Júma, 12 Tamyz 2022
Áleumet 9155 7 pikir 21 Qantar, 2022 saghat 16:02

Damudyng tabighy modeli – agroóndiristik baghyt!

«Auyl sharuashylyghyna erekshe
nazar audaruymyz qajet».
Preziydent Qasym-Jomart Toqaev.
2022 jyl, 11 qantar

El jetiluinin, damuynyng modeli elikteuden ne bolmasa qiyaldan tusa, búl modeli – jasandy delinedi. Al ózindik damu jolyna, yaghny tabighy modelge qorshaghan orta men últtyng tarihiy-mәdeny erekshelikteri myqtap eskerilse ghana qol jetkizuge bolady.  Úlanghayyr dala tósin mekendegen qazaq elining damu, jetilu dengeyi ejelden auyl sharuashylyghy arqyly ólshenip, anyqtalyp keldi. Qazaq auyly kýlli materialdyq ómirding dingegi bolyp kelgeni aiday aqiqat. Áytse de, oi-pikirimizdi ortagha saludan búryn azdy-kópti tarihty tarazylap, ótkenge sholu jasayyq.

Ótken ghasyrda qazaq auyly eki birdey betbúrysqa tap boldy: birinshisi – kóshpendilikten otyryqshylyqqa (1929 jyl), ekinshisi –  býgingi naryqtyq qatynasqa kóshu kezenderi (ekeuining de jau quyp kele jatqanday opyr-topyr jaghdayda ótkenin qaytersin). Ásirese, әuelgisi adam sengisiz súrapyl ahualda ótti. Aqpan tónkerisi әkelgen úly dýbirdi qazaq eli quana qarsy alghan. Biraq erkindik samaly kópke barmady, kelesi Qazan tónkerisi búrq etip, qazaqtar «ornyqpaghan qalqyma» (Shәkәrim) kezenge tap boldy. Búryn-sondy bolmaghan qauipting tóngenin sezingen halqymyz ishten tyndy. Alapat dauyl qarsanynda bayqalatyn uaqytsha tynyshtyq ornady.

Sóz bolyp otyrghan 1920-shy jyldardyng orta túsynda qalam terbegen «Qartqoja» romanynda Jýsipbek Aymauytov bas keyipkeri atynan mynaday saualdar qoyady: «Qazir otyryqshy bolghannan qazaq onalyp ketedi dep kim kepil bolyp, auzy baryp aita alar? Búlardyng jeri eginge jaramaydy, egin saludy bilmeydi. Jaqsy jerin júrt (kazak-orysty aitady –A.O.) bermeydi. Biraz jylda búlar qalay kýnelter eken?...». Mine, avtordyng qazaqqa qanday qauip tóngenin kórip-bilgenine qayran qalmasqa lajymyz joq.

Sóitip, tabighy modelding byt-shytyn shygharghan, Dala ómirine týbegeyli ózgeris әkelgen 1929 jyl da jyljyp jetti (qazaq qazaq bolghaly ýzilmey jalghasqan kóshpeli ómir kerueni, tap osy jyly alghash ret toqtady). Ózen-sudyng boyyndaghy shúrayly jerden yghystyrylghan júrt, endi jaylaugha shyghu qúqynan da airyldy.  Osy aitylghan otyryqshylyq modelge jedel kóshu sayasaty – 1931-32 jj. alapat ashtyqqa úryndyrdy. Qazaq halqynyng túrmys-tirshiligi kenistiginde jeke-dara dingek, jalghyz sala – auyl sharuashylyghy bolghanynyng dәleli búl.

1930-shy jyldardan beride ghana Qazaqstanda ekinshi sala kýsh aldy. Ol – jer asty qazba baylyqtaryn aludy kózdegen tau-ken ónerkәsibi. Osylaysha qazaq eli kartasynda Qaraghandy, Jezqazghan, Jetiqara, Kentau, Rudnyi, Ridder siyaqty ondaghan qalalardyng boy kótergeni ayan. Sóz bolyp otyrghan búl sala, yaghny tau-ken óndirisi qazaqqa tek jaqsylyq әkeldi deuge auyz barmaydy. Ghasyrlar boyy taza saqtalghan jer-suymyz lastandy. Tabighatty soldyrghan ekologiyalyq opat jyryn aityp-jetkizu qiyngha soghady. Amal qansha, Kenes Odaghy kezinde kýlli qazba baylyq Mәskeu biyligi uysynda ketse, qazirgi tanda oligarhtar qolynda. Qarapayym halyqqa múnay, gaz, uran, týrli-týsti metall óndiruden týsetin qyruar qarjynyng ólmesting kýnin keshuge jetetin júqanasy ghana tiyesili ekeni ótirik emes.

Sóitip, atam zamannan qazirge deyingi qazaq túrmysyn  tarazylasaq, býkil dala tirshiligining jeke-dara arnasy auyl sharuashylyghy bolghany kýndey jaryq, aiday anyq kórinedi.

