Beysenbi, 20 Qantar 2022
Alashorda 8395 0 pikir 10 Nauryz, 2016 saghat 18:27

ShYNGhYS HAN JASAMPAZ BA, JAUYZ BA?..

Amerikandyq Jak Ueterford degen professordyng «Qazirgi әlemning negizin salushy úly imperator Shynghys han» atty tuyndysy tórt-bes jyl búryn  әlemning tandauly kitaby dep tanylghan bolatyn. AQSh-tyng onlayn-sauda «Amazon.kom» kompaniyasy ótkizgen «Oqyrman talghamyna say kitap» nominasiyasy boyynsha atalghan tuyndy kitapqúmarlardan eng kóp dauys jinaghan kórinedi.

Búl turaly kezinde dýniyejýzining aldynghy qatarly mәdeny basylymdary jarysa jazghany mәlim.

Han tuy ghibadathanamen birge órtenip ketken

Jak Ueterfordtyng kitaby kóshpendi taypalardyng mәdeniyeti men dәstýrin, Shynghys hannyng tarihy túlgha retinde qalyptasuyn shynayy bayandaghandyghymen erekshelenip otyr. Tariyhqa janasha túrpatpen qaraghan ghalym Shynghys han jayynda tyng derekter úsynumen qatar, qazirgi әlemning qalay qalyptasqanyna da basqasha oy jýgirtudi oqyrman qauymgha eskertedi. Avtor eng aldymen jylqynyng jal-qúiryghynan jasalghan Shynghys hannyng shashaqty bayraghy turaly bayandaydy.

Shynghys han aq týsti aighyrdyng jal-qúiryghynan jasalghan bayraqty beybit kezde kóterse, qara týstisin jaugha shapqanda ústatqan. Aq týsti bayraq saqtalmady, al, qara týsti Shynghys tuyn onyng múragerlerining biri Zanabazar XVI ghasyrgha deyin arnayy ghibadathanada saqtaghan kórinedi. Alayda, XX ghasyrdyng 30-jyldarynyng sonynda bastalghan stalindik zúlmat han tuyn ghibadathanasymen qosa órtep jibergenin avtor eske alady.

Shynghys hannyng taghdyry turaly oy qauzaghan avtor, ony peshenesine jazylghan jazmyshpen emes, ózi jasaghan jolmen jýrgen adam degen tújyrymgha keledi. Onyng dýniyege kelgen ortasynyng ózi taypalar men úlystar arasyndaghy jan alysyp, jan berisken qyrqystar, tonau men qaraqshylyq, zorlyq-zombylyq pen әlimjettik jaylaghan kezenmen toghysady. Es bilip, etek japqan kezinde әkeden aiyrylghany azday býkil aghayyn-tughandary onyng otbasynan at tondaryn ala qashyp, anasy, bauyrlarymen birge qúla týzde qanghyp qalghan Temýjinning kóz ashqaly kórgeni zúlymdyq bolghanyna avtor nazar audarady. Bir auyz qatty sózi ýshin tughan bauyryn atyp salghan ol, ózi de azaptan kóz ashpady. Dúshpandarynyng qolyna týsip, tútqyndaldy, jalshylyqqa jegildi, qútylu ýshin qashty-pysty degendey. Qorqynysh pen ýrey qúshaghynda jýrip, tiri qaludyng qamymen ghana arpalysqan jas jetkinshekting oiyna ol kezde bolashaqtaghy úly jenis turaly qiyaldyng ózi kirip-shyqpaghany ayan. Qabaghan itterden janúshyra qashyp, jylap-syqtap jýrgen balada qay bir es bolushy edi. Jastayynan kórgeni, ash-jalanashtyq, tayaq pen tepki, tonau men qaraqshylyq. Alayda, amerikandyq ghalym-publisist Jak Ueterford onyng dәl osy  balalyq shaghynda tanysqan eki adamy Temýjinning keyingi ómirinde erekshe manyzdy ról atqarghandyghyna asa mәn beredi.  Ózinen bar-joghy birer jas qana ýlkendigi bar balamen tanysyp, ómirlik dos-anda bolugha  ant-su ishkeni, jas kezinde joldastyq qarym-qatynastary berik bolghanymen, keyin bitispes jaugha ainalghanyn Jalayyr Jamuhamen aradaghy baylanysymen sabaqtastyrady. Al, ómirlik serigi, Qonyrat taypasynyng has súluy Bórtemen taghdyrlas bolghandyghy bolashaqta el basqaratyn danqty tarihy handardyng dýnie esigin ashuyna týrtki bolghandyghyn avtor Jaratushynyng bergen syiy dep esepteydi.

Shynghys hannyng jas shaghynda qalyptasqan dostasu men qastasu qosarlanghan qarama-qayshy sipaty ómir baqy onyng sonynan qalmay adamy bolmysyn aiqyndap keldi, deydi avtor. Shyn mәninde, múnyng bәri әr adamda kezdesetin әdettegi jaghday. Degenmen, onyng jeke túlgha retindegi maqsaty, arman-mýddesi, ýreyi, shalys basqan qadamdarynyng ózi әlem taghdyryna yqpal etkeni shyndyq.

