Sәrsenbi, 16 Mausym 2021
Alashorda 11707 3 pikir 7 Mamyr, 2021 saghat 12:19

«Qyryq mysal» jinaghy. «Tar jol tayghaq keshken» tarih

Materialdyng tolyq atauy:

AHMET BAYTÚRSYNÚLYNYNG «QYRYQ MYSAL» JINAGhYNYNG «TAR JOL TAYGhAQ KEShKEN» TARIHY

Álihan Bókeyhannyng tughanyna 155 jyl jәne
Ahmet Baytúrsynúlynyng tughanyna 150 jyl
toluyna arnalady

Ahmet Baytúrsynúlynyng «Qyryq mysal» jinaghy qazaqshagha qashan audarylyp, ol nege 5 jyl boyy jaryqqa shyqpay jatty? 5 jyl keshigip, Peterborda qay baspadan jaryqqa shyqty? Qazaq últ kóshbasshysy Álihan Bókeyhan 1904 jyldyng 11 mamyrynda Grigoriy Potaninge jazghan hatynda Ahmet Baytúrsynúlynyng osy kýnge deyin júrt bilmegen qanday qúpiyasyn ashyp berdi?


Kórnekti qogham jәne memleket qayratkeri, Alash jәne Qazaq Kenestik Respublikalarynyng túnghysh bilim jәne ghylym ministri, aqyn, danqty aghartushy, ústaz, qazirgi qazaq tili bilimining negizin qalaushy, әdebiyettanushy, týrkitanushy, kósemsózshi Ahmet Baytúrsynúlynyng túnghysh «Qyryq mysal» ólender jinaghy 1909 jyly Peterborda jaryq kórgeni mәlim. Kelesi 2022 jyly úly aghartushy, últ qayratkerining tughanyna 150 jyl tolady. «Ahannyng orys jazushysy Ivan Krylovtyng 40 mysal әngimesin qazaq tiline audarghan jinaghy Peterborda jaryq kórdi» degennen basqa, naqty qanday baspadan shyqqany eshkimdi oilandyrghan emes. Ghalymdar men júrtshylyq sanasynda úly oishyl aqyn Abay Qúnanbayúlynyng tól shygharmalary men A. Pushkiyn, M. Lermontov, I. Krylovtan audarghandarynyng jinaghy basylyp shyqqan Iliyas Buraganskiyding baspahanasynan shyqsa kerek degen oy boldy.

Arada bir ghasyrdan astam uaqyt (112 jyl) óte kele mәlim bolghanday, Ahmet Baytúrsynúlynyng Ivan Krylovtan óleng týrinde audarghan qyryq mysaly baspadan kitap (jinaq) bolyp shyghudan búryn tura 5 jyl «tar jol tayghaq keshipti». Búl jayt Alash kósemi Álihan Bókeyhannyng Krasnoyarski ólkelik ólketanu múrajayy qorynan tabylghan 5 hatynyng birinen mәlim boldy. Atalghan ólkelik múrajaydan Álihan Bókeyhannyng orys geografy, etnografy, foliklortanushy, botanik ghalymy әri kósemsózshi Grigoriy Potaninge 1903-1906 jyldar aralyghynda jazghan bes haty men bir jedelhaty (telegramy) saqtalypty.

Álihannyng 1904 jyldyng 11 mamyrynda Potaninge Ahmet turaly jazghan hatyna oralsaq, onda bylay delinedi: «Mening bir tanys qazaghym 41 mysal әngimeni, kóbine I.A. Krylovtan, qazaq tiline ghajap ólendermen audarypty. Audarmanyng avtory qoghamdaghy jaghdayy onsha joghary adam emes – Aqmola oblysynyng halyq uchiliysheleri diyrektorynyng is-qaghazdaryn jýrgizushi ghana. Audarmasyn Dala general-gubernatorynyng kensesinen shyghatyn «Seliskohozyaystvennyy listok» gazetine bólim-bólimmen jariyalau niyetimen avtor Ahmet Baytúrsynúly ózining bastyghy – diyrektor myrza Alektorovqa ótinish beripti. Ol qoljazbany ½ jyl ústap, Suhotin myrza «Seliskohozyaystvennyy listok»-ta jariyalaugha rúqsat bermedi degen sózben qoljazbany ózine qaytarypty».

(№ 1 foto. Á.N. Bókeyhannyng G.N. Potaninge A. Baytúrsynúlynyng «Qyryq mysaly» turaly jazghan haty. Omby, 1904 j.)

