Seysenbi, 1 Jeltoqsan 2020
COVID-19 QAZAQSTANDA. Júqtyrghandar — 132348. Jazylghandar — 116863. Qaytys bolghandar — 1990
Ekonomika 3492 0 pikir 5 Qarasha, 2016 saghat 00:00

AMANGELDI SADANOV. "QAZAQSTAN GhYLYMY DAMYP KELEDI"

Qazaqstan Respublikasy Bilim jәne ghylym ministrligi ghylym komiytetining mikrobiologiya jәne virusologiya institutynyng bas diyrektory – Qazaqstan Respublikasy ghylym men tehnika salasyndaghy Memlekettik syilyghynyng laureaty, Qazaqstannyng enbek sinirgen qayratkeri, «Qúrmet» ordenining iyegeri, biologiya ghylymynyng doktory, professor, akademik Amankeldi Qúrbanúly SADANOVPEN "Egemen Qazaqstan" gazetining tilshisi súhbat jýrgizipti. Biz oqyrman nazaryna sol әngimeni tolyqtay úsynudy jón sanap otyrmyz.

– Amankeldi Qúrbanúly, elimizding ghylymynda oiyp túryp alghan óz orny bar institut býgingi tanda sala boyynsha qay baghytqa basymdyq berip, kýsh júmsap keledi?

– Qazaqstan qoghamy, ghylym órkendep jatyr biraq onyng nәtiyjesi әli bayqalmaydy, onyng qyzyghyn halyq qashan kóredi degen sekildi degen dýdәmal oidan әli de aryla qoyghan joq. Soghan qaramastan ghylym – óndiristi damytatyn ýlken kýshke ainalyp keledi. Jana tehnologiya men ozyq tehnika, gendik injeneriya men biotehnologiya jetistikteri ómir sýru daghdylaryn jenildetuge, tipti órkeniyetti ózgertuge qabiletti ekenin dәleldedi. Búl turaly Elbasymyz N.Nazarbaevtyng «5 instituttyq reformany jýzege asyru boyynsha 100 naqty qadam» – Últ josparynda egjey-tegjeyli naqtylandy. Sol sebepti ghylymy janalyqtar el ekonomikasyn algha sýireytin negizgi kýshke ainaluy kerek-aq. Osyghan oray, Instituttyng ghalymdary qoghamnyng әleumettik súranystaryna jauap bere alatyn zamanauy tehnologiyalardy paydalana otyryp, medisina, auylsharuashylyghy men qorshaghan ortanyng ózekti mәselelerin sheshuge arnalghan jana otandyq biopreparattar óndirip shygharyp, ony atalghan salalar boyynsha keninen qoldanu ýstinde.

Ózinizge mәlim, elimizding negizgi eng basty salalarynyng biri auylsharuashylyghy, onyng ishinde, songhy jyldary memleket tarapynan malsharuashylyghyna asa kónil bólinip otyr. Auylsharuashylyq maldaryn, әsirese, sýtti iri qarany qúnarly azyqtandyru eng manyzdy mәsele bolyp tabylady. Sonday-aq, mal ónimdiligin arttyrudyng manyzdy sharttarynyng biri azyqtandyrudyng qysqy ýlgisin jazdyq ýlgige barynsha jaqyndatu bolyp tabylatyndyghy mәlim. Sondyqtan da sharualar ýshin qúnary men quaty joghary pishendeme men sýrlem siyaqty mal azyghyn paydalanu asa qajet. Sol sebepten, bizding «Kazbiosiyl» preparatynyng qazirgi tanda naryqtaghy ýlesi 80 payyzgha jetti. Búl biopreparatty Qazaqstannyng 12 oblysyndaghy mal sharuashylyghy qojalyqtary belsendi týrde óz óndiristerinde qoldanuda. Tek songhy eki jyldyng ózinde osy biokonservantty qoldanu boyynsha shamamen 3,0 mln tonna sýrlem men pishendeme dayyndalghan.

– Búl preparattardyng óndiristik tiyimdiligi turaly ne aitugha bolady?

