dep jazdy.

Shatilovqa eki polktyng komandirleri de óz jauyngerlerining reyhstagqa basyp kirgenin bayandaghan. Komdiv sol sәtinde-aq jaghymdy janalyqty korpus shtabyna habarlaydy. Ary qaray bәri týsinikti: sol sәtte reyhstagtyng alynyp, oghan jenis tuy tigilgenin komkor Perevertkin komandarm Kuznesovqa, al ol kezeginde marshal Jukovqa bayandaghan. Habar Jukovqa jetisimen ol ózining 30 sәuirdegi №6 búiryghyn jariyalaydy. Onyng 2-punktinde:

«General-polkovnik Kuznesovtyng 3-Ekpindi armiyasynyng әskerleri shabuyldy óristete otyryp, jau qarsylyghyn enserip, reyhstag ghimaratyn basyp aldy. Býgin 30.4.45 jyly saghat 14.25-te onda kenes tuyn kóterdi. Reyhstag ghimaraty men onyng alany ýshin shayqasta general-mayor Perevertkinning 79-atqyshtar korpusy men onyng qúramyndaghy polkovnik Negodanyng 171-atqyshtar diviziyasy jәne general-mayor Shatilovtyng 150-atqyshtar diviziyasy erekshe kózge týsti», – degen joldar bar.

Dәl osy búiryqtyng 4-tarmaghynda tudyng birjolata tigilgenin nyqtylay týsetin: «Bizding kenestik tuymyz Berlin qalasynyng ortasyndaghy reyhstag ghimaratynda jelbirep túr», – degen joldar boldy.

Marshal Jukovtyng búiryghy sol sәtinde-aq aqparat qúraldaryna jetip, Sovinformburo: «1-Belarusi maydanynyng әskerleri reyhstagty basyp alyp, saghat 14-te oghan Jenis tuyn tikti», – degen barsha kenes adamdary asygha kýtken habardy Levitannyng sanqyldaghan dauysymen býkil dýnie jýzine taratty.

Jenis tuy jelbiregeni jónindegi aqparat әlemdi sharlap ketkende 3-Ekpindi Armiyanyng Áskery kenesi bekitken №5 tu әli polkovnik Zinchenkonyng shtabynda jatqan bolatyn.

Endi osy tudyng qalaysha reyhstag tóbesine shygharylyp, ony Egorov pen Kantariyanyng qanday jaghdayda, qashan tikkenine oralayyq.

Komdiv Shatilov Egorov pen Kantariyanyng esimin alghash polkovnik Zinchenkodan estigenin jazady. Tudy birinshi bolyp tigu «jarysynan» әriptesi Plehodanovtan qalyp qoyghan ailaker Zinchenko qulyqqa basqan. Shatilov óz esteliginde kýndiz Zinchenkogha telefon shalyp, «Tu qayda?», – dep súraghanda ol tudyng óz shtabynda ekenin, tipti ony reyhstagqa jetkizetin adam tabylmay túrghanyn aitqan. Komdiyv: «Onda tudy Plehodanovqa ber!», – dep qayyra tapsyrma bergennen keyin Zinchenko ile-shala baylanysqa shyghyp, Egorov pen Kantariyanyng esimin bayandap, jauapty missiyany solargha jýkteuge rúhsat alady.

Osylaysha bәri de kókeyge qonymdy, sayasatqa syiymdy bolyp shygha keledi. Biri jeniske sheshushi ýles qosqan orys halqynyng ókili, ekinshisi – Jogharghy Bas qolbasshynyng qandasy. Sayasy qyzmetting jilik mayyn shaqqan, qulyghyna qúryq boylamaytyn Zinchenko oilap tapqan búl iydeyagha sol kezde eshkim de qarsy kele almaytyn edi. Onyng ýstine joghary lauazymdy komandirler ýshin qaramaghyndaghylardyng qaysysy tu tikse de, ózining eshqashan abyroydan tys qalmaytyny beseneden belgili bolatyn.

Jenis tuy – shartty úghym. Resmy týrde ony Jogharghy Bas qolbasshynyng Bas shtaby da, Jukov basqaratyn 1-Belorus maydanynyng Sayasy basqarmasy da aldyn-ala bekitpegen. Sol sebepti kenes әskerleri ishinen birinshi bolyp jau ordasyna atoylap kirip, býkil Kenes odaghynyng simvoly sanalatyn qyzyl tu tikken R.Qoshqarbaev pen G.Bulatovtyng tuyn Jenis tuy dep qabyldap, dәl osy tudy Reyhstag tóbesine shygharghanda ol eng әdiletti sheshim bolar edi. Onyng ýstine marshal Jukovtyng búiryghynda «Jenis tuy» degen naqty ataudyng ornyna «kenestik tu» atty shartty úghym kórsetilgen. Ókinishke oray, bәri basqasha bolyp shyqty.

Jenis tuyna qatysty dau-damaydyng osy kýnge deyin tolastamauyna Egorov pen Kantariyanyng komandiyri – polkovnik Zinchenko sebepker boldy. Ol óz jauyngerleri tikken tudyng mәrtebesin kóteru ýshin onyng 3-Ekpindi Ukrain armiyasynyng shtabynda bekitilgenin ýnemi algha tartty. Eger shyntuaytqa kelsek, marshal Jukov basqarghan 1-Belorus maydany qúramynda 1945 jyldyng 1-sәuirindegi derek boyynsha, 11 armiya (3-Ekpindi Ukrain armiyasy sonyng bireui ghana), 2 artilleriyalyq, 1 tank korpusy, 2 atty әsker korpusy jәne búlargha qosymsha әskeriy-әue, baylanys jәne injenerlik qúrylymdar boldy. Jau ordasyna Jukov әskerlerimen bir mezgilde basyp kirgen IY.Konev qolbasshylyq etken 1-Ukrain maydanynyng qúramynda dәl osynday kólemdegi әskery qúramalar shayqasty. Eger qos maydandaghy әrbir armiya shtaby óz qúramyndaghy әskery qúramalar sanyna sәikes Jenis tularyn әzirleytin bolsa, olardyng jalpy sany birneshe jýzden erkin asatyn edi. Sondyqtan «armiya shtaby bekitken» degen uәjding eshbir sayasi, әskery jәne qúqyqtyq qauqary joq, әiteuir qarsy jaqtyng betin jasqau ýshin taban astynda oidan shygharylghan tym sholaq tújyrym edi, biraq әskery jaghday kýn sayyn emes, saghat sayyn ózgerip, qiyan-keski úrys jýrip jatqanda joghary shendi qolbasshylar sayasy qyzmetkerlerding osynday kelte kesimine op-onay kóne salghan. Polkovnik Zinchenkonyng Egorov pen Kantariya siyaqty orys jәne gruzin últynan shyqqan jauyngerlerdi Jenis tuynyng avtory retinde tandauy marshal Jukovtyng ózin typyr etkizbegen.

