Beysenbi, 29 Aqpan 2024
Bilgenge marjan 2582 1 pikir 21 Qarasha, 2023 saghat 14:19

Shveysariyalyq progresting basty qúpiyasy nede?

Býgingi qazaqtar «Shveysariya el tәrizdi» bolu degen Alash ardaqtylarynyng armanyn jýzege asyrugha tolyq mýmkindigimiz bar. Sonymen, Shveysariyanyng jetistikterining qúpiyalaryna ýnilip kóreyik.

1648 jylghy Vestfaliya beybitshilik kelisimi Shveysariyanyng tәuelsizdigin resmy týrde moyyndady. Tәuelsizdikting 400 jyldyq tarihynyng 300 jylynda birtútas biylik, tipti resmy astanasy da bolmaghany qyzyq. Shveysariya Konfederasiyasy - 8,5 million halqy bar, jer kólemi 41 285 km², múhittargha shygha almaytyn, ortalyq Europadaghy shaghyn memleketi. Bylaysha aitsaq, jer kólemi Qazaqstannyng eng shaghyn bir oblysynyng jerine de jetpeydi.

yra taulary men Alipi jotalary onyng aumaghy jerining kóp bóligin alyp jatqandyqtan, tabighy resurstary da shamaly. Shveysariyanyng eng iri eksporty shokolad ekenin bilsen, tabighy resurstardyng búl elding damuyna әseri shamaly ekenin týsinesin.

Shveysariyanyng barlyq kapitaly azamattar men kompaniyalardyng menshigi bolghandyqtan, Shveysariya halqy әlemdegi eng bay adamdargha ainalghan eken.

Shveysariyalyq azamattyng ortasha dәuleti 696 000 dollardy qúraydy jәne әrbir 1000 adamgha 86 millioner keledi degen kórsetkishpen әlemde kósh bastap túr.

Shveysariya azamattarynyng ortasha ailyq jalaqysy 2020 jylghy jaghday boyynsha 6597 dollardy qúraytyny da әlemdegi eng joghary kórsetkish bolyp tabylady. 2022 jyly Shveysariyanyng jan basyna shaqqandaghy JIÓ 91 myng dollargha jetip, әlemde 4-shi oryngha ie boldy.

Shveysariya adam ómir sýruge eng qolayly el retinde birneshe mәrte tanyldy.

Shveysariyalyq progresting basty qúpiyasy nede?

Birinshide: Shveysariya azamattarynyng bay, dәuletti ómir sýruining 3 qúpiyasy bar. Búl TAUAR AYNALYMY, AKSIYaLAR ÝLESINING KIRISI jәne JOGhARY JALAQY.  Shveysariyalyqtardyng óte auqatty ómir sýruining negizi osy faktorlargha baylanysty. Árbir shveysariyalyqta qatarynan osynday ýsh kiris bolatyndyqtan bay-baghlan ómir sýredi. Basqasha aitqanda, Shveysariya azamattary ózderi tandaghan júmysyn isteumen qatar joghary jalaqy alady, jәne aksiya ýlesi men tauar birjalarynan mol payda taba alady.

Ekinshide: Shveysariya-ónerkәsiptik revolusiyany jasay alghan әlemdegi besinshi el. Ýsh týrli tolqyndy qamtyghan «Birinshi ónerkәsiptik revolusiya»-sy 1712-1914 jyldar aralyghynda boldy.  Birinshi tolqyn 1709 jyldan 1840 jylgha deyin sozyldy jәne ol tek Angliyagha qatysty boldy. Ekinshi tolqyny 1840-1870 jyldar aralyghynda boldy jәne Fransiya, Germaniya, Shveysariya, Beligiya jәne Amerika Qúrama Shtattary siyaqty elderdi qamtydy.

Qazaqstanda ónerkәsiptik revolusiyagha qajetti tabighy resurstardyng barlyq týrleri bar. Biz de jasay alamyz.

Ýshinshide: Shveysariya eli aqsha mәselesin tolyghymen sheshkendikten óte joghary progreske qol jetkizgenin birden týsinuge bolady. Bir tanqalarlyghy, búl kishkentay el ózining últtyq valutasyn- ShVEYSARIYaLYQ FRANKTI - әlemdik rezervtik valutagha ainaldyra alghany tanqalarlyq. Shveysariyalyq frank 1850 jyldan 1936 jylgha deyingi 86 jyl ishinde óz qúnyn mýldem joghaltqan joq. Sonymen qatar 1936-1992 jyldar aralyghynda eng tómengi valuta baghamy bar birynghay valutagha ainalu qabiletining qúpiyasy-ol altyn standartyn túraqty ústanyp keluine baylanyty dep kóredi. Sondyqtan da býkil әlemge «shveysariyalyq altyn frank» retinde tanymal.

Jana Qazaqstan biyligi «Altyn tenge» sayasatyn qoldana alsa bizde de  solay bolar edi...