Endi ekinshi búrylysqa, auyldyng naryqtyq qatynasqa kóshu kezenine keleyik. Býgingi naryqtyq ekonomika auylgha tek qana býlinushilik әkeldi. Ong ózgeris joqtyng qasy. Óitkeni, ózderinizge mәlim, 1990 jyldardan sovhoz-kolhoz taratylyp, auyl sharuashylyghynyng toz-tozy shyqty. Qirady, kýiredi. Auyl túrghyndary jappay júmyssyz qalyp, qalagha qaray aghyldy. Qalada olardy kim qúshaq jaya qarsy alsyn. Bazar jaghalaudan ózge júmys joq. Diplomy bar mamandar da sendeldi. Jastar jaghy pәter jaldap kýn keship, jetispeushilik qúrsauyna qamaldy. Bir sózben aitqanda, auyldyng bәsi tómendep, kóp salanyng birine ainaldy. Myna tehnokrat dәuirding janbyrdan keyingi sanyrauqúlaqtay qaptaghan quyrshaq salalary ony jetim baladay bosaghagha yghystyryp tastady.

Saualnama nәtiyjesinde auyl túrghyndarynyng ortasha tabysy nebary 36 myng tenge ekendigi anyqtalghan. Auyl júrty elimizdegi kedey jәne kýnkórisi tómen otbasylardyng negizgi bóligin qúraydy. Sodan da bolar, key jyldary qalagha  qonys audarghandar sany 500 myngha jetken eken. Almaty, Shymkent, Astana siyaqty megopolis qalalardyng manayynda kóptegen jana eldi mekenderding payda bolu sebebi de osy arada.  Statistika mәlimetine sýiensek, býginde elimizde 6454 auyldyng 3400-ge juyghynyng ghana joghalmau mýmkindigi saqtalghan eken.  Dabyl qaghatyn-aq mәsele. Shyny kerek, Qazaqstan ýkimeti auyl ajaryn kórkeytu, halyqtyng auylda túruyna jaghday jasau qamynda ayanyp qalghan joq. Qolgha alynghan jobalar barshylyq, orasan qarjy da qúiyldy. Alayda kýtken nәtiyje joqtyng qasy, auylda jastardy qyzyqtyratyn dýnie qalmay barady deydi sarapshylar. Jýz qayghynyng bәrine sebepshi – damudyng dúrys baghytyn emes, terisin tandadyq.

«Kerek shyghyr (zveno) arqyly býkil shynjyrdy suyryp alasyn» deydi halyq danalyghy. Auyl osynday shyghyrgha ainalu ýshin ne isteu kerek? Ony qaytadan basty sala qyludyng joly, amaly bar ma? Endi osyghan keleyik.

Býgingi tanda auyl óndirisi ózining dingek bolu missiyasyn joghaltty. Ony qaytadan asyraushymyz, basty salamyz qylatyn  baghyt bar. Ol – agroóndiristik nemese agroindustriyalyq baghyt. Ony auyl men qalany tenestiru baghyty desek te oryndy. Ondaghy maqsat – auyldy jerlerde óndiris oshaqtaryn kóptep ashugha, qyr ómirin barlyq qyrynan jandandyrugha sayady. Búl basty óndiris salalaryn  auyl mýddesine baghyttau, auyl sharuashylyghy tehnikasyn shygharatyn jýzdegen zauyttar ashu degen sóz. Júmyssyzdyq úghymyn týbirimen joyyp, kerisinshe, júmys kýshi jetispeushiligine jol ashatyn da osy jaghday.

Sóz bolyp otyrghan agroóndiristik baghytty ústanghan elder barshylyq. Mysalgha Avstraliya, Kanada, Gollandiya, Izraili, Mongholiya, Ózbekstan siyaqty memleketterdi alayyq. Olarda bótenge tәueldilik pen daghdarys úghymdary joqqa tәn. Úpaylary týgel. Eshkimge de jalynbay, jaltaqtamay ómir sýru mýmkindigine iye. Nege? Sebebi, ómir kindigi auyl sharuashylyghyna baylanghan. Týrli tauarlar men joghary tehnologiyalar ózderi aghylady. Azyq-týlik tapshylyghyna úrynghan alys-jaqyn elder olardy ózderi úsynbaghanda qaytedi.

Sonymen, kezinde jaryqtyq Beyimbet Maylin aitqan: «Gýldense auyl – gýldenemiz bәrimiz!» degen sóz qazir de ózekti. Búl sózde auylsyz qazaqtyng tórt qúbylasy teng bola almaydy degen tereng maghyna bar.