– Ádette, auylsharuashylyq maldar 100 payyz tóldegenmen, óse kele onyng 60-70 payyzy ghana tiri qalady. Oghan birneshe sebepter bar. Sol sebepterding biri tólderding aralas ishek infeksiyalarynyng әserinen әr týrli aurulargha shaldyghuy. Osyghan oray, institut ghalymdary ishek infeksiyalaryna qarsy keng auqymdy «Polilaktoviyt» probiotiygin óndiriske engizdi. Búl preparat jas tólding aghzasyndaghy patogendi jәne shartty patogendi mikroorganizmderding ósuin tejeydi, nәtiyjesinde organizmdegi immundyq jýiening funksiyasy artady. Atap aitsaq, kolibakterioz, salimonellez, Niukasl siyaqty aurulardyng aldyn aluda jәne emdeu barysynda osy preparattyng tiyimdiligining joghary ekeni dәleldendi. Aurudy aldyn alu ýshin «Polilaktoviyt» preperatyn janadan tughan tóldi qorektendiruden 10-15 minut búryn, ýsh kýn qatarynan 50 ml-dan berse, ishek infeksiyalaryna tózimdi bolyp, nәtiyjesinde tól basy 100 payyz saqtalady.

– Qazir halyqtyng qúlaghy bazarlarda satylatyn maldyng salmaghyn attyru ýshin belgisiz bir preparattardy iyne arqyly egedi eken degen әngimege ýirendi. Ótirik emes…

– Auyl adamynyn, jalpy qazaqtyng qúlaghyna jaghymsyz estiletin әngime eken, shyndyq bolar… Bordaqylaytyn maldardyng salmaghyn arttyratyn, mal azyghyna qosatyn «Bentobak» atty biologiyalyq preparatymyz bar. Búl preparattyng ereksheligi, preparat qúramyndaghy bakteriyalar iri sabaqty mal azyqtaryn tolyqtay qorytu arqyly, qosymsha salmaq jinauyna yqpal etedi. Sonymen qatar, azyqtandyru ýrdisinde tuyndaytyn asidoz, ketoz auruynyng aldyn alady. Mәselen, osy preparatty mal azyghyna qosyp bergen jaghdayda, әrbir mal orta eseppen tәuligine 600-800 gramm salmaq qosady. Qalghanyn óziniz eseptey beriniz… Qazir Qyzylorda, Qostanay, Almaty, Aqmola, Ontýstik Qazaqstan oblystarynda mal bordaqylaushylar bizge kelip, atalghan osy preparatymyzdy satyp aluda.

– Adamzattyng da jan-januardyng da qorektenetin azyghy bәri-bәri topyraqqa birden-bir baylanysta ekenin jaqsy bilemiz. Qazaqstanda jer kóp bolghanmen egin egetin, jem-shóp dayarlaytyn, kóksók óndiretin bir plantasiya ghoy. Oghan qanshama jyl himiyalyq tynaytqyshtardy ayausyz shashyp keldik. Ziyandy jaghyn bile túryp eskermedik. Qazaqtyng topyraghyn sauyqtyru ýshin ne isteuimiz kerek, osy orayda sizding institutynyz qanday әreket jasap otyr?

– Óte dúrys bayqaghansyz. Jasyratyny joq, egin alqaptaryndaghy topyraqtyng qúnarly qabaty, yaghny qarashirikting mólsheri óte tómendep ketti.Oghan auyspaly egis jýiesining saqtalmauy, sugharu talaptarynyng búzyluy, miyneraldyq tynaytqyshtardyng jii berilui negizgi sebepker bolyp otyr.

Qazirgi zamanda biz sol miyneraldyq tynaytqyshtardy almastyratyn biologiyalyq preparattar jasap shygharyp jәne ony óndiriste keninen paydalanyp otyrmyz. Búl preparat «Rizoviyt-AKS» dep atalady. Búrshaq túqymdas ósimdikterding dәnin seber aldynda atalghan biopreparatpen óndep baryp sepken jaghdayda ónimi 33-35 payyzgha deyin artady, yaghny búl ortasha týsimge qosymsha astyq jiynynyng gektaryna 5-7 sentnerin beretinin kórsetedi. «Rizoviyt-AKS» biopreparatynyng qúramyndaghy týinek bakteriyalar auadaghy azotty ósimdik tamyryna sinirip, azotpen qorektendirip qana qoymay, topyraqta әr gektarda 200-300 kilogrammgha deyin biologiyalyq taza azot jinaqtaydy. Demek, búrshaq túqymdas ósimdikterden keyin auyspaly egistikte egiletin auylsharuashylyq daqyldardyng azotqa degen qajettiligin keminde 2-3 jylgha deyin qanaghattandyrady, yaghny miyneraldyq azot tynaytqyshtaryn paydalanbay-aq joghary ónim alugha mýmkindik beredi.