Jyldar jyljyp ótken sayyn ol ózinen kýshi basym kóptegen taypalardy tize býktirip, sayyn dalany keng jaylaghan kóshpendilerding bәrin baghyndyrdy. Ataghy aiday әlemge jayylyp, jasy eludi enserse de ol attan týspedi. Shynghys hannyng shashaqty bayraghy, bir kezderi kóshpendilerdi alymsynbay múryn shýiire qaraghan otyryqshy elder armiyasynyng zәresin úshyra bastady. At túyaghymen әlemdi dýr silkindirip, Govi dalasyn kesip ótip, Sary ózenning arghy jaghasyna shyqty. Qytay jerindegi handyqtardy talqandap, Orta Aziya dalasy arqyly tauly Aughan jerin basyp ótip, parsylargha shabuyldady, Ýndi múhity manynda jenisin toylap, ataq danqyn dýniyege pash etti.

Ol әlemdi Tәnirding jarlyghyna baghynugha mindettedi

Kóshpendilerding qoly, úly jasaq әr joryghynda soghys qimyldaryn qúrlyq aralyq iri sapargha úlastyryp, san myndaghan shaqyrymdyq kenistikke keneyte týsti. Shynghys hannyng janasha týrdegi soghys tәsilderi orta ghasyrdaghy Europa elderindegi rysarilar dәuirining kelmeske ketkenin dәleldedi. Onday eski tәsilding endigi jerde birneshe toptargha bólingen, temirdey qatal tәrtipke baghynghan atty әskerding algha úmtylatyn shabuyldarmen almastyrylghanyn әlemge kórsetti. Ol sonymen qatar qorghanys, bekinisting de kýni bitkenin dәleldep, úrys alanynda oigha kirmes tosyn әreketterdi jasap, jyldamdyq pen alghyrlyqtyng tandauly tәsilderin qalyptastyrdy. Shynghys han óz jauyngerlerin shalghaygha saparlay jýrip, ondaghan jyldargha sozylghan, tipti, eki-ýsh buyn almasqan ýzilissiz shayqastarda kýresten qaytpaugha baulydy. Kóshpendi taypalardyng birikken odaghy-«Monghol» dep atalghan sarbazdarynyng 25 jylgha sozylghan joryqtarynda jaulap alghan elderi men halyqtarynyng sany rimdikterding 400 jyldaghy kórsetkishinen әlde neshe esege asyp týsken edi. Shynghys han balalary men nemereleri, keyingi múragerleri HIII ghasyrda halyq jii ornalasqan, eng kóp túrghyndary bar elderding sanymen de, jer kólemimen de ózge joryqshylar men jaulap alushylardy shang qaptyryp ketti.

Tynyq múhittan Jerorta tenizi aralyghyndaghy barlyq ózen, sudan kóshpendi sarbazdary attaryn suardy. Kóshpendiler jaulap alyp biylik jýrgizgen jerding kólemin  11-12 million sharshy metr dep mәlimdegen amerikandyq ghalym ony qazirgi  Afrika qúrlyghymen salystyrady da,   Karib tenizi  araldary elderi, Ortalyq Amerika, Kanada, Meksika, AQSh-ty qosqandaghy Ontýstik Amerika jerining kóleminen de asyp týsti dep mәlimdeydi. Qar tósenip, múz jastanghan Sibirden bastap aua rayy júmsaq Ýndi óniri, Pәkistannyng kýrish alqabynan Majardyng biday egistigine, Korey jerinen Balqan týbegine deyingi ólkeni mekendeytin ýsh milliardqa juyq adamnan túratyn 30-dan astam  eldi kóshpendiler imperiyasy baghyndyrdy. Rasynda, tandanarlyq bir jayt bar eken. Sol tústa kóshpendi taypalardan túratyn Monghol atty memleketting óz azamattarynyng sany bir milliongha jeter jetpes qana bolghan kórinedi. Qazirgi amerikandyq bir iri kompaniyanyng qyzmetkerlerining sany búdan әldeqayda kóp. Al, Shynghys han sarbazdarynyng sany jýz mynnan aspaghan. Mәsele sanda emes, sapada bolsa kerek.

Shynghys handy avtor qazirgi Amerika ómirining mysaldarymen salystyryp týsindiruge tyrysady. Aytalyq, AQSh-ty bilimdi, kózi ashyq saudagerler men bay enbekkerler emes, kerisinshe, dalanyng kóshpendi júrty biriktirip, syrtqy basqynshy kýshterden azat etip, olargha hat tanytyp, negizgi zanyn bekittirip, diny senim-nanymyna bostandyq berdi. Eger, kóshpendiler  soghys jәne әskery ónerding tyng tәsilderin jasap qoldanbaghanda býgingi AQSh Kanadadan Braziliyagha deyingi aralyqta qol  jinap, qúrlyqaralyq erkin sauda-sattyq isin jýrgize alar ma edi? – dep saual tastaghan avtor Shynghys han atqarghan ólsheusiz enbekti tiyanaqty zertteuding qajettiligin aitady.

 

Shynghys hannyng atty sarbazdary HIII ghasyrdy dýbirletkende әlem elderi men qúrlyqtar shekarasyn janartyp, eleuli ózgeris jasaghan eken. Jana el, jana últ jasalyp, payda boldy. San jyldardyng bederinde handyqtar men taypalardyng basyn qosyp, kýshti derjavagha ainaldyrdy. Olar Shyghys Europada slaviyandardyng onshaqty knyazidyqtaryn, birneshe qalalaryn Reseyge qosty. Soltýstik Aziyada shyghystan Manjchuriya ólkesin, batystan Tiybet pen govi dalasymen jalghasqan  Tanghyt (tangud) elin, shyghys Týrkistandaghy úighyr jerin Sýn memleketining qaldyghymen birge qosyp Qytay elin jasaqtady.