Raqymjan men Bulatov óz tularyn qadap ýlgergenshe reyhstagqa qarsy ekinshi shabuyl ekpindey týsip, olardyng izin ala týrli әskery bólimderding tuyn ala jýgirgen jauyngerlerding alghashqy legi jau ordasyna jetip ýlgeredi. Keshke qaray olardyng qatary kóbeye týsti. Ghimarattyng әr qabaty jaudan tazartylghan sayyn әr terezeden alqyzyl tular jelbirep, ýlkendi-kishili tular men jalaushalardan reyhstag qyzghaldaqty daladay qúlpyryp túrady.

Biz súrapyl soghysta qan tókken esil erlerding erligin mansúqtaudan aulaqpyz. Berlindi alugha qatysqan, reyhstagqa shabuyldaghan, tu tikken, oghan qarys qadam jete almay qaza bolghan barlyq jauyngerlerding ruhyna әrdayym basymyzdy iyemiz. Biraq orys mәtelinde aitylghanday, «jenilis jetim bolsa da, jenisting әkesi tym kóp» boldy. Keyingi jyldary shyndyqtyng ónin ainaldyrushylardyng qatary kóbeyip ketti. Olardyng ishinde Berlin tize býgip, kenes әskerleri jenisti toylaugha kirisken beybit kezende týsirilgen fotosuretter negizinde ózin batyr dep kórsetip, joghary ataqqa úsynghandar da shyqty.

Fotosuret degennen shyghady. Alghashqy suretti «Pravdanyn» fototilshisi V.Temin 1 mamyr kýni oirandalghan Berlin ýstimen úshqan PO-2 úshaghynyng bortynan týsirgen. Redaksiyadaghylar suretti shygharghan kezde ghimarat kýmbezinen eshbir tudy kóre almaghan. Óitkeni ol kezde tu kýmbezding ortasynda emes, ondaghy mýsinge ghana bekitilgen bolatyn. Sondyqtan tu suretke retusherler qolymen týsiriledi. Retushi asyghysta istelgendikten tudyng proporsiyasy tym ýlken bolyp shyghyp, keyin osy mәsele tónireginde ýlken dau shyghady.

Áygili fototilshi E.Haldeyding dýnie jýzin sharlap ketken «Reyhstag ýstindegi Jenis tuy» sureti de 2 mamyr kýni soghys ayaqtalyp, Berlinning sózsiz tize býgui qabyldanghannan keyin týsirilgen. Shyndyghynda ol suretting de Jenis tuyna, al onda beynelengen jauyngerlerding alghash tu tigushilerge esh qatysy joq edi. Alayda tilshining qoldan jasalghan suretine týsken jauyngerlerding biri 1996 jyly «Resey batyry» ataghyn aldy (minәiim sebeptermen ardagerding esimin ataudy artyq sanadyq).

Egorov pen Kantariyanyng reyhstag tóbesinde tu ústap túrghan fototilshi A.Morozov týsirgen ýshinshi suret 2 mamyr kýni beybit jaghdayda týsirilip, 3 mamyr kýni kóptegen aqparat qúraldarynda jariyalandy.

Jenis tuyna baylanysty eng senimdi múraghat derekterin qarastyra kelip, tómendegidey qorytyndygha keluge bolady.

  1. Reyhstagqa atoylap kirip, alghash tu tikkender – leytenant Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev pen qyzylәsker Grigoriy Bulatov.
  2. Tarihy oqigha 1945 jyly 30 sәuir kýni saghat 14.25-te jýzege asqan.
  3. Qoshqarbaev pen Bulatovtan keyin 674, 756, 380, 525-atqyshtar polktarynyng jәne 86-auyr gaubisalyq artilleriyalyq brigadanyng jauyngerlik toptary birinen song biri ghimaratqa, óz bólimshelerining shabuyl tularyn qadaghan.
  4. 3-Ekpindi Armiyanyng әskery kenesi bekitken tudy polkovnik Zinchenkonyng búiryghymen Egorov pen Kantariya 1 mamyr kýni týnde reyhstagtyng tóbesindegi atty mýsinge bekitip, ony 2 mamyr kýni tanerteng kýmbezding ortasyna ornalastyrghan. Keyin Jenis tuy retinde resmy tanylghan dәl osy tu boldy.

(Reyhstagqa tu tikkender: M.Kantariya, M.Egorov,
 R.Qoshqarbaev, S.Neustroev)

Shyndyq shejiresi

Qasym aqyn aitqanday, «kýrkirep kýndey» súrapyl soghys ta óte shyqty. Bir kezderi ólim sepken Berlin aspany ot-shashulargha bólendi. Jenimpaz jauyngerlerdi marapattaular bastaldy.

Áueli marshal Jukovtyng tikeley úsynysymen Berlindi alugha ýles qosqan komdiv M.Shatilov, komkor S.Perevertkiyn, komandarm V.Kuznesov 1945 jylghy 29 mamyr kýni Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghyn alyp, ýshinshi Altyn júldyz marshal Jukovtyng keudesinde jarqyrady.

Jenis tuyn tiguge Egorov pen Kantariyanyng kandidaturasyn úsynghan 756-polktyng komandiyri Zinchenko de sol 1945 jylghy 31 mamyr kýni Altyn júldyzgha ie boldy.

Tarihy shyndyq túrghysynan alghanda jau ordasyna alghash basyp kirgen de, oghan túnghysh tu tikken de podpolkovnik Plehodanov basqaratyn 674-polk jauyngerleri bolatyn. Komdiv Shatilov shalduar polk komandiyrine «erjýrek, batyl ofiyser» degen minezdeme berip, Batyr ataghyna úsynady. Qay qylyghymen joghary komandirlerge jaqpaghanyn kim bilgen, erligi kýmәnsiz kóringen Plehodanovtyng marapaty Qyzyl Tu ordenimen shekteldi.