Tórtinshide: Shveysariya әlemdegi alghashqy salyq júmaghy boldy. Shveysariya qúrylghan 1648 jyldan bastap Shveysariyadaghy salyqtar әlemdegi eng tómen salyq dep tanylyp keldi. Ekinshi dýniyejýzilik soghystan keyingi Shveysariyadaghy salyqtardyng ósuimen 1960 jylgha qaray jalpy memlekettik shyghyndar JIÓ - ning 7 payyzyna, al 1990 jyly 9,7 payyzgha deyin ósti.

1999 jyly qabyldanghan Shveysariyanyng jana Konstitusiyasy boyynsha salyq kóbeyip 2020 jylgha qaray Shveysariyanyng memlekettik budjeti JIÓ-ning 10,7% ke jetip 62,8 milliard shveysariyalyq frankke tenesip rekordtyq dengeyine jetti. Salyqtyng múnday ósui oryn alghanymen Shveysariya salyghy әli kýnge deyin әlemdegi eng tómen salyq bolyp sanalady.

Osynday tómen salyqtarmen kez-kelgen el zor qadamdarmen damy alady. Shveysariya Konstitusiyasynda memleketting biyligin shekteytin jәne onyng azamattarynyng qúqyqtaryn qorghaytyn salyq salugha qatysty 17 bap pen 37 ereje bar.

Jana Qazaqstan biyligi de osynday konstitusiyalyq erejelerdi úsyna bilui kerek.

Besinshide: Shveysariya biyligining Qazaqstan biyliginen aiyrmashylyghy, KSRO-nyng qúramynda bolyp barlyq jerdi, barlyq tabighy resurstardy, barlyq auyr óndiris kәsiporyndaryn memleketting menshigine alyp óz halqyn qayyrshylyq dengeyge jetkizbegen edi. Basqasha aitqanda, Shveysariyada eshqashan sosialistik memleket bolghan emes.

Qazaqstanda sosializmdi ayaqtaghanymyzgha 30 jyldan asyp ketti.

Altynshyda: Shveysariya biyligi Qazaqstan biyligi tәrizdi baghany belgilep erkin ekonomiklyq damugha túsau jasaghan joq. Shveysariyada etting baghasy  europalyq etting ortasha baghasynan 2 ese qymbat. Jalpy, Shveysariyadaghy barlyq tauarlardyng baghasy әlemdegi eng joghary baghalardyng birine jatady. Alayda, karantin kezeninde inflyasiya dengeyi 3,5% dengeyinde saqtalyp qaldy, әli de әlemdegi eng tómengi inflyasiyagha ie el bolyp tabylady. Eger tauarlar baghasynyng ósui inflyasiya bolyp sanalsa, onda Shveysariya inflyasiyasy eng joghary el bolyp sanaluy kerek.

Jana Qazaqstan biyliginde de inflyasiyany  jene alatyn joba-jospary bolugha tiyis.

Jetinshide: Shveysariya halqy minsiz azamattyq biylik qúra aldy. Shveysariya avtonomiya prinsiypi boyynsha júmys isteytin 26 shtat pen 2222 munisipaliytetke bólu arqyly minsiz azamattyq әkimshilik qúra aldy. Eger onyng 8,5 million halqy 2222 munisipaliytetke bólinse, әrqayssyn 3825 adam qúraydy. Bizding eldegi bir auylda ortasha osynday halyq bar. Shveysariya munisipaliytetinde jalpy alghanda barlyq qúqyq bar. Jeri ózderining biliminde. Baylyghy óziniki. Mýlik ózinde. Biyiligi ózinde. Memleketting barlyq sharuashylyq  júmystary kanton men munisipaliytet jýzege asyrady.

Shveysariyada kantondyq dengeyde kóshelerdi abattandyrudan bastap, mektepter men balabaqshalargha qatysty mәseleler, ghimarattar salu, joldar men kópirlerdi janalau jәne búzu, salyq salu, jerdi paydalanu jәne t.b. siyaqty barlyq mәselelerdi azamattardyng tikeley jinalystary men referendumdar arqyly sheshedi. Shveysariyanyng jana konstitusiyasy 123 bap pen 305 ereje arqyly Odaq pen Kantondardyng ókilettikterin bóluge, olardyng mindetterin kórsetip, ózara ýilestimge jәne ózara baqylaudy qamtamasyz etuge arnalghan.

Jana Qazaqstanda da jergilikti ózin-ózi basqaru jýiesine ózgerister engizuge bolady.

Segizinshide: Shveysariya Parlamenti eki palataly. Ókilder palatasynda halyq ókilderinen túratyn 200 mýshe, al Senatta shtat ókilderinen túratyn 46 mýshe bar. Shveysariya Parlamentining mýsheleri retinde erekshe artyqshylyqtargha ie «myrzalar» joq. Olar túraqty jalaqy almaydy. Olardyng әrqaysysynyng óz júmysy bar: múghalim, dәriger, zanger, injener, bankiyr, fermer, Memlekettik qyzmetker, óner jәne mәdeniyet qayratkerleri.