Túrghyndardyng jan baghu ýshin auyldan qalagha ýdere kóshu ýderisi kóz aldymyzda ótip jatyr. Múny ghylymda «urbanizasiya» deydi. Urbanizasiya sayasaty egin eguge ne últaraqtay jeri, ne mal jayylymy joq, yaghny auyl sharuashylyghy óndirisin damytu mýmkindigi shektelgen elder ýshin ghana tiyimdi. Búl qúbylystyng Qytay, Japoniya, Batys Europa elderinen bastau alghany sodan.

Al, úlanghayyr dalasy iygerilmey jatqan últtyng qalagha ýdere kóshui quanarlyq jәit emes. Ony damudyng tabighy modeli deuge auyz barmaydy. Shyndyghynda, jasandy modeli – urbanizasiya tenizinde qalt-qúlt etken, eskeksiz qayyqtay kýn keshudemiz. Qaytalap aitayyq, qatelikting kókesi osy – baghytsyzdyq.  Ómirding qay qyrynan qarasaq ta (azyq-týlik tapshylyghy, halyq sany ósimining tym bayaulap ketkeni, últtyng densaulyghy ghana emes, ruhany kónil-kýiining de tómendeui) barsha auyrtpalyqtar –  teris baghyttyng saldary.

Áriyne, auyldy kóteru qiynnyng qiyny. Ózim de bir kezderde auyl sharuashylyghy mamany bolghandyqtan men ony jaqsy bilemin.  Aldymen, ghalymdar, fermerler, kәsipker, isker adamdardyng qalyng toptary birige otyryp, makroekonomikalyq baghdarlama jasaluy kerek. Sonyng ayasynda auyl gidroinfraqúrylymyn damytu kerek. Jayylymdar enbekshi halyqqa qaytaryluy kerek, subsidiya, kreditter әdiletti bólinui jәne óndiriske nýkteli týrde qúiyluy kerek. Búl jaghdayda әrbir auyl agrokeshenning bir tetigine ainalmaqshy. Eng bastysy,  óndiris oshaqtary jylma jyl kóbeya berse iygi. Auyl óndirisi mamandaryn (agronom, mal dәrigeri, injener, gidrotehnik jәne t.b.) sapaly dayarlau kerek. Enbek adamynyn, әsirese, malshy adamdardyng mәrtebesin meylinshe kóteru kerek. Osy kerekterding jolynda júmyla júmys jasau – auyldyng bolashaghy joq degen sanadan aryltar edi. Europada bolghan adamdar ol jaqta auyl men qala tenestirilgen desedi. Bizde de osynday úly joba iske assa dep armandaysyn. Auyl dese eleng etpeytin qazaq balasy kemde-kem. Sondyqtan әzirge europalyq idilliya demey-aq qoyalyq, júmys oryndary kóptep ashylsa, auyl túrmysy býgingi zaman talabyna say kórkeyse keremet bolar edi.

Reti kelgen song aitqan jón, ótken aptada, 10-shy qantarda «Qazaqstan» telearnasynda Almaty dýrbelenine qatysty súhbat ótti. Sarapshynyng biri, parlament mәjilisining deputaty Sayyrov myrza kóshege narazylyq aksiyasyna shyqqandardyng basym kópshiligi auyl jastary dep mәlimdedi. Deputat auyl-aymaq kýiregen son, qalagha aghylghan jastardyng mәselesin ong sheshe almadyq, narazylyq sheruining basty sebebi osy arada dep atap aitty. Joqqa shygharu mýmkin emes aqiqat osy.  Taghy bir anyghy, «Auyldy kóteru» mәselesining boygha quat qúyatyn sayasi-iydeologiyalyq mәni erekshe. Ol qanshalyqty ong sheshiletin bolsa, halyqtyng bolashaqqa senimi de sonshalyqty arta týseri sózsiz.

Belgili aqyn Qalqaman Sarin bylay dep tolghanghan eken:

                                Tughan auyl, sen ýshin ter tókpedim,

                                Keshir meni, kesh meni, sen tekti elim!

                                Bir saghynysh mazalap erteli-kesh,

                                Jýredi ylghy janymdy órtep menin.

Kópshiligimiz auylda óstik, onan song qalalyq bolyp qalyptastyq. Endi auyl ýshin ter tógetin uaqyt jetti, qazaq balasy. Jaryq dýniyede әr últtyng kirpish bop qalanatyn orny jәne ata kәsibi bar. Búl rette damudyng tabighy modelin Sary Dala men Auylgha adaldyqtan, olardy ayalaudan taba alamyz.

Qoryta aitqanda, qazaq halqynyng jýregine senim, kóniline quanysh úyalatamyz desek, osy kýnge deyin aldanyp kelgen urbanizasiya ýderisinen bas tartyp, agroónerkәsiptik degen makroekonomikalyq baghytqa auysatyn kez keldi. Qandy qantardan alatyn basty sabaghymyzdyng biri – osy aitylghan auyldy janghyrtu, óndirisin kóteru bolu kerek degen oidamyn.

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