Mongholdar kezinde jerin keneytu ýshin taghayyndaghan shekarasynyng arqasynda  qazirgi Korey men Ýndistan derbes el bolyp qalyptasqanyn avtor Shynghys hannyng eren enbegi dep biledi. Sonymen qatar, kóshpendiler qúrghan imperiya ainalasyna, jalpy әlem elderi ýshin jana órkeniyet jolymen  damuyna zor ýles qosqanyn aitady. 1162 jyly Temýjin shyr etip dýniyege kelgende kórshi elder ghana bolmasa, dýniyejýzi ghalamshardaghy ózge órkeniyetten mýlde beyhabar edi. Qytaylar Europa, europalyqtar qytay turaly estimegen, olar bir-birine barysyp-kelispegen zaman bolghan. Al, Shynghys han mәngilikke kóz júmghan 1227 jyly atalmysh elder sauda-sattyq qatynasyn jasap, qazirgi diplomatiyalyq baylanystyng negizin qalaghan. Ol joghary dәreje, múragerlik biylik, tekti túqym sekildilerdi pir tútatyn feodaldyq jýieni joyyp,  jeke túlghanyng enbegin, әdildigin, jetken jetistigin negizge alatyn jana qúrylymdy dýniyege әkeldi. Jibek joly boyyndaghy sauda-cattyq kónilsiz mýlgigen mekenderdi oyatyp, tarihy iri erkin sauda ortalyqtaryna ainaldyrdy.

Shynghys han júrtshylyqqa salynatyn alymdardyng bәrin tómendetti, shipagerlerdi, ústazdardy, dindarlardy, aghartushylyq qyzmetterdi salyqtan tolyqtay bosatty. Sanaq, esep-qisap, tizim júmystaryn jýrgizetin bolyp, túnghysh ret elaralyq pochta qyzmeti – lau isin úiymdastyrdy. Kóshpendiler imperiyasy dýniye-mýlik, qúndy zattar men baylyqty jinap qoi ýshin ghana emes, ony sauda ainalymyna týsiru ýshin kóp mólsherde taratu, bólu júmystaryn jasaghan kórinedi. Ol әlemde túnghysh ret halyqaralyq zandy qabyldatyp, barlyq adamnyng mәngilik kók aspan Tәnirding jarlyghyna ghana baghynuyn mindettedi. Kóptegen diktatorlar ózderin zan-zәkýn  ataulydan joghary qoysa, Shynghys han qabyldaghan zany men jarlyghyna aldymen ózi sózsiz baghynyp, onyng aldynda biyik dәrejeli qolbasshylardy, el bastaghan noyandaryn qarasha halyqpen, qatardaghy malshymen teng dengeyde ústady. Dәl sonday talapty barlyq dengeyde qatal qoyyp, qadaghalay bildi. Týrli últtardy tegine, dinine qarap alalaudan aulaq boldy. Ádilettikti bәrinen birdey teng talap ete otyryp, jalpyhalyqtyq jarghy, erejelerge baghyndyrdy jәne jerin, elin qasterleudi tapsyrdy, dinge senu erkindikti iyelenuine kedergi jasamady. Zang men jarlyqty qúrmetteudi ornyqtyrdy, adamnyng tәni men janyn qinaugha qarsy boldy degendi avtor erekshe atap kórsetedi. Rasynda, Shynghys hannyng satqyndyqty keshpeytini, soghys kezinde de elshige, ara aghayyngha, bitimgerge tiyispegeni, olargha  diplomatiyalyq erekshe mәrtebe bergeni tarihy shyndyq. Osylaysha, Shynghys han kóshpendiler qúrghan úly imperiyanyng irgetasyn myqtap qalaghandyqtan ózinen keyin 150 jyl boyy kýshti memleket retinde әlemge keng qúlash jaydy. Kelesi ghasyrlarda ydyrap taray bastaghanymen onyng ýrim-bútaghy, múragerleri birneshe elge bólingen memleketterdi – Reseydi, Týrik elderin, Ýndistandy, Qytaydy basqaryp kelgeni belgili.  Olar әr elde «imperator», «han», «súltan», «shah», «әmir» jәne «dalay lama» degen ataularmen biylik jýrgizgen.  Jalpy, Shynghys múragerleri úly derjava oshaghynyng alauly otyn jeti ghasyr boyy óshirmegen.  Britandyqtar Bahadýr Shah II-ni jaulap, eki úly men nemeresining basyn alghangha deyin «Mogholdar» degen ataumen Ýndistandy basqarghany bizge mәlim.

Shynghys úrpaqtarynyng Qazaq handyghy múragerlerin, tórelerdi aitpaghannyng ózinde keshegi Búhara әmiri Álim hannyng ózi  1920 jyly bolisheviktik qyzyl armiya jendetterining saldarynan biylikten aiyrylghangha deyin Ózbekstandy biyledi. Shynghys úrpaghy Álihan Bókeyhanov ta bolishevikterding qandy qyrghyny bolmaghanda «Alash tuy astynda kýn sónbese sónbes» edi.