Qazaqstanda 2 palatasy bar parlament bar, biraq Shveysariyadan mýldem ózgeshe.

Toghyzynshyda: Shveysariyada әdil jәne quatty sot bar. Shveysariyanyng Jeneva siyaqty oblystary qylmystyq isterde alqabiyler sotyn qoldanady. Vaud, Nevchateli, Suriyh, Tichino qatarly provinsiyalarynda kәsiby sudiyalar men qarapayym azamattardan túratyn tribunaldar júmys isteydi.

Jana Qazaqstan óz sottarymyzdy reformalay alamyz.  Sotty janalap, ózgerte alamyz.

Onynshyda: Shveysariyanyng Ýkimeti de shaghyn. Shveysariya Ýkimetinde 8 ministr bar. 39 myng memlekettik qyzmetshi bar.

Jana Qazaqstan Ýkimetinde 21 ministr, 82 myn  memlekettik qyzmetker bar. Olardy qysqarta alamyz. Qysqartular boluy kerek.

On birinshide: Shveysariyanyng ilgerileui beytaraptyq sayasatymen tyghyz baylanysty. Beytarap sayasat degenimiz kez-kelgen әskeri, sayasy nemese ekonomikalyq odaqqa qosylmau, soghysqa qatyspau, soghysushy taraptardyng eshbirin qoldamau prinsiypi. Eger onday odaqtargha ileser bolsa, Shveysariyada mindetti referendum arqyly sheshim qabyldaydy. Shveysariya 400 jyl boyy eshbir soghystardan zardap shekpegendikten әlemdik damudyng basynda ekenin týsinuge bolady.

Qazaqstan beytarap el bola alady. Negizinde Qazaqstandy  beytarap el deuge de bolady.

On ekinshide: Shveysariya Konstitusiyasy әlemdegi eng demokratiyalyq Konstitusiyagha retinde damuda. Shveysariya Konstitusiyasynyn  jaqsy Zang boluynyng sebebi, 1848 jyldan bastap referendumdar 600 ret ótkizilip, Konstitusiya uaqyt úttyrmay janartylyp qana qoymay 1874 jәne 1999 jyldary referendumdar mýldem jana Konstitusiyany qabyldaugha mýmkindik berdi.

Shveysariyanyng 100 000 azamaty birigip, 180 kýn ishinde qol qoyatyn bolsa Federaldy Konstitusiyagha ishinara nemese tolyq ózgerister engizuge qúqyly. Eger Shveysariyanyng 50 000 azamaty 100 kýn ishinde birigip, kelisimge qol qoysa, olar kez-kelgen federaldy zandardy nemese erejelerdi referendumgha shygharugha qúqyly.

Jana Qazaqstanda referendum arqyly mýldem jana Konstitusiyany qabylday alamyz. Tipten Shveysariyadan da tamasha Konstitusiyalyq joba jasaugha bolady.

On ýshinshide: Shveysariya kóppartiyalyq jýieni óte dúrys paydalanu arqyly sayasy partiyalardyng ozbyrlyghyn tamasha shektey aldy. 1959 jyldan bastap Shveysariyanyng 4 negizgi partiyasy Ókilder palatasyndaghy oryndardy bólisedi.

Jana Qazaqstan 30 jyl biylep kelgen negizgi bir partiyalyq jýieni joyyp, kóp partiyaly jýiege auysa alady.

Eger osy 13 ózgeristi jasay alsaq, Qazaq eli Shveysariyalyq ýlgimen óz bolashaghyn júmaq sekildi elde túruyna mýmkindik jasay alady.

Soltýstik Koreya tóraghasy Kim Chen Yn balalyq shaghyn Shveysariyada ótkizip, sol jerde bilim alghan kapitalistik qoghamnyng ónimi.  Sóite túra óz elin әli kýnge deyin sosialistik qalpynda ústap túruy ókinishti.

Qazaqstan biyliginde  «Bolashaq» baghdarlamasy arqyly AQSh-ta, basqa da damyghan elderde bilim alghan jastar qamtylyp jatsa da sosialistik burokratiyalyq jýie әli qalpynda deuge bolady. Biz ózimiz biylik pen ýkimetimizdi reformalaugha múqtajbyz. Adamdar jýieni reformalaudy «revolusiya» dep qabyldaydy. Al bizdin  revolusiyamyz sayasy jýiede, ekonomikalyq jýiede jәne qúqyqtyq jýiede jan-jaqty ózgeristerdi talap etedi. Bizde qantar oqighasynan beri «Jana Qazaqstan» atty kitap jazylyp keledi. Eger biz osy maqalada sipattalghan negizgi 13 týrli sayasy jәne ekonomikalyq revolusiya jasay alsaq, Qazaq eli  esh kedergisiz Shveysariyagha ainalyp  Alash arystarynyng armandaryn orynday alatyn bolady...

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