Raqymjan aghanyng kitabynda kapitan Davydov oghan alqyzyl tudy tabys ete túryp, birge attanatyn top qúramyn tanystyrghanda onda Qoshqarbaev pen Bulatovtan basqa agha serjant Lysenko, qatardaghy jauyngerler Provatorov, Oreshko, Pachkovskiy, Brehoveskiy bolghan. Polk komandiyri Plehodanov әlde tәjiriybesizdiginen, әlde kóniljyqpastyqtan olardyng bәrin birdey Batyr ataghyna úsynady. Nәtiyjesinde bәri derlik Altyn júldyzdyng ornyna Qyzyl Tu ordenin qanaghat etuge mәjbýr bolady.

«Derlik» sózin qosyp otyrghanym, Raqymjan men Bulatovtan keyin alghashqy shabuyldaushy top ishinde reyhstagqa jetip jyghylghan agha serjant IY.Lysenkogha kelesi 1946 jyldyng 15 mamyrynda Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghy berildi. Plehodanov qol qoyghan onyng marapat paraqshasynda eshbir artyq-kemi joq: «Lysenko joldas 1945 jyldyng 30-sәuiri kýni saghat 14-te reyhstag ghimaratyna basyp kirip, granatamen 20 nemis soldatynyng kózin joydy. Ekinshi qabatqa jetip, Jenis tuyn tikti», – dep jazylghan (RF QMOM, 33-qor, 793756-tizim, 28-is, 250-bet). Erlikti marapat qaghazy arqyly ghana tanyp, shtabtan úzap shyqpaytyn sayasy qyzmetkerler 19-20 jastaghy, soghysqa kirgenine jarty-aq jyl ótken Grisha men Raqymjandy qaytsin, Lysenko siyaqty revolusiyanyng týidey qúrdasy (1917 jyly tughan), 1942 jyldan maydan shebindegi, jalghyz granatamen 20 nemisti jer jastandyryp, Jenis tuyn tikken saqa soldat Lysenko túrghanda.

Berlin tize býgip, jappay marapat bastalghanda, reyhstagty alugha qatysqan ondaghan әskery bólimshelerden «jau ordasyna Jenis tuyn tikti» degen sipattamamen jýzden astam úsynys kelip týsken.

Múnday úsynys jasaghan komandirlerdi de týsinuge әbden bolady. Shyndyghynda olar biri erte, biri kesh, reyhstagtyng әr túsyna shabuyl tularyn tikken. Al resmy oryndar ýshin Jenis tuy jalghyz bolatyn. Sol sebepti 1945 jyly tu tikkenderding eshqaysysyna da Batyr ataghy berilmedi.

Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghyna úsynylghandar ishinde Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev ta boldy.

Kezinde Kәkimjan Qazybaev aghamyz bastaghan qazaq qalamgerleri men ziyalylary talay jyldary jabyla izdegen Resey Qorghanys ministrligi múraghatynan aldyrghan qos paraqtan ghana túratyn osy bir tarihy qújatty biz de ýlken tebirenispen qolymyzgha ústap, asqan yjdahattylyqpen qarap shyqtyq. Onyng dәstýrli anketalyq derekterden keyingi «Jauyngerlik erligi men qyzmetining qysqa, naqty mazmúny» degen bóliginde bylay dep jazylghan:

«Prorvav oboronu protivnika 16.04.1945 goda s plasdarma na zapadnom beregu r.Oder v rayone Grosneyndorfa tov. KOShKARBAEV vo glave shturmovogo vzvoda 17.04.1945 goda vyshel k kanalu Fridlandershtrom ispolizuya iskluchiytelino vygodnyy rubej dlya oborony, protivnik pytalsya priostanoviti prodviyjenie nashih chastey. Vzvodu tov. KOShKARBAEVA bylo prikazano na podruchnyh sredstvah preodoleti vodnui pregradu, zahvatiti plasdarm na zapadnom beregu kanala y sposobstvovati pereprave osnovnyh sil polka. Prikryvayasi ognem orudiy pryamoy navodky vzvod pod komandovaniyem tov. KOShKARBAEVA dostig protivopolojnogo berega kanala y stremiytelinym broskom vorvalsya v nemeskuiy transheiy. V transheynom boy dohodivshem do rukopashnoy shvatky vzvod istrebil bolee 40 nemeskih soldat, zahvatil 3 krupnokaliybernyh pulemeta y iz trofeynogo orujiya otkryl intensivnyy ogoni po ognevym tochkam vraga. Vospolizovavshisi uspehom vzvoda tov. KOShKARBAEVA bylo perepravleno eshe neskoliko shturmovyh grupp.

V boi 29.04.1945 goda vzvod v chisle pervyh forsiroval r.Shpree lomaya ojestochennoe soprotivlenie vraga 30.04.1945 goda vorvalsya v Reyhstag y vodruzil znamya Pobedy.

V dny boev provedennyh ot Odera do Reyhstaga vzvod istrebil bolee 200 nemeskih soldat y ofiyserov y 194 zahvatil v plen, s boem zahvatil 14 polevyh orudiy vmeste s prislugoy, 27 krupnokaliybernyh pulemetov y mnogo drugogo voorujeniya.

Dostoin prisvoeniya zvaniya «GEROYa SOVETSKOGO SOiZA».

Komandir 674 strelkovogo polka, podpolkovnik Plehodanov» (RF QMOM, 33-qor, 686196-tizim, 44/143-is, 32-33 better).

(Raqymjan Qoshqarbaevty Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry
 ataghyna úsynghan marapat qújaty)

Sonyna 1945 jylghy 6 mamyr kýni qyzyl qaryndashpen polk komandiyri Plehodanov shiyrshyqtata qol qoyghan. Búl úsynysty 14 mamyr kýni diviziya komandiyri Shatilov ta qoldap shyqqan. Úsynys 27 mamyrda korpus komandiyri Perevertkin tarapynan da maqúldanyp, mór basylghan.

Batyr ataghyn alu ýshin kelesi satyda armiya komandiyri men onyng shtab bastyghynyn, ary qaray maydan qolbasshysy men onyng әskery kenesi mýshesining qoldaulary kerek. Raqymjandy batyrlyqqa úsynghan qújat korpus komandiyrining qolymen shektelgen.

Uaqyt tabymen sarghayghan qos paraqtyng tasasynda әldebir tylsym syr jasyrynghanday talay mәrte audaryp-tónkerip qaraymyz. IYә, ol joghary qaray jyljymaghan. Tek «Marapat turaly belgi» degen bóliginde býginde óshe bastaghan kók siyamen «3-Ekpindi armiyanyng №0121/n 8.6.45 jylghy búiryghymen Qyzyl Tu ordenimen marapattaldy» dep jazylyp, әldekimning qoly qoyylghan. Bar bolghany osy ghana...