Kenes Odaghy úly qaghan esimining úlyqtaluynan qoryqty

Qanshama joryqshylar men jaulap alushylardy tarih keshirmegenin, ómirining sonynda qinalyp jan tapsyrghanyn aityp tauysu mýmkin emes. Eskendir Zúlqarnay 33 jasynda Vavilionda belgisiz sebepting saldarynan qaytys bolghan song qyzmetshileri onyng otbasy mýshelerin qyryp, iyeligindegi jerlerin tartyp alghan. Yuly Sezaridy óz serikteri men búrynghy jaqtastary Rim senatynyng sarayynda pyshaqtap óltirgen.  Bonapart Napoleon qyruar qastandyq pen zúlymdyqty, kóterilis pen qaqtyghystardy jense de ómirining aqyrghy sәtinde dýniyening qaysy bir týkpirindegi iyen aralda japadan jalghyz jipsiz baylanyp, ishqúsa bolyp kóz júmghan. Al, Shynghys han alpystyng asqaryn baghyndyryp jetpiske tayaghan shaghynda ózi ýshin jan beruge serttesken, batyr tekti adal sarbazdary men sardarlarynyng arasynda, et-jaqyn tuystary men qimas dos-jarandarynyng ortasynda, «óz ýii óleng tóseginde» (kóshpeli han ordasynda) Tәnirden tikeley kelgen ajalymen qaytys bolghan.

 

Tanghyt elin baghyndyrghan joryqta 1227 jyly jazda Sary ózen boyynda Shynghys han o dýniyege attanghan. Onyng ólimining sebebin kóp jyldar boyy qúpiya saqtauynyng saldarynan týrli boljamdardyn, anyz-әpsanalardyng taraluyna jol berilgen. Olardy uaqyt óte kele tarihy derek ispetti týsinetinder payda boldy. Kóshpendi taypalardyng birikken memleketi – Monghol eline kelip sayahat jasaghan  europalyq alghashqy elshi Plano Karpiniyding jazuyna qaraghanda, Shynghys hangha aspannan jay týsken. Shynghys nemeresi Qúbylay-sheshen hannyng túsynda Mongholiyany sharlaghan Marko Polo ony tizesine qadalghan sadaq oghynyng saldarynan kóz júmdy degen. Keyde әlde bir dúshpan qastandyq jasady delinedi. Taghy bir kórkem shygharmada Tanghyt (tangud) hanynyng jasaghan duasynan óldi dep suretteydi. Al, qazaqtyng ataqty jazushysy Ábish Kekilbaevtyng shygharmasynda әlde bir әiel tósek qatynasy kezinde onyng jynys mýshesin almaspen tilip jibergen etip beynelegeni mәlim. Alayda, professor Jak Ueterford osy taqylettes orynsyz boljamdardyng bәrin esh negizsiz dýniyeler dep týbegeyli joqqa shygharady. Shynghys sarbazdary onyng mýrdesin tughan jerine jetkizip qúpiya týrde jerlegen. Onyng basyna eshbir belgi qoymady. Ol tústaghy kóshpendiler dәstýri boyynsha ólgen adamnyng denesinen úshyp shyqqan shybyn jan ghana qasterli «aruaq» sanalghan. Al, sýiegi qúmgha sinip, ózi jaralghan topyraqqa qaytadan ainaluy tiyis edi. Aqyry, solay boldy da. Úly qaghannyng mýrdesi dәl qayda jerlengeni әli kýnge deyin qúpiya bolyp qaldy. Anyz-әpsana býginge deyin jalghasyp kele jatqanyn professor da tilge tiyek etedi.

Eng kóp taraghan әngime úly qaghandy jerleu rәsimin baqylaghan sarbazdar qyryq kýn boyy jolda úshyrasqan jandardyng bәrin qyryp tastaghan degendi bayan etedi. Jerlengen jerdi 800 atty әsker shauyp ótip tegistegen. Qúpiya syrdy ashpau ýshin keyin sol sarbazdar da óltirilgen kórinedi. Qalay bolghanda da sol qúpiya syr segiz ghasyr boyy saqtalyp keledi. Shynghys imperiyasynyng kýlli qúpiyasy sonda sekildi kórinetindigine erekshe nazar audarghan professor úly Monghol handyghy ydyraghannan keyin jatjúrt әskerleri elding kóp bóligin jaulap alsa da dәl sol Temýjin kómilgen mekenge at izin salmaghanyna qayran qalady. Keyin mongholdar budda dinin qabyldasa da, sol ónirge eshbir shirkeu, ghibadathana salynbady.

Kenestik Resey otarshylary HH ghasyrda Shynghys han esimining ataluyna tyiym salyp, ruhany biyik sananyng oyanyp ketuinen, últshyldyqtyng óris aluynan ólerdey qoryqty. Onyng tughan ólkesin jergilikti әkimshilik jýiesinen shygharyp, ýkimet qúzyryna berdi de ony Mәskeu óz baqylauynda ústady. Kenes otarshylary Shynghys hannyng sýiegi jerlenui yqtimal jerlerding ainalasyn jabyq zona etip jariyalaghan. Kommunistik rejim túsynda atalghan mekenge aghylatyn qozghalysty shekteu ýshin Úlanbatyrmen arasynda jol da salmaghan. Onymen qoymay, sol aralyqqa kenes armiyasynyng әue shabuylynyng әskery bólimin ornalastyryp, ainalagha kýzet qoydyrghan. Ol jerde kenes armiyasy jauyngerleri әskery jattyghu jasaytyn bolghan.

