Senbi, 10 Mausym 2023
Alashorda 2155 7 pikir 23 Qantar, 2023 saghat 12:50

12 jeltoqsan – «Alash kýni» bolyp belgilenui mýmkin

Premier-Ministr Álihan Smayylov bastamany Sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn tolyq aqtau jónindegi memlekettik komissiyanyng qarauyna úsynbaq. Komissiya óz qúzyretine sәikes, 1920-1950 jyldardaghy sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn tolyq, zandy jәne sayasy túrghydan aqtau mәselelerimen ainalyspaq.

«Jyl sayyn «Aq jol» partiyasynyng bastamasymen úiymdastyrylatyn «Alashqa taghzym» sherui men jyldaghy dәstýr boyynsha 31 mamyr – Sayasy qughyn sýrgin jәne asharshylyq qúrbandaryn eske alu kýnine oray joghary dengeyde is-sharalar úiymdastyryluda. Aldaghy uaqytta, kóterilgen mәsele Sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn tolyq aqtau jónindegi memlekettik komissiyanyng qarauyna úsynylatyn bolady», – dedi Álihan Smayylov.

HH ghasyrdyng basynda qazaq halqynyng últtyq-patriottyq qozghalysynyng payda boluy tarihy jәne tabighy oqigha boldy. «Alash» qozghalysynyng payda boluynyng basty sebebi – qazaq últynyng ózindik sana-sezimining payda boluy men ósui edi. Sol kezde qazaq halqynyng eng ozyq bóligi – qazaqtyng demokratiyalyq intelliygensiyasy qalyptasyp, damy bastady. Patsha sayasatyna qarsy qazaq qoghamynyng progressivti damuynda últtyq mýddelerdi týsinu men jýzege asyru bastalady.

Qazaq halqynyng tarihynda túnghysh ret Alash qozghalysy óz elin janghyrtu mәselesimen ainalysty. Alash qozghalysy baghdarlamasynyng eng manyzdy mindetterining biri – qazaqtardyng dәstýrli ekonomikasyn transformasiyalau: naryqtyq jaghdaylargha beyimdeleu, onyng kóshpeli mal sharuashylyq, otyryqshy mal sharuashylyq jәne eginshilik úiymdarynyng arasyndaghy balans jaghdayyn anyqtau boldy.

Sonymen qatar, qozghalys kóshbasshylary diny bostandyq, adamnyng jәne azamattyng qúqyqtary men últtyq tendikting tolyq kóleminde erekshe qajettilikteri men talaptaryn jýzege asyru ýshin sayasy jәne qúqyqtyq bazany qúrugha tyrysty. Olardyng ishinde últtyq mektepting damuyna, sayasiy-qúqyqtyq mәdeniyetting qalyptasuyna nazar audaru, elitany sayasy ýderisterge ókiletti organdar, sayasy partiyalar men qoghamdyq úiymdar arqyly qosu siyaqty mәseleler bar edi.

Janadan qalyptasqan partiyanyng jaqsy bilimdi kóshbasshylary sol sharttarda eng tiyimdi teoriyalyq jәne praktikalyq iydeyalardy qoldana otyryp, әleumettik-sayasy oi-óristing arsenalynda qol jetimdi bolatyn eng tiyimdi sharalar jýiesin úsyna alatyndyghyn atap ótu óte manyzdy.

Alash qozghalysy HIH-shi ghasyrdyng ayaghy men HH ghasyrdyng basynda Qazaqstanda bolghan әleumettik-ekonomikalyq, әleumettik-sayasy jәne ruhaniy-mәdeny ózgeristerding nәtiyjesinde payda boldy. Qozghalysynyng negizi – 1917 jyly shilde aiynda úiymdastyrylghan «Alash» últtyq partiyasynan bastaldy.

Áleumettik-sayasy ómirge qatysuda Alash partiyasy eki maqsatqa jetudi kózdedi. Qazaq halqyn otarshyldyqtan bosatu jәne Qazaq Respublikasyn әlemdik órkeniyetti qauymdastyqqa mýshelikke qol jetkizuin qamtamasyz etu edi. Áleumettik jaghynan «Alash» partiyasy qazaqtyng últtyq-demokratiyalyq intelliygensiyasynyng sayasy úiymy boldy.