Batyr ataghyna úsynylghandardyng esep kartochkasy bolady. Raqymjannyng isinde 1946 jyldyng sәuir aiynda (búl kezde tu tikkenderding eshqaysysy әli ataq alyp ýlgermegen) toltyrylyp, onyng jәne Plehodanovtyng qoldary qoyylghan osynday qújat ta tabyldy. Búghan qaraghanda songhy kezenge deyin onyng kandidaturasy ýmitkerler qatarynda bolghan.

Keybir zertteushiler «Raqymjannyng Batyr ataghyn alugha әkesining halyq jauy bolghandyghy sebepker boldy» degen joramal da aitady. Búl sózding de jany bar shyghar, biraq ol ataqqa úsynylghanda әkesi týrmeden bosap, tughan auylynda qarapayym kolhozshy bolyp enbek etip jýrgen. Sondyqtan onyng marapat paraqshasyndaghy otbasy jaghdayy turaly mәlimette: «Ákesi – Musin Qoshqarbay – Qaz.KSR. Aqmola obl. Aqmola audany, Voroshilov kolhozy», – dep anyq kórsetilgen. Onyng ýstine Stalinning әigili «әkesi ýshin balasy jauap bermeydi» degen qaghidasynan keyin Úly Otan soghysy kezinde qanshama «halyq jaularynyn» balasy eng joghary marapat pen әskery shenge ie boldy.

R.Qoshqarbaevty keyin birneshe mәrte Batyr ataghyna úsynghanda: «bir erlikke eki nagrada berilmeydi, tu tikkeni ýshin ol 1945 jyly Qyzyl Tu ordenmen marapattalghan», - degen shygharyp saldy jauaptar da kelip otyrghan. Búl da shyndyqqa sәikes kelmeytin jaghday. Egorov pen Kantariya da Jenis tuyn tikkeni ýshin әueli 1945 jyldyng 19 mamyrynda Qyzyl Tu ordenimen marapattalghan. Alayda búl marapat olargha arada jyl ótkende Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghyn alugha esh bóget jasaghan joq.

Jenis tuyna úsynylghandardyng kandidaturalaryn joghary oryndar jyl boyy qaraydy. Tura bir jyl ótkende – 1946 jyldyng 8-mamyrynda ýmitkerler men olardyng komandirleri asygha kýtken KSRO Joghary Kenesi Prezidiumynyng jarlyghy da shyqty. «Berlindegi reyhstagqa Jenis Tuyn tikken KSRO Qaruly Kýshterining ofiyserlik jәne serjanttyq qúramyna Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghyn beru turaly» osy jarlyq boyynsha jau ordasyn basyp alugha qatysqan ýsh polktyng ýsh kombaty – G.Davydov (674), S.Neustroev (756), K.Samsonov (380) jәne tu tikken M.Egorov pen M.Kantariyagha Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghy berildi. Osylaysha Jenis tuynyng avtory mәselesi birjolata sheshilip, búdan bylayghy jerde resmy biylik pen әskery senzura tek osyny ghana basshylyqqa alatyn boldy.

Joghary oryndar kandidaturalardy qaraugha kirisken bir jyl ishinde janalyqqa jany qúmar jurnalister jau ordasyn talqandap, oghan tu tikken batyrlar jayly jazugha jabyla kirisip ketti.

Raqymjan jayynda alghashqy materialdy ol qyzmet etken diviziyanyng basylymy «Voin Rodiny» gazeti 1945 jyldyng 3 mamyrynda basty. Gazetting 1-betinde tútastay Jogharghy Bas qolbasshy Stalinning Germaniya astanasy Berlinning tize býgip, 70 myng nemis ofiyseri men soldatynyng tútqyngha týskeni turaly әigili búiryghy jaryq kórdi. Osy gazetting ekinshi betindegi avtory kórsetilmegen «Olar úrysta kózge týsti» atty materialda: «Kenes batyrlary, halqynyng tandauly perzentteri. Olardyng tanghajayyp erlikteri jayynda әli talay kitaptar jazylyp, әnder shygharylady. Olar gitlerizm ordasyna Jenis tuyn tikti. Erjýrekter esimin eske saqtayyq: leytenant Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev, qyzylәsker Grigoriy Bulatov. Olarmen tize qosyp shayqasqan danqty jauyngerler: Provatorov, Lysenko, Oreshko, Pachkovskiy, Brehoveskiy, Sorokiyn», – dep jazyldy.

(«Voin Rodiny» maydandyq gazetinde  1945 jyldyn
3 mamyrynda jariyalanghan habar)

Dәl osy gazetting 5 mamyrdaghy kelesi nomerinde belgili әskery jurnalist V.Subbotin men N.Shatilovtyng avtorlyghymen jazylghan «Olar Jenis tuyn kóterdi» atty maqalada qos batyrdyng erligi taratyla jazylyp: «Qoshqarbaev Bulatovty terezege shygharyp: «Bekit, Bulatov!», – dedi. Olar birlese reyhstagtyng ýstine alqyzyl tudy tikti», – dep jazdy.

Mamyr aiynyng 17-si kýni «Frontoviyk» maydan gazetinde әskery fototilshi V.Grebnev týsirgen Raqymjannyng fotosureti «Berlin shabuylynyng batyry» degen atpen jaryq kórdi.

KSRO Jazushylar odaghynyng 1948 jyldyng jeltoqsanynda ótken Plenumynda әigili kenes jazushysy Boris Gorbatov arnayy bayandama jasaydy. Ol qazaq әdebiyetining jetistikterine egjey-tegjeyli toqtalyp: «Shyntuaytqa kelgende, bizding armiyanyng jauyngerlerin býrkit, qyrandarmen salystyrudy qoyatyn uaqyt jetti. Mening kóz aldymda joldastarymen birge reyhstagtyng tóbesine Jenis tuyn tikken qazaq Qoshqarbaevpen qanday býrkit tenese alady? Múnday batyrlardy kórsetu ýshin bizge airyqsha poetikalyq qúral, basqasha obraz, ózgeshe poeziya kerek» – dep qazaq batyrynyng erligin ýlken tebirenispen atap ótedi («Liyteraturnaya gazeta», 1948 jyldyng 18 jeltoqsany, №101).

Belgili orys jazushysy «mening kóz aldymda» degen sózdi obrazdy týrde emes, tura maghynasynda aitqan. Onyng búl sózin maydanger jurnalist Martyn Merjanov ózining «Ol osylay bolghan» atty esteliginde rastap: «dәl osy saghattarda Gorbatov Gimmler ýiining jertólesindegi baqylau punktinde otyrdy», – dep jazady.