Avtordyng payymdauynsha, mongholdar jana tehnikalyq jetistik oilap tappady, jana dinge de bet búrmady, azyn-aulaq әdeby kitap shygharyp, dramalyq piesa sahnalady demeseng әlemdi eleng etkizer bidaydyng jana sortyn da jasamady, dәstýrli mal sharuashylyghynyng ózinde tyng tәsilder oilap taba almady. Qolóner sheberleri tym qúryghanda mata, púl da toqymaydy, temir ydystar jasamaydy, tipti, nan da jappaytyn júrt boldy. Qyshtan qúmyra jasap, kese, tabaq dayyndaudy da bilmedi. Suret jobalap, qúrylys túrghyzbady. Sóite túra, әskery kýshpen órkeniyetti elderdi jaulap baghyndyrdy, olardyng nebir sheber jandaryn toptastyryp daryn-qabiletterin ghasyrlar boyy molynan paydalandy deydi.

Shynghys hannan qalghan eldegi múra negizi kópirler ghana. Sarbazdary men zat-tauarlar, qaru-jaraqtar tiyegen kólikterin jýzdegen ózender arqyly bógetsiz ótkizuge kópirding atqaratyn róli nópir bolghandyqtan shyghar. Osynyng ózinen-aq, kóshpendiler syrtqy әlemmen zat-tauardan góri iydeya almasudy artyq sanaghanyn angharugha bolady.

Kezinde mongholdar nemis shahterlerin Qytaygha, qytay dәrigerlerin Parsygha aparghan. Osylaysha, mәdeny qúndylyq ataulynyng barmaqtayynyng ózin әlemge pash etumen ótti. Barghan jerlerinde kilem tóseudi  ýlgi etip ornyqtyrdy. Limon men sәbizdi Parsy jerinen  Qytaygha, kespe kóje men shaydy qytaydan Batysqa aparyp tanystyrghan.  Parijding ústalaryn auasy qúrghaq Qaraqorym qalasyna әkelip su búrqaqtaryn jasatqan. Aghylshyn aqsýiektilerin úly jasaq sarbazdaryna tilmash etip alyp, sausaqtyng tabyn paydalanatyn qytaylyq tәsildi parsylargha engizgen. Sonymen qatar, qytay jerinde hristian shirkeulerin, parsy jerinde buddizm ghibadathanalaryn, Resey jerinde islam mәdeniyetinen, qúrannan sauat ashatyn medreseler ashyp, ony qarjylandyrghan. Múnyng bәrin avtor kóshpendiler әlemning jartysyn jaulasa da týrli elder arasynda mәdeni-aghartushylyqty taratuda da aitarlyqtay tarihy ýles qosqandyghymen týsindiredi.

 

Shynghys han qúrghan imperiyanyng múragerleri zat-tauar tasymaldau logistikasyn qalyptastyrumen qatar sol tústa bolmaghan jana ónimder de jasaghan deydi. Qytay, parsy, europa ústalary men sheberlerining jasaghan týrli oqtargha qoldanylatyn dәrilerin aralastyryp, otty dopshalar jasaghan. Ony europalyqtardyng mys qonyrau jasaytyn tәsilderimen qosarlap jana tehnologiya oilap tabularynyng arqasynda keyin tapanshadan bastap, qanatty zymyran jasaugha deyingi jetistikting jolyn ashqanyn mysal retinde keltiredi. Barlyq jasalghan ónimderde ózindik syr-sipaty bolatyny belgili. Al, kóshpendiler sol kezding ózinde ózgening jasaghan zattarynyng basqasha balamasyn istep, onyng tehnologiyasyn jetildiruding jolyn izdedi deydi.

Mongholdar sol tústa sayasi-ekonomikalyq, ruhaniy-mәdeny kenistikte halyqaralyq sipattaghy is-qyzmetter jýrgizgendigine nazar audarady. Olar dýniyeni jaulap alumen ghana shektelmedi. Erkin saudany óristetti, jalpygha ortaq halyqaralyq zandylyqtardy qalyptastyrdy, barlyq tilderde oqugha, jazugha bolatyn ortaq qaripke negizdelgen býkilәlemdik tәrtip ornatugha tyrysty. Shynghys qaghannyng nemeresi Qúbylay han әlemning әr tarabynda qoldana beruge jaramdy qaghaz aqsha jasatty, jappay sauat ashudy kózdep, negizgi bilim beretin bastauysh mektepter ashudy qolgha aldy. Búrynghydan da jetildirilgen onmyng jyldyq kýntizbe jasaudy bastap, iri kólemde jer kartasyn da dayyndaghan. Olar saudagerlerding kóshpendilerding úly imperiyasyna qúrghaq qúrlyq arqyly kelulerin barynsha qoldady. Sauda-sattyq pen diplomatiyalyq qarym-qatynasyn keneytu maqsatymen teniz joldarymen óz barlaushylaryn Afrikagha deyin attandyrghan.

Monghol taypalarynyng barghan jerleri tek qana órtke oranyp, kýireuimen ghana kózge elestetip ýirengen oqyrmandardy professor Jak Ueterfordtyng kitaby tandandyruy da ghajap emes. Mәdeny qarym-qatynas pen sauda-sattyq, órkeniyettik barys-kelis Shynghys múragerlerining arqasynda keneydi degendi dәleldeuden avtor esh jalyqpaydy. Olar Europadaghy rysarilyq jýieni búzdy. Qytay men islam elderimen salystyrghanda kedeyshilikting qamytyn kóp kiygen europalyqtardy jaulap aludy maqsat etpedi, olardyng qalalary men  qalashyqtarynda tonaugha túratyn da aitarlyqtay baylyq joq edi, deydi, avtor.