Partiya Qazaqstandy XX ghasyrdyng basynda kapitalistik qatynastargha beyimdeluge úmtyldy. Múny evolusiyalyq jolmen – reformalar arqyly iske asyrugha bolatyn edi. Sondyqtan Alash partiyasy 1917 jyly Qazan revolusiyasynyng iydeyalary men úrandaryn qabyldamady jәne azamattyq soghys kezinde antiykenestik jәne antibolshevistik kýshterding odaqtasy boldy. Búl qarama-qayshylyqta Alash partiyasy men Alash-Orda ýkimeti jenildi.

Alash qozghalysynyng tarihy – Qazaqstannyng eng tanghalarlyq jәne qyzyqty betterining biri. Dәstýrli ekonomika men patriarhaldyq qarym-qatynastardyng artta qaluy, әleumettik jәne ekonomikalyq qiyndyqtar XX ghasyrdyng basyndaghy qazaq qoghamynyng aldynghy qatarly bóligindegi últtyq sәikestik pen patriotizmdi oyatugha serpin berdi.

Búl, eng aldymen, mәdeniyetterding ózara yqpaldasuyna, qazaq qoghamynda intellektualdy elitanyng jana úrpaghyn qalyptastyrugha, últtyq jәne ruhany dәstýrlerge tәrbiyeleuge ýles qosty. Búl Resey imperiyasynyng joghary oqu oryndarynda europalyq bilim alghanynyng jemisi edi.

Otansýigishtikke úmtylghan adamdar ózderining órkeniyetti damu joldaryn izdedi, shyn tәuelsizdikke qol jetkizuge úmtyldy. HH ghasyrdyng basynda qazaq halqynyng últ-azattyq qozghalysy men onyng damuynyng jana kezeni bastaldy. Qarapayym kýresting dәstýrli nysandary patshalyq jýiege qarsylyqtyng jana sayasy әdisterine kóshti. «Alash» partiyasynyng basshylary qazan tónkerisin dúrys qabyldanghan joq. Keyinirek Ahmet Baytúrsynov Aqpan tónkerisining dúrys bolghanyn, ony qazaqtar quanyshpen qarsy alghanyn aitady. Óitkeni, birinshiden, tónkeris qazaqtardy patsha ýkimetining ezgisinen jәne zorlyq-zombylyqtan azat etti, ekinshiden, óz-ózderin basqarugha degen armandaryn jýzege asyrugha degen ýmitin nyghaytty. Qazan tónkerisi qazaqtargha týsiniksiz boldy: jayylymdar men kapitaldyng saralanuy bolmaghan, tipti olardyng mýlikteri basqa halyqtardiki siyaqty erekshelenbedi.

Kenestik biylik kelgen kezde «Alash» partiyasynyng jana biylik organdarymen qarym-qatynasy yntymaqtastyqtan túrdy. Birqatar qalalarda jergilikti Kenesterding biyligi bolishevikterding qolynda bolghan – Petropavl, Perovsk (qazirgi Qyzylorda), Áulie Ata (qazirgi Taraz).  «Alash» belsendileri repressiyagha úshyrady. Tek Semey, Vernyy (Almaty) jәne basqa da jerlerde qysqa merzimdi yntymaqtastyq ornady.

Sonymen birge, partiyalar bir-birine senbedi, sebebi әrqaysysy ózderining sayasy maqsattaryna úmtyldy. Kenes Odaghynyng basshylary Alash belsendileri arqyly qazaq halqyna óz yqpalyn kýsheytuge tyrysty, Alash kóshbasshylary Kenes ókimetine resmy qoldau kórsetkende, jana biylikti ishinen «ydyratu» sayasatyn jýrgizdi.

Sol jyldarda Alash qozghalysynyng ókilderi, olardyng jaqtastary úly gumanitarlyq missiyany jýzege asyrghan eken. Stalinizm jaghdayynda úzaq uaqytqa sozylghan tyiymdargha, olardyng múrasynyng bir bóligin joghaltqanyna qaramastan, Alash qozghalysynyng arqasynda  HH ghasyrda qazaq qoghamynyng búryn-sondy bolmaghan mәdeny progresining kóptegen negizderin qúrdy jәne nyghaytty.

Alash qayratkerleri Qazaqstannyng jәne qazaq halqynyng naghyz patriottary boldy, sondyqtan Kenes ýkimeti olardy 1937-1938 jj. sayasy qughyn-sýrginge úshyratty. Olar qazaq halqynyng últtyq-memlekettik mýddelerin jýzege asyru ýshin óz ómirlerin qúrban etuge dayyn naghyz memleket qayratkerleri edi.

Kerimsal Júbatqanov

Abai.kz

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