Álihan jogharyda sóz bolghan hatynda әri qaray Potaninnen Ahmetting «Qyryq mysalyn» basyp shygharugha senzuranyng rúqsatyn alugha, bolmasa – senzurany attap ótuge kómektesuin súraydy. «Biz, meni men Ahmet Baytúrsynúly ekeuimiz, - dep jazady hat avtory Potaninge, - onyng audarmasyn jeke kitapsha (broshura) etip basyp shygharudy oiladyq, biraq tatar-týrki tilderinde shyghatyn kitaptardy qadaghalaytyn arnayy senzordyng rúqsatyn qalay aludy bilmeymiz. Qalay jәne qayda barudyng jolyn núsqay almaysyz ba? Peterbordaghy tanys-tamyrlarynyz arqyly A. Baytúrsynúlynyng audarmasyn senzuragha tapsyrudy óz moynynyzgha ala almaysyz ba?  Ol (A. Baytúrsynúly), ókinishke oray, orta mektep bilimin de ala almaghan jәne osy kýni bar uaqytyn kýn kórisine sarp etuge mәjbýr bolyp jýrgen daryndy jas qazaq. Basqasha jaghdayda ol qoghamgha paydasy bar eleuli qogham qayratkeri bolyp shyghar edi».

Biraq odan keyingi oqighalardyng jelisi Álihan men onyng bolashaq adal ýzengilesi Ahmetting «Qyryq mysal» jinaghyn basyp shygharugha ne Potaninnin, ne onyng peterborlyq tanys-tamyrlarynyng rúqsat alyp bere almaghanyn bayqatady. Mysalgha Potaninge jazghan hatynan bir jarym jylday ótip, 1905 jyldyng qarasha aiynda Reseyding jergilikti jәne qalalyq qayratkerlerining kezekti siyezinde qazaq halqynyng ókili retinde sóilegen sózinde Álihan bylay dep mәlimdedi: «Osy jerde men polyak, azorys (maloross), latysh jәne t.b.-dyng aitqan sózderin estigenimde eski kitapty oqyp otyrghanday sezindim. Bizde de qazaq tilindegi mektepter quadalanady, senzura bizdi de basyp-janshidy. Mәselen IY.Krylovtyng 40 mysalynyng qazaq tilindegi audarmasyn basyp shygharugha senzuradan rúqsat ala almay jýrgenime mine 13 ay boldy».

Búl sózdi Álihannyng reseylik jergilikti jәne qalalyq qayratkerlerining 1905 jylghy qarashadaghy Mәskeu siyezinde aitqanyn eskere otyryp, taghy bir manyzdy tarihy oqighany eske sala keteyin. Alty Alash serkesi qazaqtyng úly oishyl aqynynyng ómiri men óshpes poeziyasyn býkil Resey qoghamyna pash etken «Abay (Ibragiym) Kunanbaev» atty azanama maqalasyn «Semipalatinskiy listok» gazetining 1905 jylghy dәl osy qarasha aiynyng ýsh sanyna jariyalaghan-dy. Maqalada, sonymen qatar, «Abaydyng tól shygharmalary men onyng Pushkinnen («Evgeniy Oneginnen» ýzindisi), Lermontovtan, Krylovtan audarghandaryn onyng úly Túraghúl jinap, kóp úzamay Á.N. Bókeyhannyng redaksiyalauymen Imperatorlyq orys geografiya qoghamynyng Semey bólimshesinen basylyp shyghatyny» aityldy.

Álihan 1905 jyldyng sony - 1906 jyldyng basynda Úly dalanyng qos birdey dara hәm dana túlghasynyng shygharmalar jinaghyn basyp shygharumen qatar, qazaq tilindegi túnghysh merzimdi basylymyn úiymdastyryp ashudy josparlaghan edi. Ol josparynyng maqsatyn әlgi Mәskeu siyezine bylay dep týsindirdi: «Qazaqtardyng dәl qazirgi eng basty múqtajy ana tilin qoldanugha degen erkindik; ol aldaghy ýgit-nasihat nauqanynyng bastaluyna oray asa ózekti. Mine sol sebepti men siyez jergilikti tilderge qoyylghan barlyq shekteuding joyyluyn talap etsin degen joldastardyng úsynysyna qosylamyn».

Alayda Alty Alash kóshbasshysy 1905-1907 jyldardaghy qalyptasqan sayasy ahual saldarynan josparynyng birin de iske asyra almady – ne Abay men Ahmet shygharmalarynyng jinaghy, ne qazaq tilinde gazet shyqpady. Semey qazaghynanyng atynan I-inshi Memlekettik dumagha deputat bolyp birauyzdan saylanudan basqa qolynan eshtene kelmedi. Duma deputattyghyna saylanu dolynda da Álihangha eshbir tergeusiz, sotsyz Túzqala (Pavlodar) men Omby týrmelerinde 4 ay otyryp shyghugha tura keldi.

