Beysenbi, 24 Mausym 2021
Mәiekti 12175 0 pikir 24 Aqpan, 2015 saghat 11:14

QAZAQ DÝNIYETANYMYNDAGhY ISLAM

Qazaq jastaryna dúrys ruhany tәrbie beruine, olardyng baghytty dúrys tandauyna, sonday-aq dinning tek syrtqy sharttaryn ghana emes, ruhany kemeldik qaghidalaryn, adamgershilik qúndylyqtaryn mengeruine jәne olargha ózge diny aghymdardyng ziyandylyghyn týsindiru júmystaryna baylanysty qogham bolyp atsalysuymyz kerek. Óitkeni, jastar - elimizding bolashaq tiregi.

Qazirgi tanda Elbasynyng diny sayasatyn jýzege asyru, jastar arasynda dәstýrli diny tanymdy qalyptastyru, qazaq jerine islam dinining kelui jәne onyng qalyptasu erekshelikterin týsindiru júmystaryn janghyrtuymyz kerek. Islam dinining qazaq jerine kelip ornalasuy da ózi tarihy kezenderden túrady:

  • 751 jyly Talas shayqasy dep atalatyn soghysta arabtardyng  týrkiler men qaraqytaylar әskerin talqandauy;

  • 999-1212 jyldary Qarahanidter handyghy 200 jylday qazaq jerindegi Islam memleketining boluy.

  • 1312 jyly Altyn Ordanyng Islamdy qabyldauy: 1. Islamdy qabyldaghan alghashqy Altyn Orda hany – Berke (1257-1266). Ol Batu hannyng inisi edi. Jana han jas kezinen músylmandyqty qabyldady. Ol han bolghan kezde Islamdy memlekettik din retinde jariyalady. Áytse de, úly dalanyng kóshpendi halqy músylmandyqqa tek Ózbek han (1312-1342) túsynda tolyqtay ótti. 2. Ózbek han men onyng úly әz Jәnibek hannyng (1342-1357) túsy Altyn Ordanyng kórkeyip, gýldenuining eng jogharghy satysy bolyp sanalady. Ózbek han Islamdy ekinshi ret Altyn Orda imperiyasynyng memlekettik dini dep jariyalady. Ol óz patshalyghynyng aumaghynda meshitter men medreselerdi kóptep saldyrdy.

  • 1460 jyldary qúrylghan Qazaq handyghy ózining 400 jyldyq tarihynda qazaq halqynyng boyyna músylman dinin berik ornatty. Demek, ata-babalarymyzdyng jýrip ótken joly islammen baylanysyn eshqashan da ýzgen emes, tipti islam dәstýrlerinsiz qazaq mәdeniyetin elestetu de mýmkin emes.

Qazirgi uaqytta elimizdegi din mәselesining kýn tәrtibinde túruyna bir ghana sebep bar. Ol senim men tanymgha baylanysty. Senim Islamda bir, ol barlyq әlemdegi músylmandargha ortaq. Yaghni, Alla bir, qúran shyn, payghambar haq. Al, tanymgha kelsek әrbir músylman adam bolsyn halyq bolsyn ózining últtyq dýniyetanymdyq kózqarastarymen tanidy. Bizding ata-babalarymyz da osy әdisterdi qoldanghan.

Osy dәstýrli diny tanym degende, búl - qazaq halqynyng ghasyrlar boyy ózining bolmysyna say qalyptastyrghan ruhany qúndylyq. Onyng ózeginde Islam dini jatyr. Óitkeni, din - halyqtyng mәdeni, ruhany bolmysy men әdet-ghúryp, salt-dәstýrin qalyptastyratyn negizgi qaynar kózi.

Jalpy dinge qatysty tórt mәsele bar: diny tanym, diny sana, búlardy qamtamasyz etetin diny senim men diny tәjiriybe. Osy tórteui de qazaqta bar. Bizding diny tanymymyz fiyqhta Ábu Hanifa mәzhabyna, diny senimde Maturidy aqidasyna jәne diny tәjiriybede Yasauy hәl ilimining qabattaryna negizdelgen. Osy negiz bizding oilau jýiemizden, dýniyetanymdyq qabattarymyzdan, әdet ghúrpymyzdan, salt dәstýrimizden kóruge bolady. 