Venesiya saudageri Marko Polonyng otbasy arqyly ornyqqan qarym-qatynastyng paydasyn Europa kórdi, ózara dindarlaryn, sayahatshylaryn almastyryp túrdy. Saudadan týsken mol tabystyng arqasynda europalyqtar búrynghy mәdeniyetin jandandyryp, qayta dәuirleudi bastaghanymen eng bastysy,  shyghystan baspa tehnologiyasyn, otty qaru-jaraq, kompas, shot sekildilerdi alyp qoldandy. Aghylshyn ghalymy Rojer Bakonnyng jazuyna qaraghanda, HIII ghasyrda mongholdar әskery ónerde ghana emes, ghylymda da tabystargha jetken kórinedi.

Kóshpendilerding yqpalymen orta ghasyrlyq qayta dәuirleude tehnika, tehnologiya, әskeriy-soghys, kiyim-keshek, sauda-sattyq, azyq-týlik, óner, әdebiyet, muzyka sekildi salalar boyynsha europalyqtardyng tynys-tirshiligine eleuli ózgerister endi. Europalyqtar kóshpendiler toqyghan matadan shalbar men kýrte kiyip, búrynghy jalanbút jamylghylarynan qútylyp, boylaryn býtindedi, úyatty jerlerin tolyqtay japty. Muzykada da búrynghyday sausaqpen sym tartqylap qana qoymay, endi ishekti aspapty egep ýirendi (skripka). Suret ónerinde de jana lep bayqaldy. Europalyqtar kóshpendilerding úran salyp, bir-birine dem beretin ýrdisin de jatsynbay qabyldady. Osynyng bәrin jetik bilgendikten aghylshyn jazushysy Jeffry Choser «Kantrbur tarihy» atty tuyndysyn  Aziya qyrany – Shynghys hangha arnasa kerek. Qayta dәuirleu túsyndaghy bilimdar ghalymdar kóshpendiler jayynda osylay jazyp jatqanda әlemning teng jartysy olardy әli kýnge deyin qangha qyzghan jabayy taypalar dep esepteytindigine avtor asa tandanys bildiredi. Jeffry Choser nemese Bayrondardyng britandyqtardyng sanasyna sinirgen Shynghys han men onyng qalyng qoly turaly beyneleuleri rasynda, qazirgi týsinikten basqasha. Kóshpendiler sarbazdaryn altyn men aqsha tonaushy, súlu arulardy zorlaushy etip kórsetu qazirgi kórkem filimder men әdeby tuyndylargha tәn ýrdis bolsa kerek.

Býginde Shynghys hannyng portreti de kóbeygen. Alayda, ol kózi tirisinde esh qashan ózining suretin saldyryp, tiyn-mәnetterge atyn jazdyryp, qazirgi keybir diktatorlarsha eskertkishterin túrghyzdyrghan joq. Shynghys hannyng qazirgi suretterinen biz tanymnan góri kýdik-kýmәndi kóbirek kóremiz. Qytaylar baysaldy qariyany salsa, parsy suretshileri taqqa jayghasqan týrik súltandarynsha sústy etip beyneleydi.

Jalpy, Shynghys han men onyng danqty imperiyasy jayyndaghy mәlimetterding asa qúpiya jaghdayda saqtalyp kelgendigi tarihshylar ýshin eleuli qiyndyq tudyryp keledi.  Tarihshylar ýshin ol turaly zerttegende, jazghanda negizge alatyn naqty derekkózder salystyrmaly týrde óte az. Monghol  qoldarynyn  jaulap alghan qalalary, olardyng aldynda tize býgip, jenilgen  armiyalardyng tizimi sekildi derekter kezdesui mýmkin. Al, dәl Temýjinning ata-tegi,  minez-qúlqy, arman-mýddesi, jeke ómiri turaly naqtylanghan derek tym siyrek. Shynghys han dýniyeden ozghannan keyin onyng et jaqyndarynyng biri әlem әmirshisining jeke ómiri jayynda jazyp, ony qúpiya týrde saqtaghan degen әngimeni qytay, parsy ghalymdary kezinde kóp jazghan.  Alayda, ony әzirge eshbir ghalym dәleldey qoyghan joq. Shynghys han qaytys bolghannan keyin jýz jyldan song parsy tarihshysy Rashiyd-әl-Ony monghol әrpimen, kóne monghol tilinde jazylyp saqtalghan derekti shejire bar dep mәlimdegen. Hannyng qatang baqylauyndaghy jazbany kóruge jәne mongholsha týpnúsqasyn oqyp úghugha qabiletti aituly ghalym shet júrttarda bolmady.  Monghol biyligi qúlap, ydyraghannan keyin әlgi qúpiya shejire turaly sóz de úmytyla bastaghan. Tipti, ony jay bir anyz-әpsanagha balaushylar da tabyldy.

Suretshiler Shynghys han portretin óz qiyaldarymen әrtýrli etip salghany sekildi jazushylar men ghalymdar da sol jolmen jýrdi.     Korey, Japonnan bastap, Armyan ghalymdaryna deyin Temýjinning ómirin anyzgha ainaldyryp, tym әsirelep jibergen degen qorytyndygha keledi, professor.