Jalpy 1905 jyldyng «17 qazan maniyfesi» men Alash kósemining Mәskeu siyezine qatysuynan bastap «Qyryq mysaldyn» Peterborda 1909 jyly jaryq kóruine deyingi uaqyt aralyghyn baqylap qarasaq, túnghysh jinaqpen birge Álihannyng jәne ol mýshe bolghan ghylymy qoghamdar men qoghamdyq úiymdardyng da «tar jol tayghaq keshkenine» kóz jetkizemiz. Onyng ishinde Alash serkesi osy 5 jyldyng ishinde otarshyl biylikting abaqtysynda 2 ret otyryp shyqty. Mysalgha «Semipalatinskiy listok» gazeti bylay dep jazdy: «(Imperatorlyq orys geografiyalyq qoghamy) Batys Sibir bólimining Basqaru komiyteti (Rasporyadiytelinyi  Komiytet) 23  jeltoqsan kýni (1905 j.) Peterborgha P.P. Semenovtyng atyna mynaday jedelhat joldady: «General Suhotinning (Dala general-gubernatory) búiryghymen 22 jeltoqsanda polisiya Batys Sibir bólimin dereu mórlep jauyp tastaymyn dep qorqytyp, Batys Sibir bólimi mýshelerining jalpy jinalysynda Sedelinikovtyng Zaysan ekspedsiyasy turaly ghylymy bayandamasyn tyndauyna jәne 1906 jyldyng qarjy shyghyndaryn qarauyna bóget jasady. Bólimning ishte qalghan mýsheleri әkimshilikting osy basynghandyghy turaly hattama jazyp, ony poshtamen salyp otyrmyz. Jalpy jinalys óte qajet. Ákimshilik Bólimdi jauyp tastaymyn dep qorqytuyn qoyar emes. Basqaru komiyteti Batys Sibir bólimining qúqyn qorghaudy ótinedi. Qol qoyghandar: Bókeyhan, Gribanov, Korneev, Siyazov y Sedelinikov».

Oghan qosa I-inshi Memlekettik dumagha deputat saylau nauqany shenberinde Semeyde oblystaghy saylaushylardyng birqatar jiynyn ótkizu maqsatymen Ombydan jolgha shyghyp, Túzqala (Pavlodar) irgesindegi kazaktardyng Yamyshevskiy auylyna jetken 1906 jyldyng 8 qantarynda Á.N. Bókeyhan tútqyngha alynyp,  aldymen Túzqala týrmesine jabylyp, odan keyin Omby abaqtysyna auystyryldy. Alash kóshbasshysy Konstitusiyalyq-demokratiya partiyasy kósemderining biri Aleksandr Kolubakinge Túzqaladan astyrtyn joldaghan qúpiya hatynda: «Ka-de (Konstitusiyalyq demokratiya) partiyasy siyezining ornyna Memlekettik Dumagha ýmitker retinde abaqtygha tap boldym», - dep jazdy.

Álihan Bókeyhandy tútqynday salysymen, ol tolyq mýshesi (1896 j.) әri Basqaru Komiytetining mýshesi (1899-1902 jj.) bolghan Imperatorlyq orys geografiya qoghamynyng Batys Sibir bólimi men onyng Semey bólimshesin de qudalaugha úshyratty. Jogharyda aitylghanday, jaghyrafiya qoghamynyng Semey bólimshesi «kóp úzamay» Úly Abay shygharmalary men audarmalarynyng jinaghyn basyp shygharugha tiyis edi. Abaqtyda Álihan esh aiypsyz 4 ay otyryp, ózining tughan Toqyrauyn bolysynan «saylaushy» (vyborshiyk) bolyp saylauyna baylanysty 1906 jyldyng 30 sәuirinde bostandyqqa shyqty. 15 mausym kýni Semeyde birauyzdan Semey qazaghy atynan I-inshi Dumagha deputat bolyp saylandy. Biraq Álihan I-inshi Duma mәjilisine qatysyp ýlgermey, Peterborgha ol shaqyrylym kýshtep taratylghan 1906 jyldyng 8 shildesinde kelip jetti.

9 shilde kýni quyp taratylghan I-inshi Dumanyng 180-dey deputatynyng izimen finderding Terioky kentine jetip, kelesi kýni (10 shilde) Dumanyng kýshtep quyluyna qarsy jazylghan «Halyqqa – halyq ókilderinen» atty ýndeuge eng birinshilerding biri bolyp qoy qoydy. Búl tarihta «Vyborg ýndeui» degen atymen belgili.

Ombygha oralghan boyda, ana tilinde gazet shygharugha rúqsat ala almaghan Álihan Bókeyhan Ombyda oryssha «Irtysh» gazetin shygharudy qolgha alyp, oghan de-fakto redaktor bolady. Duma kýshtep taratylyp, Qazaq ólkesinde otarshyl әkimshilik qútyryp, «Qazaq» gazetimen qatar, Abay men Ahmetting shygharmalaryn basyp shygharugha da jol bermedi. Oghan qosa alda I-nshi Duma saylauynan da kýrdeli II-nshi Duma saylauy tosyp túrdy. Otarshyl biylikting kóz ashtyrmay qudalauynyng saldarynan Álihan Bókeyhan 1906 jyldyng 19 shildesinen 1907 jyldyng 1 qantary aralyghynda ózi shygharatyn gazetting atauyn ýsh ret ózgertuge mәjbýr boldy: 1906 jylghy 14 qarashadan bastap «Irtysh» endi «Omich», 1907 jyldyng 1 qantarynan 25 aqpanyna deyin «Omich» «Golos stepi» atauymen shyghyp túrdy.