Yasauiyding hәl ilimi degenimiz - adam turaly ilim, adamnyng ar-ojdany, jeke túlghanyng óz jandýniyesine ýnilip, óz boyynyng minin týzetetin ar ilimin qalyptastyruymen erekshelendi. Sonday-aq, adamnyng kemeldikke jetui teoriyalyq (sharighat) jәne praktikalyq (tariqat) tanymmen ólshenip qana qoymay, ony basynan ótkerip, ózining hәli arqyly ruhynda sezinip, ol ýshin adamnyng Jaratushygha mahabbat arqyly jetuige mindetti. Qoghamdaghy moralidyq-etikalyq normalardyng búzyluy – imannyng әlsizdigi men nәpsining ýstemdigining kórinisi, al ony qalpyna keltiruding negizgi joly – mahabbat. “Ghashyqsyzdardyng imany da, jany da joq, olar–hayuan” degen Yasauy adamdy tikeley ruhany qúndylyqtarymen tәrbiyeleu arqyly iman núrymen aqiqatqa jeteleu kerektigin uaghyzdaydy.

Ókinishke qaray, qazirgi tanda Islam dinin, qúndylyqtaryn nasihattauda kóptegen metodologiyalyq qayshylyqtar bolghandyqtan kópshilik arasynda dindi týsinu qiyngha soghuda. Ásirese jastar arasynda dәstýrli diny tanymynan auytqyp, dindi dәstýrden alshaqtap, óz tarihyn men mәdeniyetin teristeu «biydghat», «shirk» degen sózderdi jii estiymiz. Diny tanymdy anyqtaytyndar - әriyne, jastar. Jastar dinge bet búryp jatsa, onda memleket tarapynan keri aghymdardyng jetegine ketpeuining aldyn alyp, dúrys jәne tiyisti baghyt-baghdar beru kerek. Búl tek jastar emes, tútas últtyng problemasy dep qaraghan jón.

Shәkәrim atamyzdyng sózimen aitqanda: «Jaman tәpsir jayylyp jer jýzine, din dese túra qashty esti azamat» keypinde qalmauymyz kerek.

Elbasy N.Á.Nazarbaev óz sózinde: «Qazaq dalasynda islam dinin ornyqtyrghandardyng biri – danyshpan babamyz Ahmet Yasauy osy jaghdaylardy eskere otyryp, týrki júrtyndaghy islam dәstýrlerin qalyptastyrdy. Osy dәstýrmen, mineki, ata-babalarymyz ghasyrlar boyy ózderining últtyq sana-sezimderin qalyptastyryp keledi» - dey kele, halyqtyng mәdeniyeti qay baghytta damitynyn aiqyndaytyn – osy diny tanym men diny tәjiriybesi. Eger de kez kelgen halyq ózining dәstýrli diny tanym men diny tәjiriybe negizderinen ajyraytyn bolsa, onda ol halyq ózining ruhany mәdeny bolmysynan ajyraydy. Din men dәstýr ýndeskende ghana din damyp, dәstýr bayidy.

Týrik ghalymy, professor Ismayyl Jaqúttyn: “Qoja Ahmet Yasauy bolmaghanda, býgingi týrkilerding nendey dinge ie bolyp, qanday sopylyq joldyng izbasary bolatyndyghyn elestetuding ózi qiyn”, – dep jazghanynday, sopylyq ilimining arqasynda týrkiler bir tariqattyng jolyna negizdeldi.