Ókinishke oray, Mәskeude ótken jazushylardyng ýlken jiynynda ataqty orys jazushysy aitqan sensasiyalyq janalyq qazaq qalamgerleri nazarynan tys qalady. Rahymjan da «ol men edim» dep, kóp eshkimge tis jara qoymaghan.

... Soghystan keyin on jyldan astam týrli qyzmetter atqaryp, Almatygha at basyn tiregen Raqymjan 1958 jyly Bauyrjan aghasyna sәlem beruge keledi. Batyr sol kýni-aq Kәkimjan Qazybaevqa tapsyrma beredi. Kәkeng qaharman qolbasshynyng tapsyrmasyn tastay etip oryndap, 1958 jyly 20 aqpanda «Reyhstagqa tu tikken qazaq» atty maqalasyn basady. Búl lezde Raqymjan Qoshqarbaevtyng esimi býkil qazaq qauymyna jayylyp, ol shyn mәnindegi halyqtyq qaharmangha ainalady. Raqymjan osylaysha zor ataq-danqymen tughan halqyna oralady.

Raqymjandy mәskeulik avtorlar keyingi jyldary da nazardan tys qaldyrghan joq. Ol turaly sonau 1945 jyly «Frontoviyk» gazetine kólemdi maqala jazghan әskery jurnalist Vasiliy Subbotin maydan jazbalary negizinde dýniyege kelgen «Myng tórt jýz onynshy kýn» atty derekti povesinde: «Jenis tuyn reyhstagtyng kýmbezine Egorov pen Kantariya tikti. Biraq búdan basqa da bayraqtar men tular boldy. Men bir kezderi búl turaly jazsam da, Davydov batalionynan shyqqan qos batyr turaly, olardyng tuy, ony qalay reyhstagqa tikkeni jayly taghy da aitqym keledi», – dey kelip, Raqymjan men Grigoriyding erligin egjey-tegjeyli surettep shyghady. («Novyy miyr», 1960, №5, 57-58 better).

Alpysynshy jyldary Kenes Odaghynyng bas gazeti sanalatyn «Pravda» Jenis tuyna qatysty el arasynda anyz ben aqiqatqa toly san aluan derekter qaptap ketkendigin eskerip, tarihy faktilerdi jan-jaqty taldaugha negizdelgen «Kak bylo vodrujeno Znamya Pobedy» atty maqala jariyalaydy. Onda reyhstagqa birinshi bolyp tu tikkender qatarynda R.Qoshqarbaev pen G.Bulatovtyng da esimderi de atalady («Pravda», №129, 09.05.1963).

SOKP OK janyndaghy Marksizm-leninizm instituty Kenes Odaghyndaghy eng bedeldi ghylymiy-zertteu ortalyghy sanalatyn. Osy institut ghalymdary 1960-65 jyldary Úly Otan soghysyna qatysty barlyq múraghat qújattaryn múqiyat zerttep, 6-tomdyq «Kenes Odaghy Úly Otan soghysynyng tarihy» atty irgeli enbek shygharady. Soghystyng songhy kezenine arnalghan 5-tomda reyhstagqa tu tikken batyrlar qatarynda R.Qoshqarbaev pen G.Bulatovtardyng da esimi atalyp, «osynshama kóp tulardyng tigilui kenes әskerlerining jappay erligining kórinisi boldy», – dep jazady  (M., 1963, 5-tom, 285 b.).

Búl KSRO-daghy eng joghary partiyalyq biylikting reyhstagqa tu tikkenderge Batyr ataghyn bermese de olardyng erligin ashyq moyyndauy edi.

Jyldar algha jyljyp, sayasatqa da óz órnegin týsirdi. Kenes Odaghy ómirine «jylymyq» degen ataumen engen júmsaqtau kezennen keyin tarihy oqighagha tikeley qatysqan adamdardyng әskery memuarlary jariyalana bastady. Sonday alghashqy estelikterding birin komdiv V.M.Shatilov jazdy. Onyng «Reyhstag ýstindegi tu»  atty kitaby tek kenes zamanynyng ózinde mol tirajben ýsh ret qatarynan basyldy.

Shatilov esteliginde ol týski eki jarymda reyhstag kolonnasynyng ong jaghynan qyzyl tudyng jarq etkenin óz kózimen kórgenin, al Egorov pen Kantariyanyng tuy týnde ilingenin  jazady. Estelikte alghash tu tikken ofiyser Raqymjan ekeni aitylmasa da, onyng qazaq batyry bolghandyghyn angharu qiyn emes.

Tudyng týs kezinde tigilgenin danqty qolbasshy marshal Jukov ta rastap shyqty. Ol ózining «Vospominaniya  y razmyshleniya» atty kitabynyng alghashqy  basylymynda bylay dep jazady: «30 sәuir kýni saghat 15 shamasynda mening komandalyq punktime komandarm Kuznesov telefon shalyp, – Reyhstagta – Qyzyl tu. Ura, joldas marshal!, degen quanyshty habar jetkizdi» (Vospominaniya y razmyshleniya, M., 1969, 655-bet).

Al dәl osy kitaptyng 1974 jyly jaryq kórgen ekinshi basylymynda oqigha: «21 saghat 50 minutta serjant M.A.Egorov pen kishi serjant M.V.Kantariya armiyanyng Áskery Kenesi tapsyrghan Jenis tuyn reyhstagtyng bas kýmbezine tikti. Reyhstagty alugha baghyttalghan tarihy shabuyldy ózi baqylap túrghan 3-Ekpindi armiyanyng qolbasshysy V.IY.Kuznesov dereu mening komandalyq punktime telefon shalyp: «Reyhstagta – Qyzyl tu! Ura, joldas marshal!» – degen quanyshty habardy jetkizdi», – bolyp ózgertildi. Osylaysha «jenis marshaly» Jukovtyng ózi әueli ózi 1945 jyldyng 30-sәuirinde qol qoyghan №6 búiryghynda, keyin memuardyng alghashqy basylymynda tudyng tigilgen uaqyty dәl kórsetilgen derekterden bas tartyp, joghary biylik resmy týrde qabyldaghan núsqany basshylyqqa alugha amalsyz mәjbýr boldy.

Reyhstagqa tu tiguge qatysqan taghy bir general, Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry IY.F.Klochkov ta estelik jazdy. Onyng «Biz reyhstagqa shabuyldadyq» atty kitabynda: «Reyhstagqa deputattar kiretin esik arqyly leytenant Petr Grechenkovtyng atqyshtar rotasy kelip jetti. Leytenant R.Qoshqarbaev birinshi bolyp kolonnagha qyzyl jalau bekitti», – delinip, Raqymjan erligi taygha tanba basqanday anyq jazyldy.