Dese de biylikting osynday «shash al dese bas alatyn» sayasatyna qaramastan, Álihan óz gazetining ýgit-nasihaty arqyly II-nshi Duma deputattaryn saylauda Aqmola oblysy men Omby qalasy boyynsha patshalyq biylikke qarsy partiyalar ýmitkerlerining jeniske jetuine zor ýles qosty, al Semey oblysy qazaghynan – ózi dauysqa týsuden bas tartyp, biraq óz ornyna úsynghan 5 ýmitkerding biri – Temirghaly Núrekenúly Dumagha deputat boldy.

Alash serkesi saylaudyng izinshe, 1907 jylghy 25 aqpanda «Golos stepi» gazetin jauyp, ózimen birge «Vyborg ýndeuine» qol qoyghan I-inshi Duma mýshelerining ýstinen bastalghan sot ýderisine shaqyrylyp, sol jyldyng jeltoqsan aiynda sot ony 3 ailyq týrme jazasyna kesip, saylau qúqynan aiyratyn ókim shyghardy. Sot sheshimi kýshine engen 1908 jyldyng mamyrynda ol týrme jazasyn óteu ýshin Peterbordan óz yqtiyarymen Semeyge oraldy (№ 2 foto).

(№ 2 foto. Álihan Bókeyhan – Semey týrmesinde. Semey, 1908 j.)

Á.N. Bókeyhan Semey týrmesinde 3 ay emes, Dala ólkesining jana general-gubernatory Ivan Nadarov kek quyp, oghan taghy 5 ay qosyp, 8 ay otyryp, 1908 jyldyng jeltoqsanynda bostandyqqa shyqty. Otarshyl әkimshilik astyrtyn týrde ony «it jekkenge» aidaudy josparlaghan edi. Ony aldyn ala sezgen Á. Bókeyhan abaqtydan shyqqan boyy, A. Baytúrsynúly men M. Dulatúly 1917 jylghy bir maqalasynda atap kórsetkendey, Reseyge emigrasiyagha ketti. Ózi ketpegende, otarshyl әkimshilikting ony Saha eline (Yakutiya) nemese Qiyr Shyghysqa aidaytyny, Ahannyng sózimen aitsaq, «sýttey aq, aiday anyq» edi.

Alash kóshbasshysy aldymen «emigrasiyagha» Peterborgha baryp, kadet partiyasynyng hatshysy Aleksandr Kornilovqa 1908 jyldyng 9 jeltoqsanynda әzildep jazghanynday, «mayly qyzmet» tabugha tyrysyp kórdi. Biraq «mayly qyzmet» oghan Peterbordan emes, Samardan tabylyp, 1909 jyldyng qantarynda ol Don Jer bankine jer baghalaushy bolyp qyzmetke ornalasty. Mine ómirining 1909-1917 jyldaryndaghy osy «samar kezeninde» Álihan ózining barlyq ashyq ta astyrtyn maqsatyna jetip, bar josparyn jýzege asyrdy. Onyng ishinde «samar kezeninin» birinshi jylynda-aq ol Úly Abay shygharmalary men audarmalarynyng jinaghyn, Ahmetting «Qyryq mysalyn» ózining tughan keng dalasynda shyghara almay, otarshyl biylikpen eregiskendey Peterbordan bir-aq shyghardy. Biraq eger Abay múrasynyng túnghysh jinaghyn Qyrym tatary Iliyas Buraganskiyding menshikti baspahanasynan shygharsa, «Qyryq mysal» qaydan jaryq kórdi eken?!

Búl saualdyng jauaby Ahmetting ýstinen 1909 jyldyng shildesinde Dala ólkesining polisiya departamenti qozghaghan «qylmystyq isinen» tabyldy. Nazar audaratyn manyzdy mәsele – Á.N. Bókeyhannyng «Qyryq mysaldy» 1909 jyly jәne otarshyl imperiya astanasynda basyp shygharuyn – kitap avtory A. Baytúrsynúlyn 1909 jyldyng 1 shildesinde tútqyndap, esh aiyp, tergeu, sotsyz 1910 jyldyng nauryz aiyna deyin 10 ay boyy abaqtyda ústaghan otarshyl әkimshilikting «úr da jyq» sayasatyna qaytarghan mәdeny jauaby edi.