Al endi miyneraldy fosfor tynaytqyshyna kelsek, mejeli ónim alu ýshin jyl sayyn egin alqaptaryna gektaryna orta eseppen 150-200 kilogramm mólsherinde beriledi. Múndaghy eskeretin jayt, miyneraldy fosfor tynaytqyshtarmen ósimdikterdi qorektendirgende qúramyna baylanysty әrtýrli әser etedi. Ásirese, topyraqqa engennen song fosfattar olarmen himiyalyq reaksiyalargha týsedi, búnyng saldarynan ósimdikter olardyng az bóligin ghana óz boyyna sinire alady, al negizgi bóligi ósimdikter sinire almaytyn týrlerine ainalyp ketedi.

Mysaly, bir vegetasiyalyq kezendegi, qúramynda fosfor mólsheri óte joghary qos superfosfattyng ósimdikterge sinirilu koeffisiyenti 8-10 payyzdy ghana qúraydy, qalghan 90-92 payyzy jyl sayyn topyraqta «qajetsiz» qor bolyp jinala beredi. Nәtiyjesinde, topyraqta qorektik elementterding tepe-tendigi búzylady.

Endi osy mәselege baylanysty, men sizge taghy bir janalyqtyng shetin shygharayyn, biz fosfordyng kýrdeli, ósimdik sinire almaytyn týrlerinen ósimdikter tez onay sinire alatyn týrlerine ainaldyra alatyn, joghary belsendi fosfatsinirushi (fosfatmobilizdeushi) bakteriyalardyng negizinde bakterialdyq biopreparat әzirlep, jasap shyghardyq. Atalghan biopreparatty qoldanghanda topyraqtaghy kóp jyldar boyy jinalghan fosfordyng erimeytin týrlerin 20-30 payyzgha deyin ósimdikke qolayly, әri sinimdi týrine ainaldyrugha mýmkindik beredi. Búl kózge kórinbeytin qúbylys. Ghajap emes pe? Diqangha da keregi sol emes pe, aitynyzshy?

– Óndiriske auaday qajet «isker» mikrobtardyng dýniyege kelui men taratyluy, egistik alqaby men daqyldargha tiygizer әseri jayynda aitsanyz?

– Bizding institutymyzda mikroorganizmderding óndiristik shtammdary saqtauly túr. Sol mikrobtardy ósirip ózimizding zauytymyzgha jiberemiz. «Ónerkәsiptik biotehnologiya» mikrobiologiyalyq zauyty biologiyalyq jәne medisinalyq preparattaryn shygharatyn qazirgi talaptargha say joghary tehnologiyalyq jabdyqtarmen jabdyqtalghan. Kәsiporyn jylyna institut qyzmetkerleri әzirlegen 7 biopreparattyng 40-50 tonnasyn jasap shygharady. Auyl sharuashylyghy men qorshaghan ortagha arnalghan biopreparattardyng óndiristik sikli ýzdiksiz jyl on eki ay jýrip otyrady.

Ózimiz jasap shyqqan «Fitobasiriyn» biologiyalyq preparatymyz turaly dәl osy jerde aityp óteyin. Auylsharuashylyghynda týiejonyshqa men jonyshqa ósimdikterining ónimdiligining tómendigi. Onyng sebebi túqymnyng syrtqy qabyghynyng óte qatty boluynda. Osy sebepten egilgen jonyshqa men týiejonyshqa túqymynyng tek 20-30 payyzy ghana ónip shyghatyndyqtan,egistikting 1/4 bóligi bos qalyp jatatyndyghy da jii kezdesedi. Túqymdyq dәndi sebu aldynda osy biopreparatpen óndegende, atalghan daqyldardyng shyghymdylyghy 80-90 payyzgha deyin artady. Yaghni, búghan deyingi sebilgen jonyshqa túqymynyng qalypty normasy gektaryna 18-20 keli bolatyn bolsa, óndeuden ótkennen keyingi normasy 8-10 kelige azayyna mýmkindik jasaydy.

– Himiyalyq tynaytqyshtardyng adam aghzasyn búzyp týrli keselderge shaldyqtyratyny kópshilikke búrynnan mәlim de belgili jayt. Siz aityp otyrghan ekologiyalyq taza biologiyalyq-mikrobtarynyzdan song tek qana topyraq qana emes, adam aghzasy da sauyghady dep batyl tújyrym jasaugha bola ma?