Qazaq halqynyng músylmandyq diny týsinigi sheshendik sózderi, diniy-dastandary, maqal-mәtelderi, keshegi jyraular poeziyasy men biy-sheshenderding naqyl sózderining mazmúnyna da kóz jýgirtsek, әriyne, ayat-hadisterge baryp tireletinine jәne ruhaniy qúndylyqtarymen negizdeluine kuә bolamyz. Qazaq dalasynda qissashyldyq dәstýr tamyr jayyp, Kenes ókimeti ornaghangha deyin qazaqtardyng intellektualdyq tanymyna qatty yqpal etip keldi. Ghalym Alma Qyraubaeva qissalargha «Qazaq renessansynyng qaynary» degen bagha bergen. Mәselen, Altyn Orda kezeninde arab, parsy mәdeniyetining tasqyny týrkining tól dәstýrin, mentaliytetin aitarlyqtay әlsiretti. Búl kezde týrki tili shettetilip, «poeziya tek parsy tilinde jazylady», «ghylym tek arab tilinde oryndalady» degen pikir qalyptasty. Sol dәuirde eng alghash Ály esimdi aqyn «Jýsip – Zyliha» qissasyn týrki tilinde jyrlaydy. Oghan basqa shayyrlar ýn qosyp, payghambarlar qissasyn ana tilinde jyrlaudy dәstýrge ainaldyrdy. Sodan bastap, joyylugha shaq qalghan týrki tili jandanyp, kórkem sóz janry qayta órleydi. Jalpy qissalar – adamdy din dogmasyna úrynudan saqtaytyn birden-bir ruhany immuniytet.

Týrik halyqtary ruhany mәdeniyetining qalyptasu, damu tarihynyng kórnekti túlghalary Mahmúd Qashqaridyng “Diuany lúghat at-týrk”, Jýsip Balasaghúnnyng “Qútty bilik”, Ahmet Yasauiyding “Diuany hikmet”, Sýleymen Baqyrghanidyng “Aqyr zaman kitaby”, Ahmet Yugnekiyding “Aqiqat syiy”, Burhanuddin Rabghúzidyng “Qissasul әnbiya”, Seyf Saraydyng “Gulistan biyt-týrkiy” siyaqty Qarahandyqtar biyligi men Altyn Orda túsynda dýniyege kelgen jәdigerlerding shygharmalary sonyng jarqyn dәleli. Búl shygharmalar qazaq poeziyasynyng islamdyq-estetikalyq negizderi sanalady. Islam tarihyna baylanysty jyrlanghan jyr-dastandar últtyq әdebiyetimizding naghyz halyq tabighatyn tanytatyn manyzdy shygharmalar bolyp tabylady.

B.Ázibaevanyng pikiri boyynsha “Birinshisi, Islam dinin taratushylardyng is jýzindegi (meshit, medrese) ýgit-nasihat jýrgizui arqyly jýzege assa, ekinshisi — aqynjandy dala túrghyndarynyng jan-jýregine tasqa basylghan jyr sózdermen (diny dastandar) әser etu arqyly oryndalghan tәrizdi” senim eki jol arqyly halyqtyng kókeyine qonyp otyrdy. Ásirese, songhy “jol” qazaqtyng imanynyng kýsheyuine qatty әser etti. Sebebi, búl atalmysh diny dastandar, qissa, jyraulyq dәstýri qazaqtyng ruhany súranysyn qanaghattandyryp qana qoymay, sonymen birge syrttan kelgen diny missionerlerge, ruhany ekspansiyagha da qarsy tosqyn bola bildi. Alayda, Kenes ókimeti kezenindegi qazaq ziyalylardyng diniy-ruhany mәndegi tuyndylary jaryq kórmey jәne ruhany múralaryn joy, qúrtu qatigezdikpen iske asyrylghan. Degenmen de, qazaq dýniyetanymyndaghy islamdy týp-tamyryn joya almady, sol ýshin últtyq dýniyetanymdy saqtap qalu ýshin qayta jandandyru qajet.