Alash serkesi ózinen basqa janashyry joq Ahmetting kitabyn shygharumen shektelmey, ony mýmkindiginshe abaqtydan tezirek bosatyp alugha da bar kýsh-jigerin saldy. Birinshiden, ol orys geografiya qoghamynyng Batys Sibir bólimindegi ghylymy әriptesi, III-inshi Dumanyng deputaty Nikolay Skalozubov pen kadet partiyasyndaghy ýzengilesi, «Resey halyqtarynyng Úly Shyghysy» mason ordenindegi «bauyry» әri III-inshi Duma deputaty Nikolay Nekrasovty Ahmetting isine arasha týsuge kóndirdi. 1909 jyldyng 17 qarashasynda Skalozubov ishki ister viyse-ministri Kurlovqa Ahannyng taghdyryna qatysty deputattyq saual joldady. Múraghat qújattaryna qaraghanda, Nekrasovtyng arasha haty ministrlikke keshteu týsipti. Skalozubov pen Nekrasovtyng hattarymen qatar, Álihan kadet partiyasynyng ortalyq peterborlyq resmy baspasózi – «Rechi» gazetining 1909 jylghy 19 qarasha kýngi sanyna «Qazaqtyng halyq aqyny abaqtyda» (týpnúsqa. «Kirgizskiy narodnyy poet v turime») atty ótkir maqala jariyalady (№ 3 foto) (Bekmetov jazdy degendi men de oqydym. Biraq «Rechi» gazetinde syrttan jazghan adamnyng maqalasyn qalay jariyalaydy, partiya mýshesi Álihan bolmasa? Ekinshi Bekmetov jazghanyna aighaq-dәlel bar ma?).

(№ 3 foto. Qazaqtyng halyq aqynynyng týrmede otyrghany turaly maqala. - «Rechi». – 1909. – 19 qarasha. – 3 b.)

Mine Alash últ-azattyq qozghalysynyng iydeyalyq negizin qalaushy әri sayasy jetekshisi Álihannyng osynday tabandy da jýieli әri qaysar is-әreketining nәtiyjesinde Qazaq ólkesining otarshyl әkimshiligi Ahmetti esh zansyz, tergeusiz, sotsyz ústaghannan keyin bosatugha mәjbýr bolghany óz aldyna, Dala ólkesinen tys ózi tandaghan oblysta túruyna mýmkindik berdi. «Qyryq mysal» avtory Orynbordy tandady, biraq belgili maqsatpen tandady. Birinshiden, 1891-1895 jyldary Ahmet múghalimder mektebinde oqydy. Ekinshiden jәne eng bastysy – Orynborda 1909 jyldyng qantarynan beri Álihan jer baghalaushy retinde qyzmet ete bastaghan Samardaghy Don Jer bankisining Orynborda bólimi boldy. Tayau jyldary bank bólimi alghashqy sany 1913 jyldyng 2 aqpanynda jaryqqa shyqqan túnghysh jalpyúlttyq «Qazaq» gazetining qarjy kózderining birine ainaldy. Bir anyq jayt: ózining tughan Semey oblysynda shyghara almaghan merzimdi basylymdy Qyr balasy – Elaghasy Ahmetting redaktorlyghymen Orynborda shyghara bastady. Kórnekti Alash qayratkeri, Alash Orda mýshesi Mústafa Shoqaydyng mәlimdeuinshe, Orynbor - bashqúrt jerinde salynghan Orynbor kazaktarynyng astanasy bolatyn. Ahmet pen Mirjaqyptyng basqaruymen «Qazaq» shyghyp túrghan jyldary (1913-1918 jj.) qala qazaqtyng últ-azattyq qozghalysynyng uaqytsha kindigine ainaldy. 1917 jylghy Aqpan tónkerisine deyin Orynborda sanauly ghana qazaq otbasy túrdy, túrghyndardyng basym kóshiligin tatar, orys, kazaktar qúraytyn.

Ahang 1910 jyly últ kóshbasshysynyng kómegimen Semey abaqtysynan bostandyqqa shyqqanymen, aldaghy uaqytta ol patsha dәuirinde de, kenes zamanynda da taghy birneshe ret tútqyndalyp, talay azap shekti. Atap aitqanda 1914 jәne 1934 jyldary tútqyndalyp, jer audarylghanda, ony taghy jalghyz janashyr aghasy, ústazy Álihan qútqarghan bolsa, aqyrghy ret 1937 jyldyng tamyzynda qamaugha alynghanda – ony qútqaratyn eshkim qalmaghan-dy (№4 foto). Álihannyng ózi 1937 jyldyng 26 shildesinde Butyrkagha jabylyp, 27 qyrkýiekte atu jazasyna kesildi (№ 5 foto).

Qyr balasy - El aghasy bir kezde «han balasynda qazaqtyng haqysy bar edi, tiri bolsam – qazaqqa qyzmet qylmay qoymaymyn» degen sertine songhy demi bitkenshe adal bolyp ótti. Ol óz ghúmyrynda bir Ahmet Baytúrsynúlyn emes, halqynyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi jolyndaghy qiyan-keski kýresinde sonyna ergen adal ýzengilesteri men qazaq jastarynyng bәrine, tútas halqyna qorghan, qamqorshy, tirek, jetekshi bola aldy. Ol riyasyz jýregimen qalyng búqara halqynyn, onyng eng adal úldarynyng taghdyry ýshin ózin jauapty sanady. Izine ergen Alash jastaryn últynyng mýddesine kirshiksiz, adal qyzmetimen, ata-baba jeri men últtyq memleketting shanyraghyn qayta kóteru jolyndaghy tabandy, qaytpas kýresining jarqyn ýlgisimen tәrbiyeledi. Últ mýddesi ýshin adal qyzmetimen kózge týsken bilimdi, últshyl jas shәkirtterine zor senim de arta bildi. Otyzgha tolmay Alash Orda komissarlyghyna saylanghan Mústafa Shoqay, Álimhan Ermek, Halel Ghabbasúly, Uәlithan Tanashúly jәne taghy basqalar Alash kóshbasynyng senimin aqtay alghan Alash jastary bolatyn.