Senimdi әri dәl aqparat bolmaghan song óz boljamdary men qorqynyshtaryn ghana aitqannan asa almasy anyq qoy. Jýzdegen jyldar ótken song Eskendir, Sezari, Charly Mashe, Napoleondardyng jasaghan jauyzdyqtary men otarlaudaghy jetistikterin atqarghan tarihy rólimen  salystyryp jazghandar kóp boldy. Al, Shynghys han men kóshpendiler jasaghan jaghymdy ister úmytylyp, kerisinshe, onyng qatygezdigin, jauyzdyghyn birjaqty әsirelegen dýniyeler basym. Sonyng saldarynan Shynghys han degen qanypezer jendet, meyirimsiz qatal, jabayy jyrtqysh ispetti teris úghym qalyptasqan. Tek onyng ózi ghana emes, úrpaqtary da, jalpy aziyalyqtardyng bәri mәdeniyet pen órkeniyetten júrday taghy jandar sekildi jalghan beyne europalyqtardyng sanasyna sinip ketken.

HVIII    ghasyrdyn   sonynda sahnalanghan Voliterding «Jetim qytay» atty dramasyn avtor mysalgha keltiredi. Shynghys hannyng qytay jerin jaulaghany turaly bayandalatyn piesada qangha toymaytyn jauyz bәrin qyryp,  Aziya dalasyn anyratyp iyen tastaghan delinedi eken. Óner tuyndylarynyng ózinde eki jaqqa alma-kezek auytqu bolghanyn Choserding Shynghys handy maqtaugha sóz tappaghanymen, Voliterdin  jamandaghanda jermen jeksen etkendigimen týsindiredi.

Shynghys han taypalary «tartar», «tatar» «moghal», «moghol», «moal» jәne «monghol» degen birneshe ataumen aitylghanymen, shyn mәninde onyng qúrghan imperiyasy  kóp últtar men úlystan túratyn kóshpendilerding birikken memleketi bolatyn. Shet júrt osy ataulardyng bәrin jaghymsyz maghynada kemsitken synayda kóbirek qoldandy.  HIH ghasyrda Batys ghalymdary aziyalyqtar men Amerika qúrlyghynyng bayyrghy túrghyndary ýndisterdi kemsitu ýshin «mongoloiyd» degen ataudy ghylymgha engizdi. Ózderin aq nәsildi, asyl tekti «europeiyd» dep atady. Eger, әldebir «europeiyd» әiel jarymes nemese mýgedek bala tapsa onyng arghy teginde mongholdyng qany bar, Shynghystyng sarbazy zorlap ketken degen «diagnoz» qoyady eken. Meyli, onyng týr kelbeti «mongoloiyd» bolghan kýnning ózinde bәri Allagha ghana ayan dýnie ghoy.

Sionister men últshyl-shovinister de mongholdardy parsysha «moghol» dep atap kemsitip kelgeni ayan. Jalpy, sәtsizdikting bәrin mongholdardan kóretin ýrdis bir kezderi әlemde qalyptasqan. Orystar batystyq tehnika men japondyq armiyanyng quattylyghyna jete almaghandyghyn Shynghys han men tatar shapqynshylyghynan kórgen.  Parsylar da kórshi elderden artta qalyp qoyghandyghyn mongholdar ashqan soghystyng saldaryna japqan. Sol siyaqty qytaylar japon men europalyqtargha jete almaghandaryna, ýndistandyqtar aghylshyndardan jenilgenine, HH ghasyrda arab sayasatkerleri amerikandyqtardan búryn atom qaruyn jasay almay qalghandyqtaryna taghy da mongholdardy kinәli sanaghan. Eger, monghol sarbazdary arab kitaphanalaryn órtemegende, qalalardy kýiretpegende olar bәrin jasap tastaghanday eken. Amerikandyqtar 2002 jyly bombanyng astyna alyp talibandardy  Aughanstannan quyp shyqqangha deyin tәlibter sol ólkeni segiz ghasyr boyy mekendep kele jatqan hazarlardy Shynghys hannyng túqymy bolghandyqtary ýshin ayamay jazalaghan. Saddam Husseyn irak halqyna arnaghan songhy sózinde amerikandyqtardy mongholdargha úqsatyp, aiyptaghan. Sayasat pen ghylymda, jalpy zertteushilerding payymynda Shynghys hannyng shynayy tarihynyng beti ashylmay qúpiya kýiinde qala bergeni kitapta jan-jaqty kórinis tapqan.

«Mongholdyng qúpiya shejiresi» atty kitap týrindegi jazba eskertkish te  atyna zaty say bolyp jyldar boyy jasyryn saqtaldy. Shynghystyng keybir qúpiyasyn ashyp,  ol turaly derekterding shet jaghasyn suyrtpaqtaugha HH ghasyrda zor mýmkindik tudy. Ol, hannyng ómirderegin bayandaghan qoljazbanyng tabyluy. Negizi ghalymdar arasynda mongholdardy mensinbeytin, teris týsiniktegi jandar bolghanymen Shynghys han turaly tarihy jazba bar degendi eshqaysysy joqqa shygharmaytyn. Aqyry, HIH ghasyrdyng sonynda qytay «hanjysymen» tanbalanghan jazba Beyjinde tabylady. Ghalymdar qytay jazuyn tanyp oqyghanymen sózderin mýlde týsine almady. HIII ghasyrdaghy kóshpendiler sóilesken tildi qytay qarpine týsirgendikten úghu mýmkin bolmady.  Ghalymdar әr tarau sayyn kezdesetin qytaysha týiindemelerin ghana oqidy, al, kitaptyng mazmúnyna tolyq ene almaydy. Sondyqtan, oghan qúpiya shejire dep at qoyghan.