San ghasyrlar boyy halyq kókireginde jattalyp, bizding dәuirimizge deyin jetip qazaq topyraghynda qalyptasqan jyraulyq dәstýrding ýlken eki mektebi bolghan. Olar HV gh. bastap, HH gh. deyin Manghystau ónirinde «Til tanbaly Adaydyng aqyndary» (Abyl Tileuúly, Qalniyaz Shopyqúly, Núrym Shyrshyghúlúly,  t.b.) jәne Syr boyyndaghy «Syr sýleyleri» (Asan, Búhar, Qarasaqal Erimbet, Shal aqyn, Shalkiyiz, Mәshhýr Jýsip, Kerderi Ábubәkir, t.b.) qazaq halqynyng músylmandyq dýniyetanymyn taratqan túlghalary. Dәstýrli dinning negizgi qaghidalaryn ashyp kórsetetin Qúran ayattary men Hz. Payghambardyng hadis qúpiyalarynan syr shertetin, әri tanymdyq túrghyda jazylghan enbekter de jetkilikti. Halqymyzdyng ruhany múrasy dastandar men jyrlar diny qúndylyqtardyng dalalyq filosofiya men últtyq tәrbiyening negizine ainalyp, últ mýddesine qyzmet etti. Hz. Payghambardyng (s.a.s.) “Din – nasihat” degen qaghidasyn eske alsaq, onda qazaq aqyndary búl ósiyetti óz dengeyinde oryndaghan.

Sonymen, Islam dini negizinde payda bolghan sopylyq VIII ghasyrda ómirge kele otyryp, qazirge deyin qazaq poeziyasyna ózindik әserin tiygizip keledi. Syr boyyndaghy aqyn-jyraularynyng sopylyq poeziyasyna әseri bolghan. Sondyqtan olardyng jyr-dastandarynda sopylyq saryndar kórinis berip otyrghan. Sopylyq poeziyany aita ketu - bizding qazaq әdebiyettanu ghylymy ýshin de mәni bar. Sebebi, ortaghasyrdaghy әdebiyetting ýlken baghyty - sopylyq poeziya bolyp esepteledi.

Qazaq dalasynda payda bolghan sopylyq әdebiyet degenimiz adamzattyng dýniyetanymyn tәrbiyeleu, Allagha degen ghashyqtyq jәne ishki-sezimdi jyrlau. Múnda shartty týrde beriletin sopylyq tirkester men simvoldar (nәpis, zikir, sharighat, tariqat, aqiqat, maghrifat, maghshúq, pirmúghan, súhbat, fәnәfilla jәne t.b.) kezdeskenimen de, terminder úshyraspaydy, әri sopylyq jolgha ýgittemeydi. Osy negizgi tirkester men simvoldyq ataulardyng shygharma ishinde kórinis berui - sopylyq әdebiyetting alghysharty deuge bolady. Sonday-aq, shygharma mazmúny jaghynan aitylar negizgi oy astarlanyp, túspaldanyp beriledi. Ony allegoriya, metafora, teneu siyaqty әdeby termindermen baylanystyrugha negiz bar. Kez kelgen aqyndardyng oilary barynsha júmbaqtala týsedi. Mysaly, Shәkәrim qajynyng týsiniginde, Haqty kóru ýshin pende zikirge mas bolyp, jýrekti tazalau kerek:

Kórem deseng Jarymdy, mas bol, jýrek tazala.

Órtep jiber baryndy, Qarsy úmtyl qazagha. Shәkәrim qajy búl óleninde Jaratushyny - Jar dep alghan. Al, Yasauy ony kóbinese Haq atauymen bergen.

Haq jamalin kuray desang fana bolghyl,

Fana bolyp, haq jamalan kurdim man-a.

 Sonday-aq Ábubәkir Kerderining tómendegi óleng joldarynan bayqay alamyz:

Sopylyq degen auyr jol,

Pendege zarar etpegen,

Ústap jýrseng tәuir jol

Sopylyqty izdesen

Dýnie quyp ketpegen...

Oqyghan kóp ghalym bol.

Allagha ghashyq dos bolghan,

Atqan oqqa tózgendey,

Shaytanmenen qas bolghan,

Qara tastan qalyng bol, - degen eken. Osyghan úqsas óleng tarmaqtary birneshe aqyn-jyrau shygharmalarynda kezdesedi. Áriyne, jyraularynyng barlyghy birdey sopylyq jolda bolghan, pirge qol berip, zikir salghan dep aita almaymyz. Biraqta olardyng jyr-dastandarynda sopylyq saryndar kórinisi bayqalady. Qasiyetti Qúrannyng «Nisa» sýresi 103-ayatynda «Namazdaryndy ótegennen keyin Allany túryp ta, otyryp ta, jantayyp ta eske alyndar (zikir etinder)» osynday ayattargha baylanysty aqyn-jyrau Aqtan Kereyúly:

Sharighat shamyn jandyrghan,

Kәlәmgha kónil qandyrghan.