Sekseninshi jyldary taghy bir estelikti reyhstagqa alghashqylardyng biri bolyp kirgen kombat,  Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry Stepan Neustroev ta jazdy. Ol ózining «Reyhstagqa jol» atty memuarynda Raqymjandy jau ordasynan kórgendegi әseri turaly: «mening qarsy aldymnan keng jauyryndy, orta boyly adam shyqty. Men onyng leytenant Qoshqarbaev ekenin birden tanydym. Onyng erjýrek ofiyser retindegi danqy býkil diviziyany sharlap ketken bolatyn», – dep Raqymjannyng óz qarulastary arasynda ejelden erjýrektigimen kózge týskendigine erekshe nazar audarady.

Neustroev ómirining sonyna qaray 1990 jyly «Jyldar belesindegi reyhstag turaly» taghy bir estelik jazyp, «Oktyabri» jurnalynda jariyalaydy. Múnda ol ózining búrynghy jazbalaryndaghy, polk komandiyri Zinchenkonyn, tipti komdiv Shatilovtyng kitaptaryndaghy tudyng tigilu tarihyna qatysty jansaqtyqtardy ayausyz әshkereleydi.

Kapitan Neustroevting osy esteliginde Zinchenko 30 sәuir kýni týngi saghat on ekide reyhstagqa kelgende oghan ózining ghimaratqa tigilgen tular turaly maghlúmatty ret-retimen jәne kimderding tikkendigi turaly tolyq bayandap shyqqanyn, al ol 5-shi nomerli tudyng qayda ekenin súraghanda, onyng әli shtabta, yaghny «Gimmler ýiinde» ekendigin jazghan. Ashu-yzadan jaryla jazdaghan Zinchenko dereu shtabtan tudy aldyryp, ony tiguge Egorov pen Kantariyany ghimarat tóbesine jibergenin kórsetedi. Ol ekeui 20 minuttan song qaytyp oralyp, fonari joqtyghynan qaranghyda kýmbezge shygharatyn joldy taba almaghanyn bayandaghan. Sol kezde әbden kýiip-pisken Zinchenko kapitan Neustroevqa tapsyrmany jedel oryndaudy qayyra búiyrady. Búl joly Egorov pen Kantariyagha leytenant Berest pen Siyanovtyng rotasyndaghy avtomatshylar jol ashyp, tu tigushilerdi shatyrgha shygharady. Arada jarty saghat ótkende olar qayta oralyp, leytenant Berest tudyng mýsinge berik baylanyp, bekitilgenin bayandaydy. 2 mamyr kýni tanerteng reyhstagqa komdiv Shatilov kelerding aldynda Zinchenkonyng búiryghymen Egorov pen Kantariya tudy mýsinnen bosatyp alyp, temir qanqasy ghana qalghan reyhstag kýmbezining dәl ortasyna ornyqtyrady. Ózimen birge bar shyndyqty ala ketpeu ýshin bolghan oqighany eshbir boyama-býkpesiz, qaz qalpynda keltirgen qart jauyngerding esteligin eshbir kýmәn keltirmeytin aqiqatqa negizdelgen derek retinde qabyldaugha әbden bolady dep bilemin.

Jenis tuynyng tigilu tarihyna qatysty kóptegen jansaqtyqtar men qoldan jasalghan kedergilerding oryn aluyna sebepker bolghan polkovnik Zinchenko de estelik jazdy. Ol «Reyhstag shabuylynyng batyrlary» atty kitabynda: «Reyhstagqa shabuyl bastalghan kezden leytenant R.Qoshqarbaev bastaghan jauyngerler toby batyr da, batyl qimyldap, ýnemi úrystyng alghy shebinde jýrdi», – dep atap kórsetse de, Jenis tuyn tikeley ózining basshylyghymen Egorov pen Kantariya tikkenin jazudan tanbady.

Jastary egde tarqan kezde «Jenis tuy» atty estelikti M.Egorov pen M.Kantariya da jazdy. Obaly neshik, 1975 jyly jaryq kórgen osy kitapta olar tu tigu ýshin shabuylgha endi kóterilgende Raqymjan bastaghan kenes әskerleri ornatqan tular reyhstagtyng әr túsynda jaynap túrghany jazylghan.

(Qarulas dostar – G.Bulatov pen R.Qoshqarbaev)

Tu tikkender ishinde eng qiyn taghdyr Raqymjannyng qarulas dosy Grigoriy Bulatovqa búiyrdy. Ákesi soghysta qaza bolghan ol birneshe ret óz erkimen súrana jýrip, maydangha attanghan eken. 1945 jyldyng sәuirinde ol 19 jasar balang jigit edi. Bulatov ta Raqymjanmen birge Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry ataghyna úsynylyp, Qyzyl Tu ordenimen shekteledi. Soghystan keyin 1949 jyly әskerden birjolata bosap, Kirov oblysyndaghy tughan qalasy Slobodskige keledi. Shalys basyp, týrmege týsip, general Shatilov bastaghan komandirlerining aralasuymen bosap shyghady. Tentek sugha әuestenip, syrahanany jaghalaydy. Soghystaghy erligin aityp, reyhstagqa tu tikkenin dәleldeuge tyrysady. Jerlesteri shyndyq izdep sharq úrghan azamatty týsinuding ornyna kelemejdep, «Grisha-Reyhstag» dep atap ketedi.