 

Qúpiya shejireni mongholdardyng ózi Stalin túsynda zertteuge bara almady. Sebebi, bәrin biylep-tóstegen kompartiya ony ghylymiy-kommunizmge jat mazmúngha teligen. 1953 jyly Stalin ólgen song jylymyq ornady jәne 1961 jyly Mongholiya BÚÚ-gha mýshe boldy.  1962 jyly Shynghys hannyng tughanyna 800 jyl toldy. Memleket basqaruyndaghy ekinshi túlgha bolyp tabylatyn D. Tómór-Ochir mereytoy qúrmetine úly qaghangha arnap Onon ózeni jaghasyna eskertkish soghu turaly sheshim qabyldaydy. Shynghys hannyng 9 túghyrly aq tularyn beynelegen pochta markasyn basyp shygharady (Toghyz tudyng ishinde qazirgi qazaq rularynyng da bayraqtary bar).

Kóshpendiler imperiyasynyng tarihy rólin, jaghymdy jәne jaghymsyz tústaryn taldaghan ghylymy konferensiya úiymdastyrylady. Oghan býkil monghol zor tebirenispen quanyp, ruhy kóterildi. Al, orystar ýrke qarady. Kenestik Resey kórshisining búl әreketin últshyldyqty, jauyzdyqty dәripteu dep sókti. Kenes odaghy ózining sonynan ergen Mongholiyanyng derbes sayasat ústanyp, Qytay jaghyna shyghyp ketetindiginen qatty qoryqty. Kompartiya basshylary D.Tómór-Ochirdy últshyl dep aiyptap aldymen lauazymnan bosatyp jer audardy. Keyin KGB jendetterin jiberip baltamen shauyp óltirtti.  Partiya ishine tazalaular jýrgizgen monghol kommunisteri keyin ghalymdar arasynan «antiy-kommunisterdi», «qytay tynshylaryn», «býlikshilerdi» top-tobymen tauyp, belgili arheolog-ghalym H. Perleeni  Tómór-Ochirdyng ústazy әri Shynghys imperiyasynyng tarihyn qúpiya zertteushi dep aiyptap, abaqtygha japty.

Shynghys han tarihyna qatysty qanday bir ilik tapsa boldy, olar ústazdardy, tarihshylardy, suretshilerdi, aqyndardy, әnshilerdi ayausyz jazalap jatty. Olardyng kóbine janama týrde jaza qoldandy. Aytalyq, lauazymdy qyzmetterinen alyp tastaydy, mýlde júmyssyz tentiretip jiberedi, qystyng qaqaghan ayazynda otbasymen pәterden quyp shygharady, tipti, dәrigerlik kómek te kórsetilmeydi. Qaladan shygharyp, eng shalghaydaghy auyldargha jer audarady. Osy «tazalyq» kezinde shashaqty bayraqtyng birjolata joghalghanyna avtor esh shýbә keltirmeydi. Al, soghan qaramastan Reseyding ózinde, AQSh-ta, Germaniyada, Fransiyada jәne Majarstanda ghalymdar «Mongholdyng qúpiya shejiresin» zertteudi, ony kóne kóshpendilerding belgisiz tilinen qazirgi mongholshagha audarudy  jalghastyra bergen. Osylaysha, 1970-jyldary kóne monghol tilin zertteushi, Avstraliya ghalymy Igor de Rahevilsting jetekshiligimen jankeshti zor ghylymy taldau enbekting nәtiyjesinde qúpiya shejirening birinshi tarauy monghol jәne aghylshyn tilderinde jaryq kóredi. Osy tústa AQSh ghalymy Frasis Uedman jәne Kliyves taghy audarma núsqasyn jasaghanyn 1982 jyly Garvard uniyversiytetining baspasy kitap etip shyghardy. Olar shejirening kilt sózderin audarumen qatar derekterge týsinikteme jasaghan. Atalmysh ghalymdar osynday kýrdeli enbekti jasau ýshin aldymen HIII ghasyrdaghy kóshpendiler mәdeniyetimen tereng susyndaghan. Sonyng arqasynda shejirening tarihy mazmúnymen qoljazbanyng qyr-syryn býge-shigesine deyin týsinip audarghan eken.  Ony audaru ýshin әlem ghalymdary oqigha bolghan úly dalagha kelip, ony kózben kórip, jýrekpen tanudy әrdayym esten shygharmaudy eskertumen keledi. Al, professor Jak Ueterfordting «Qazirgi әlemning negizin salushy úly imperator Shynghys han» atty kitabyn oqyp shyqqan sәtte-aq, onyng keyipkerin rasynda, jasampaz túlgha eken-au degen oida qalasyn.

 Quandyq ShAMAHAYÚLY,
QR mәdeniyet qayratkeri, 
halyqaralyq jurnalist

Derek kózi: Ult.kz

0 pikir

Ýzdik materialdar

Manyzdy

Janaózen nege kóterildi?

Núrgeldi Ábdighaniyúly 5867
Dep jatyr

Janaózen talaby. Maminning jauaby...

Abai.kz 7116