(№ 4 foto. Ahmet Baytúrsynúly – OGPU NKVD abaqtysynda.)

(№ 5 foto. Qazaq últynyng kósemi Álihan Bókeyhan – Butyrka týrmesinde. Mәskeu, 1937 j.)

Álihan óz ýzengilesterin sonau «Alash» qozghalysy qalyptasqan 1905 jyldan-aq qanaty astyna alghanyn bayqaymyz. Oghan birden-bir mysal Resey patshasynyng 1905 jylghy «17 qazan» maniyfesi qozdyrghan halyq tolquy bola alady. «17 qazan» maniyfesi turaly janalyq Ombygha aidyng sonynda ghana jetip, Álihan orys әriptesterimen birge qalada sayasy mitingi men sheru ótkizedi. Polisiya mitingi úiymdastyrghan Álihan men onyng orys әriptesterining izine týsip, olar pәterlerin tastap, bas saughalaugha mәjbýr bolady. 1902 jyly S.-Peterbor imperatorlyq uniyversiytetining zang fakulitetin bitirip, qúqyq magistri ghylymy dәrejesimen Omby sot palatasynda sudiya lauazymyna ýmitker bolyp jýrgen Jaqyp Aqbayúlyna palata basshylyghy: «sayasy kózqarasyng sot qyzmetkerine qayshy keledi, ýmitkerlikten óz yqtiyarynmen bas tart!», - degen son, amalsyzdan qyzmetin tastap, tughan Qarqaralysyna oralady. Álihan ózining 1916 jyly S.-Peterborda shyqqan «Dala ólkesindegi saylau» atty esteliginde Jaqyp Aqbaydyng Ombydan Qyzyljar (Petropavl), Túzqala (Pavlodar) arqyly Qarqaralygha oralghan joly ýgit-nasihat nauqanyna ainalghanyn sipattaydy. «J. Aqbaydyng Pavlodardan Qarqaralygha sapary ýgit-nasihat nauqanyna ainaldy, - dep jazady Álihan, - Sheshendi býkil jolynda qazaqtar top-top bolyp qarsy alyp, eng qúrmetti qonaghynday kýtti, jol boynda ilesip jýrip, eng jaqyn tuysynday qoshtasty. Ol tughan Qarqaraly qalasyna qarasha aiynyng ortasyna qaray jetti. Jetui múng eken, polisiya basqarmasyna qarama-qarsy jalghyz alanda mitingi ótti. Oghan býkil qala jiyldy:orystyng bar ziyalysy, orys kazaktar, tatar, sart, qazaqtar jinaldy. Júqpaly dertten endi ghana sauyghyp, әli ayaghyn basyp jýre almaytyn mening bir joldasym (búl jergilikti qazaq-orys mektebining diyrektory qyzmetinde jýrgen Ahmet Baytúrsynúly ekeni anyq. – S.A.) ózin mitingige alyp barudy ótinip, aqyry keldi. Sheshen esebinde sudiya, tereushi, múghalim, jalghyz ghana hristan әkeyi (batushka) jәne J. Aqbay sóiledi. Tyndarmandargha beymәlim konstitusiyalyq biylik degenning ne ekenin týsindirip, tyndaushylargha әbden-aq týsinikti eski biylikti ótkir synady... Qarqaralydaghy osy jiynnyng izinshe qaruly qyr qazaqtary qalany shabuy mýmkin, sóitip orystargha qater tóndi degen jedelhattar Ombygha qarday borady. ...Jergilikti biylik shynynda da ýrey tughyzyp ýlgerdi. Men Qarqaralydan biylikting shylghy ótirigin teriske shygharatyn, orys, tatar, sart, qazaqtar (arasynda A. Baytúrsynúlynyng da qoly boldy. – S.A.), sheneunikter, onyng ishinde krestiyan bastyghy qol qoyghan ýreyli jedelhat aldym. Jedelhatty men sol kezdegi gazetterge jariyalap, telegraf arqyly zemski siyezi burosynyng tóraghasy F. Golovinge habarladym. Biraq Mәskeuding poshta mekemesi «ony birneshe kýn taba almady». Jazalau ekspedisiyacy bolmay qaldy. Mitingide J. Aqbaydan basqa sóilegen sheshenderding barlyghy әkimshilik jazagha tartyldy: sheneunikterdi ózge qyzmetterge auystyrdy, qyzmetten bosatty, keybiri ózi qashyp ketti, Ivan әkeydi it múryny batpaytyn alys basqa shirkeuge auystyrdy».