Grigoriy Bulatov kózi tirisinde eshqanday estelik jazyp qaldyrmaghan, biraq Raqymjannyng úqyptylyghy arqasynda onyng qarulas dosyna jazghan ókinish ózegin órtegen hattary Qazaqstan Respublikasy Ortalyq memlekettik múraghatyndaghy R.Qoshqarbaevtyng jeke qorynda әli kýnge deyin saqtauly. Grigoriy ózining 1965 jyldyng 3 mausymy kýni jazghan hatynda: «Qazir «Krasnyy yakori» faner zauytynda kater motoriysi bolyp júmys isteymin. Oqugha mýmkindik bolmady. Baspanam da kelisip túrghan joq, bar-joghy 13 sh. m. shaghyn bólme ghana. Ashu-yza degen shash-etekten. Bәri aldamshy bolyp shyqty. Zinchenko men basqa ofiyserlerding tiri qalyp, jetetin bolsandar (reyhstagqa) bәring de altyn júldyz alasyndar degen sózderi әli kýnge deyin esimde. Biz terezeden ajalgha qarsy sekirip týstik qoy», – dep jazady (Qazaqstan Respublikasy Ortalyq memlekettik múraghaty. 2364-qor, 1-tizimdeme, 73-is). Ol arada jyl ótkennen keyin 1966 jyldyng 18  nauryzynda jazghan hatynda: «Tәuirleu, biraq asa jayly emes pәter berdi. Faner kombinatynda slesarimyn. ... Bizdi nege birjolata úmytty? Al obozda jýrgen Kantariya men Egorovtyng aty dýrildep túr», – dep soghys ayaqtalghanyna 20 jyl uaqyt ótse de arqasyna ayazday batatyn ókinishin ortagha salady. Eng songhy hatty 1973 jyldyng 11-qantary kýni joldapty. Onda: «Mening abaqtydan shyqqanyma jarty jyldan astam uaqyt ótti. Tirligim shatqayaqtap túr, maqtanatyn da dәnenem joq. Sýienetin  de eshkim qalmady... Bizge kerek uaqytynda uәdeni ayamay-aq berdi. Onda jas edik, bizderdi aldau op-onay bolatyn. Bәrining nemen ayaqtalghanyn sen jaqsy bilesin. Ataq-abyroygha orta joldan qosylghandar әbden qarq boldy. Sondyqtan ashu-yzamnyng tarqaytyn týri kórinbeydi. Men turaly eshkimge ótinish jasamay-aq qoy. Onyng esh paydasy joq jәne bәrinen týnilip bittim», – dep jazady ómirden әbden qajyghan maydanger.

(Grigoriy Bulatovtyng Raqymjangha jazghan hattary)

Hattardyng mazmúnyna qarap-aq Raqymjan aqkónil, anghal dosyn әrdayym jigerlendirip, aqyl-kenesin berip otyrghany, tipti jergilikti basshylardan oghan qamqorlyq kórsetuin súrap ótinish-hattar joldaghany da aiqyn angharylady. Biraq Grigoriyding ainalasynda onyng jan-dýniyesin týsiner janashyr adam tabylmady. Raqymjannyng iyghyna shyghyp, jau ordasyna alqyzyl tu qadaghan esil er osynshama әdiletsizdik pen mazaqqa tózbey, 1973 jyly ózine-ózi qol salady.

...Jenis tuynyng búdan keyingi tarihyna keler bolsaq, ol 12 mamyr kýni reyhstagtan alynyp, diviziya shtabyna jetkiziledi. Osy kezde marshal Jukovtan ony Jenis sheruine alyp shyghu ýshin Mәskeuge jetkizu jóninde búiryq týsedi. Tu tónireginde dau órship túrghan kezde diviziya shtabyndaghylar qay әskery qúrylym tikkenin kórsetu ýshin onyng dәl ortasyna ýlken әriptermen «150 str. ordena Kutuzova II st. idrisk. diyv.», – degen sózderdi jazyp, korpus shtabyna joldaydy. Ondaghylar da qarap qalmay, bos qalghan tómengi jaghyna «79 S.K., 3UA., 1 B.F.» degen tanbalardy týsirip, tudyng betin shimaygha toltyrady. Tudy S.Neustroev bastaghan top 1945 jyldyng 20 mausymynda arnayy úshaqpen Mәskeuge jetkizedi.

Jenis sheruining eng songhy dayyndyghynda tudy kombat Neustroev alyp shyghyp, sonyna Siyanov, Egorov, Kantariya ergen. Repetisiya kezinde býkil Kenes Odaghy aqparat qúraldary dabyrayta jazghan Jenis tuyndaghy shym-shytyryq jazulardy birinshi ret kórgen marshal Jukov «býkil kenes halqy atynan tigilgen Jenis tuynyng betindegi búl ne shimay?» dep ashulanuy mýmkin Stalinnen seskendi me, әlde ózi qorashsyndy ma, ony jenis sheruine qatystyrmaugha sheshim qabyldap, Qaruly Kýshterding muzeyine ótkizudi tapsyrady. Jenis tuy әli kýnge deyin osy múrajayda saqtauly.

IYә, Jenis tuynyng tarihy osynday. Keybir oqyrman «bir tudyng tarihyn osynsha ejikteuding qajeti bar ma?», – dep kýpti kónilmen qarsy súraq qony da mýmkin. «Bar» deymiz biz múnday saualgha nyq senimmen. Eger Memleket tuy tútas bir elding rәmizi bolsa, jauyngerlik tu Qaruly Kýshterding nyshany ghana emes, abyroyy da sanalghan. Búl – ejelgi Egiypet, ertedegi Rimnen bastap, óz atalarymyz – saq, ghún, kók týrikterden ýzilmey jetken qasiyetti dәstýr. Úly týrikterding bóri basty bayraghynyng danqy «Bórili mening bayraghym» dep jyr tolghaghan keshegi Sýiinbay zamanyna deyin erkin jetken.

Úly Otan soghysy jer jahannyng alty qúrlyq, tórt múhitynda jýrgizilip, әlemning sol kezdegi 73 memleketining 61-i qatysqan ekinshi dýniyejýzilik soghystyng taghdyryn sheshken maydan bolghandyghy kýmәnsiz. Endeshe, 60 millionnan astam adamnyng taghdyryn jalmaghan soghys órtin tútatqan jau ordasyna Jenis tuyn tigu airyqsha mәni bar tarihy oqigha retinde baghalanugha tiyis. Ol tudy kók semserding jýzindey jarqyldaghan jas qazaqtyng tigui ghasyrlardan ýzilmey jetken qazaq qaharmandyghyna qoyylghan erlikting mәngi ólmes eskertkishi dep bilemin.

Alpysynshy, jetpisinshi jyldary Qazaq elinde Bauyrjan Momyshúly, Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev, Qasym Qaysenovtey ýsh batyrdyng danqy aspandap túrdy. Tipti resmy biylik qasarysyp Batyr ataghyn bermegen sayyn olardyng bedeli búrynghydan da biyiktey týsti. Sol tústa elding bas kóterer ziyaly azamattary taghy bir serpilip, biylikten olardyng erlikteri óz biyiginde baghalanuyn súraydy. Búl turaly kýni keshe dýniyeden ótken maydanger-jazushy Ázilhan Núrshayyqovtyng esteliginde egjey-tegjeyli jazyldy.

Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev turaly joghary jaqqa joldanghan úsynystardyng taghy bir legi ol 60-qa tolghan 1984 jyly úiymdastyryldy. Mәskeu biyligi búl joly da ýnsiz qaldy.

(«Men taghdyryma óte riza adammyn...», 1985 jyl)

Kelesi jyly aghamyzdyng suretimen qosa ómirbayany jariyalanghan «Qazaq SSR» qysqasha ensiklopediyasy 1-shi tomynyng oryssha núsqasy jaryq kórip, batyrdyng mereyi taghy bir kóterilip qaldy. Osy kezde әskery senzuranyng qiytúrqysyn bizge de kóruge tura keldi.

Qoshqarbaev turaly bir paraqtan aspaytyn shaghyn ghana esimnamalyq maqalany әskery senzura qyp-qyzyl shimaymen keri qaytardy. Qazaq kenes ensiklopediyasynyng agha ghylymy redaktory әri maqalanyng avtory retinde men Orta Aziya әskery okrugynyng basylymy «Boevoe znamya» gazetining redaksiyasy ghimaratynda ornalasqan әskery senzuranyng kensesine keldim. Qabaghynan qar jauyp, «oqtau jútqan» mayor qabyldady.

– Maqalagha esh qarsylyghym joq, biraq bizde Jenis tuy – bireu, – dep súq sausaghyn kóterdi, – al qalghany jalaushalar ghana. – Jenis tuyn tikken batyrlar – ekeu, – búl joly onyng eki sausaghy da shoshang etti. – Onyng bәri múnda anyq kórsetilgen, – aldyndaghy kere qarys kitapty tesip jibererdey núqyp kórsetti. – Osy qatelik týzetilse, erten-aq  qol qoyyp beruge әzirmin.

Men de qarap qalmay, maqala keyipkerining elge belgili azamat ekendigin, al tu tiguding tarihy R.Qoshqarbaevtyng orys tilinde jaqynda jaryq kórgen kitabynda bayandalghanyn aita bastadym.

– Bilemin. Aytyp otyrghanynyz myna kitap qoy, – dep suyrmasynan Raqymjan aghanyng «Shabuyl» kitabyn alyp shyqty, – Oqyghanbyz. Ony basugha rúqsatty kezinde biz bergenbiz. Múnda bәri dúrys jazylghan, – dedi tu tigu hikayasy bayandalatyn taraudyng «shturmovoy flag» degen tirkesi bar jerlerin masattana oqyp, – Dәl osylay jazsanyz – qazir-aq rúqsat beremin, –  dep әngimening ayaqtalghanynan habar berip, ornynan zildene túrdy.

Qanymyz basqa shapshyp, bas redaktorymyz, akademik Manash Qozybaevqa keldik.

– Qaytesing solardy. Aytqanday istey sal. Bizge maqalanyng tezirek oryssha shyqqany kerek, – dep ol meni sabama týsirdi.

Erteninde әskery senzuranyng talaptaryn týgel oryndap, «basugha rúqsat» degen belgini de aldyq-au, әiteuir.

Oryssha tom jaryq kórgennen keyin aghamyzdy qúttyqtay kelip, osynsha әdiletsizdikterdi ózining qalay qabyldaytyny turaly jyl boyy mazalaghan súraghymyzdy jaylap qana qoyghanbyz.

– Aynalayyn, men anamdy emis-emis qana bilip óstim. Balalar ýiinde tәrbiyelendim. «Halyq jauynyn» balasy retinde qaghaju da kórdim. Partiyagha óttim. Berlindi alyp, reyhstagqa tu tiguge qatystym. Múny qarulas dostarymnyng bәri kórdi jәne eshqaysysy shyndyqty attap ótken emes. Solardyng bәrine alghysym sheksiz. Jalpy, men taghdyryma óte riza adammyn. Al batyr ataghyna kelsek, ol barmaq basynday metall ghana emes pe? Shabuyldaushy topta birge bolghan dosym Ivan Nikiforovich Lysenko: «Joldas komandiyr, mening taghyp jýrgenim bolmasa, búl sizding júldyzynyz. Qazir sheship beruge әzirmin», – deydi ylghy kezdesken sayyn. Al múnday jigitterge qalay riza bolmaysyn!» – degen edi jadyray kýlip.

Raqymjan agha «jaynaghan tuy jyghylmay» ótti ómirden.  Batyr dýniyeden ozghan song elimiz tәuelsizdik aldy. Qazaqtyng óshkeni janyp, ólgeni tirildi.

Elbasymyz Núrsúltan Ábishúly Nazarbaev tarihy shyndyqty qalpyna keltirip, ózining 1999 jylghy 7 mamyrdaghy Jarlyghymen Raqymjan Qoshqarbaevqa Qazaqstannyng «Halyq qaharmany» ataghyn berdi. Onyng sipattamasynda úzaq jyldar boyy oryn alyp kelgen batyr erligine degen әdiletsizdik tas-talqan etilip, «jenis tuyn tikken» degen jigerli sózder jazyldy.

Avtordan:

Osy materialdy jazu barysynda múraghat materialdaryn alugha kómek kórsetken «Resey Federasiyasy Qorghanys ministrligining Ortalyq arhiyvi» federaldy memlekettik mekemesining bastyghy I.A.Permyakovke, 1-shi bólimining bastyghy A.Tihonovqa, múraghatshy V.Olenichke alghysymdy bildiremin.

 «Egemen Qazaqstan» – 9-10 qazan 2014 jyl.

Týiin. Jaqynda qos batyrdyng jau jýregine Jenis tuyn qadaghanyna 76 jyl toldy. Mәskeu osynshama jyl boyyna múny jasaghandar Egorov pen Kantariya deuden tanbay-aq keldi. Erlik te almas qanjar siyaqty qyn týbinde jatpaydy eken. Biyl túp-tura 30-sәuir kýni Resey Syrtqy ister ministrligining resmy saytynda «1945 jyldyng 30-sәuirinde Reyhstagqa shabuyl bastaldy. Onyng qasbetine alghashqy Qyzyl tudy 150-atqyshtar diviziyasy 674-atqyshtar polkining jauyngerleri Raqymjan Qoshqarbaev pen Grigoriy Bulatov ornyqtyrdy. Búl azat etushi erler Reyhstagqa tikken birinshi tu edi» degen habar jarq ete qaldy. IYә, búl eren erlikting arada 76 jyl ótkende resmy týrde moyyndaluy edi. Elimizdin, Erimizdin, Erligimizding mereyi әrdayym ýstem bolsyn, aghayyn!

Múhtar Qúl-Múhammed 

Abai.kz

 

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