–Jaratylysta qorshaghan ortanyng bәri de bir-birimen tyghyz baylanysta ghoy. Institut ghalymdary jýrgizgen zertteulerding ishindegi top jarghan janalyqtardyng biri – teri aurulary (zen) men virusqa qarsy keng auqymdy jana otandyq medisinalyq jaqpa may dayyndaluy. Qazaqstanda bir dәrini shygharu ýshin 20-30 jyl uaqyt ketedi, al biz azghantay uaqyt merziminde, yaghni, songhy 10 jylda «mikrobtar aiqasynyn» arqasynda zeng aurularyna qarsy keng auqymdy medisinalyq preparat jasap shyghardyq. Mikrobtan bastap tauar belgisine deyin alghan patentimiz de bar. Qazaqstan dәrigerlerining mәlimetterine jýktensek, elimizdegi әrbir 4-shi adam zeng auruyna shaldyghady eken. Ony jazu ýshin shetelden shamamen 4-5 myng tenge túratyn dәriler týrin satyp alyp jatady. Al, bizding preparat olardan әlde qayda arzan jәne tiyimdi. Oghan dәlel, sheteldik dәrilerding emi 20 kýnge deyin sozylatyn bolsa,bizding preparatpen nauqas bir aptanyng ishinde emdelip shyghady. Qazir bizding dәrimizben ýshinshi kezeng boyynsha 600 adam synaqtan ótuge tiyis, onyng 530-y býgingi kýni synaqtan ótti. Qalghan 70 adam synaqtan ótkennen keyin dәri Densaulyq saqtau jәne әleumettik damu ministrligine tirkeluge jiberiledi de, odan song elimizding dәrihanalaryna týse bastaydy… Keleshek, 21-ghasyr mikrobiologiya ghylymynyng dәuirleytin zamany ekenin kópshilik әli de sezinbey otyrghan synayly. Tabighat bir mikrobty tudyrady, ekinshi payda bolghan mikrob oghan qarsy әreket jasaydy. Múny mikrobtyng mikrobqa qarsy is-qimyly desek týsinikti bolar. Mikrobiologiya – túnghiyghy shetsiz, sheksiz óte ýlken de tereng ghylym.

– Búl aitqanynyzben kelispeske sharamyz joq. Onyng ýstine býgingi әngimenizden song sheginerge de jol da qalmady. Deytúrghanmen, bizding respublikamyzdyng topyraq qúramy barlyq jerde birdey emes qoy. Mysaly, elimizde topyraq qúramy miyneraldy tynaytqyshtardyng qatysynsyz yaghny týrli jaghdayda búzylghan aimaqtar bar emes pe?

– Osy jayynda ózimde aitayyn dep otyrmyn. Bizding elimizding Batys ónirinde – Atyrau, Manghystau, Aqtóbe, Qyzylorda jәne Batys Qazaqstan oblystarynda múnay óndiriledi. Áriyne, múnaydy óndiru men óndeu júmystarynyng múnday qarqyn aluy qorshaghan ortanyn, әsirese, topyraq pen sudyng lastanuyna әkelip soghatyny belgili. Jogharyda atalghan Batys Qazaqstan ónirinde múnay jәne múnay ónimderimen lastanghan topyraqtyng aumaghy býgingi kýni 1 mln gektardan asyp otyr. Himiyalyq preparattarmen ony tazalau tiyimsiz. Osyghan oray, institut múnaymen lastanghan topyraqty mikrobiologiyalyq tәsilmen tazartugha arnalghan tiyimdiligi joghary «Bakoyl-KZ» bakterialdy preparatyn әzirlep shyghardy. Preparattyng negizgi qúramy Batys Qazaqstannyng tabighiy-klimattyq jaghdayyna beyimdelgen topyraqtardan bólinip alynghan joghary belsendi múnaydy totyqtyratyn bakteriyalardan túrady. Preparatty óndiriske engizu nәtiyjesinde topyraqtaghy múnay qúramy 98 payyzgha deyin tómendedi. Otandyq biopreparattardy qoldanu arqyly múnay jәne múnay ónimderinen topyraqty tazartudyng jana tehnologiyasy jasaldy. Jalpaq tilmen aitqanda, osy preparattaghy mikrobtardyng jeytin tamaghy – múnay! Mine, mikrobiologiyanyng kýshi.

– Sonda múnay qayda ketedi?

– Múnay ydyrap, su men qómirqyshqyl gazyna ainalady. Ol tanghajayypty tudyryp otyrghan bizding әlgi «Bakoyl-KZ» degen biopreparatymyz. Múnayshylarymyzdyng bizding instituttyng ghalymdaryna aitar alghystary sheksiz…

– Ángimenizge rahmet.

Ángimelesken

Talghat SÝIINBAY

ALMATY

0 pikir