Mine osy joldardan Álihan Qarqaraly mitingisinde jalyndy sóz sóilegen Jaqypty, jiyngha qatysqan Ahmetpen birge taghy birneshe qazaqty, onyng ishinde keyin ózining «bitispes jauyna» ainalghan Kólbay Tólengitúlyn (Toghysúly) jazadan qútqarghan edi. Búl Jaqyp pen Ahandy eng alghashqy qútqaruy bolatyn.

1914 jyly Ahmet pen Mirjaqyp jetekshilik etken «Qazaq» gazetine ýkimetke qarsy maqala jariyalady degen qiytúrqy aiyp taghylyp, redaksiyagha ýlken kólemde aiyppúl salyndy. Búl aiyppúl túnghysh ta jalghyz jalpyúlttyq basylymnyng jabyluyna soqtyratyn. Gazetti bankrottan qútqaru ýshin Ahmet pen Mirjaqyp aiyppúldy abaqtyda otyrumen óteuge bel buady. Ony bilgen boyda Álihan, aldymen, «Qazaq» gazetine «Úyat-ay!» atty maqala jariyalap: «Orysqa gazeta, jurnal shygharyp jol ashqan A.N. Radiyshev abaqtygha jabylyp, 10 jyl Sibirge aidalghan. Osy Radishov zamandasy,  taghy  orysqa  gazeta,  jurnal  shygharyp  Europa  jolyn  ashqan  N.I. Novikov Shlisseliburg degen zor qiyn abaqtyda 15 jyl otyrghan. Bauyrym,  Ahmet,  Miryaqub!!  Sen  ekeuinnin  abaqtyn  Radiyshev  pen  Novikov abaqtysy... Bizding Reseyde abaqtygha jatpaghan jaqsy adam kem. Jazushy Dostoevskiy, Potaniyn, Korolenko, Chernyshevskiy, Morozov abaqtyda jatqan. Bәrin jazyp bolmaydy. Saltykov, Gersen, Pushkiyn, Lermontov, Turgenevter aidalghan... Shyraqtarym, senderdi minegende osylarmen bir salyp minese, ne armandaryng bar!» - dep eki ýzengilesining ruhyn asqaqtatty. Artynsha Samardan Orynborgha úshyp jetip, aiyppúldy ótep, ekeuin bosatyp alady (№ 6 foto).

Jappay qughyn-sýrgin kezinde, ózi Mәskeude 1925 jyldan beri OGPU-NKVD-nyng jiti baqylauynda boluyna qaramastan, 1929 jyldan beri naqaq aiyptarmen Butyrka týrmesinde tergelip, sottalyp, GULAG lagerlerine jer audarylghan ýzengilesterining azabyn jenildetuge, shamasy kelse bosatyp alugha bar kýsh-jigerin saldy. Halyqaralyq Qyzyl Krest úiymynyng Mәskeudegi ókili Ekaterina Peshkovany aragha salyp, qyryqtan asa ýzengilesining ishinen taghy da Ahmetti merziminen bosatyp aldy. E. Peshkovagha jazghan hatynda ol óz shәkirti Ahandy bylay dep tanystyrdy (hat M. Qoygeldiyev jariyalaghan mazmúnyn qaz-qalpynda saqtau ýshin orys tilinde berilip otyr):

«Uvajaemaya Ekaterina Pavlovna!

16.02.1933 g. na Vashe imya sdal na pochtu prosibu Baytursynova Ahmeta o perevode ego v drugoe mesto iz Arhangeliska. Prosiba ego napravlena v OGPU.

On prosvetiyteli kazakskogo naroda. Baytursynov - Kirill y Mefodiy, Novikov y Radiyshev svoego naroda. On sozdal azbuku, kotoraya po mnenii prof. Mollo, luchshaya iz Azbuk, esly trebovati ot nih sootvetstviya znakov fonetiyke yazyka; on populyariziroval etu azbuku, napechatav na ney satiricheskie svoy stihy y perevod 40 basen Krylova. Pry etom on s poslednim postupil tak je, kak dedushka Krylov s Ezopom. Ezopokrylovskie basny sdelal kazakskimi. Po metkosty satiry, krasote stiha, po kratkosty izlojeniya temy - perevody Baytursynova predstavlyayt vysokohudojestvennye tvoreniya svyshe otmechennogo talanta. Krylova v stepy znal kajdyy kazak. Baytursynov A. avtor grammatiki, sintaksisa, bukvarya, hrestomatiy na kazakskom yazyke. On Narkompros Kazakskoy ASSR, mnogoletniy v 1920-1928 g. do aresta ego predsedateli uchenoy pry NKprose komissii. On, B. A., pervoklassnyy poet, satiriyk.

On, B. A., patriot, nasionalist. Pry starom rejiyme siydel v turime 10 m-sev y vyslan za predely stepnogo kraya na 5 let.

On, B. A., redaktor, izdateli y sozdateli edinstvennoy togda kazakskoy gazety «Kazak». [V] 1913-1918 gg., v staroe vremya, ne bylo kazaka, kotoryy ne chital y ne znal etoy gazety. Kogda v 1916 g. Orenburgskiy gubernator trijdy oshtrafoval «Kazak» na 4500 rub., to ety denigy perevodilisi chitatelyamy po telegrafu dolyamy po 5,10, 50, 100 rub. y spasaly ot turimy redaktora Ahang (uvajiytelino-laskatelinoe ot Ahmeta).

Sudiba B. A. shodna s sudiboy N.G. Ch[ernyshevskogo], kak on B[aytursunov]. A[hmet]., besstrashnyy prorok svoih ubejdeniy, kak on, kabiynetnyy rabotniyk, kak on - strah vlasti. Ya znai N.G. Ch[ernyshevskogo]. y ne boysi s nim sravnivati B. A., tak kak ego tak je znai. Vse eto ya mog by napisati v OGPU, esly b ne sostoyal v ego «popechenii» s 1925 goda. OGPU moy slova priymet v obratnom znachenii. B[aytursunov]. 61 god, no on mog by eshe porabotati v polizu kaz.yazyka.

A. Bukeyhanov.

25.02.1933 g.».

Peterborlyq «Rechi» gazetinde jariyalanghan «Qazaqtyng halyq aqyny týrmede» atty maqalagha qayta oralsaq, odan A. Baytúrsynúlynyng «Qyryq mysaly» qay baspadan shyqqanyn bilemiz: «Jergilikti týrmede (Semey) 5 ay boyy qazaqtyng daryndy aqyny Ahmet Baytúrsynúly otyr. Ol Krylovtyng qyryq mysal әngimesin óleng sózimen audaryp, 1909 jyly «Qyryq mysal» atty kitap shyghardy. Kitap Ghylym akademiyasynda basyldy».

Nege Ghylym akademiyasynda? - degen oryndy súraq tuady. Birinshiden, senzuranyng rúqsatyn ózining jaqyn dosy, Resey imperiyasy Ghylym akademiyasynyng da, keyin KSRO Ghylym akademiyasynyng da úzaq jylghy ghylymy hatshysy bolghan, ýnditanushy ghalym, akademik Sergey Olidenburg arqyly alsa kerek. Ekinshiden, senzura rúqsatyn Ghylym akademiyasy arqyly alghyzsa, kitapty sol akademiyanyng baspahanasynan jaryqqa shyghuy da – zandy emes pe!?! Erekshe nazar audaratyn jayt: Álihan Bókeyhan Olidenburg dosynyng kómegin búghan deyin de, odan keyin de kәdesine jaratqan kórinedi.

1906 jyly ózi redaktory bolghan «Irtysh» gazetinde jariyalaghan Aqmola jәne Semey qazaqtaryna arnaghan ashyq hatynda Á.N. Bókeyhan kedey otbasynan shyqqan Núh Ramazanúlynyng Peterbor uniyversiytetinde oquyn jalghastyruyna qarajat jinap beruge shaqyrdy. «Ramazanúly Peterborgha attandy, - dep jazdy ol osy ashyq hatynyng sonynda, -  1907 jyldyng qantarynda ol múqtajdyqqa dushar bolady. Qazaqtar, Alash úldary, sizder ony qoldaugha mindettisizder! Semey men Aqmola oblystarynyng million halqy qazaq bozbalasyn uniyversiytette tәrbiyeley almasa, masqara emes pe! Qarajatty kelesi mekenjaylargha audarugha bolady:

1) Peterbor, Ghylym akademiyasy, onyng ózgermes ghylymy hatshysy Sergey Fedorúly Olidenburgke (№ 8 foto). Núh Ramazanúly ýshin.

2) Omby, «Irtysh» gazeti redaksiyasy kensesine. Núh Ramazanúly ýshin».

(№ 7 foto. Álihannyng Potaninge Ahmetting suretshi daryny turaly jazghan haty. Omby, 1904 j.)

Búl bir-aq mysal. Kelesi mysal Kenes ókimeti túsynda boldy. Akademik Olidenburgtyng KSRO Ghylym akademiyasynyng ózgermes ghylymy hatshysy qyzmetin jalghastyryp jýrgen 1925 jyl. Á. Bókeyhan S. Olidenburgtyng (№ 8 foto) qolqabys etuimen KSRO Ghylym akademiyasynyng Qazaq AKSR-nyng Aday oyazyn zerttegen Antropologiyalyq ekspedisiyasyn úiymdastyrdy. Búl ekspedisiya qazaqtyng jer paydalanu normasyn ghylymy túrghydan meylinshe ýlken etip bekitip alyp, Kenes ókimetining Resey gýbernelerinen qazaq jerine kóldey aghyzghan jersiz qarashekpendilerin, kelimsekterin toqtatu ýshin auaday qajet bolatyn.

(№ 8 foto. Akademik S.F. Olidenburg)

Al endi Ahmet Baytúrsynúlynyng ashylmay qalghan taghy bir qyryna oralsaq, oghan kelesi maqalada tolyghyraq toqtalatyn bolamyz.

Súltan Han Aqqúly,

Rayhan Imahanbet.

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