Jamaghat jighan alqalap,

Salauat aitqan Allalap.

Zikirmen zarlap týn qatyp,

Nәpsisin shapqan baltalap.

Shaytandy sespen qashyrghan,

Kókirek kózi ashylghan, - dep qazaq halqynyng diny tanymy sopylyq arqyly qalyptasqandyghy belgili. Demek, sopylyq tanymdy joqqa shygharu degen sóz, býkil qazaq halqynyng dýniyetanymyn, tarihyn, mәdeniyetin jәne diny tәjiriybesin joqqa shygharumen teng bolady. «Syr sýleyleri» dep atalatyn syr boyy aqyn-jyraularynyng biri bolghan Qarasaqal Erimbettin:

Áueli súra, tilim medet Haqtan.

Talaylar medet tilep jәrdem tapqan

Sen kimge Haqtan ózge siynasyn,

Halyq etken búl әlemdi bar men joqtan,dep jyrlaghan. Qazaq poeziyasynda shyghystyq saryndaghy aqyn-jyraulardyng ishinde Syr óniri jyraularynyng alatyn ornyna kóptegen zertteushiler de joghary bagha bergen.

Mәselen, A.Baytúrsynúly pikir boyynsha: «Qazaqtyng ólendi sózdi sýietin minezin bilip, dindi halyqqa moldalar ólenmen ýiretken. Din sharttaryn, sharighat búiryqtaryn ólendi hikaya, ólendi әngime týrinde aityp, halyqtyng qúlaghyna sinirip, kónilderine qondyrghan»,

M.Áuezovtyn: «Ol zamandaghy súlu-symbatty óner, ólen, jyr týgelimen qúday jolyna istegen minәjat siyaqty jýrek qanyn aghyzghan ólenmen, kýnirengen bәiitpen jaratqan iyesine dúgha oqityn. Ol kezdegi aqyndyq ónerining ózi de qúdaygha istegen qúlshylyq bolatyn. Jaqyn kýnshyghysta әdebiyet ónerining bir úzaq dәuiri osy bәiitpen ótedi. Búnyng mysaly, Fizuli, Qoja Hafiyz, Maghari, Qoja Ahmet Yassaui, Sopy Allayar», «Qazaq ortasyna Islam dinining tarauyna kóbinese qazaqtyng aqyndyqty sýngi sebep boldy degen dúrys pikir. Elge ne jayylsa da, әdebiyet ólsheuining birine týsken song ghana jayylatyn bolghan. Ólensiz, әngimesiz, súlu sózsiz kelgen qúrghaq ýgit bolsa ondaydy el tyndamaghan da úqpaghan, yqylas qoymaytyn bolghan. Sondyqtan músylmanshylyq din de qazaq elining tabighatyna, ynghayyna qaray úiysyp kelgen»,

Ózbek ghalymy H.Karomatovtyn: «Islam dinin qabyldaghan halyqtardyng tarihy ózgergenimen de, Qúrannyng mәtini ózgermegen. Qúran teksi mezgil jәne mekenmen ýndes jýrip, әr halyq damuynyng belgili bir kezenderinde odan ýnemdi paydalanyp otyrghan әri qúrany dýniyelerdi әdeby shygharmalargha alyp kelgen. Sonday, últtyq әdebiyetting Qúran mәtinimen sintezi nәtiyjesinde kórkem jәne diniy-didaktikalyq shygharmalar jaratylghan», - dep jazghanynda qazaq dalasynda payda bolghan diny qissa-dastandardy menzegen.

Qazaq әdebiyeti tarihynyng X-XI ghasyrlardaghy kezeni «Islam dәuirindegi әdebiyet» dep atalynady. Búl kezendegi qazaq әdebiyeti tarihyn qúraytyn aqyndardyng múralary týrik halyqtaryna ortaq bolghanymen, bizding tól әdebiyetimizding keyingi damuyna jalghasqan islamdyq dýniyetanymnyng negizderi sol kezende qalyptasty. Islamy әdebiyetti jýieleude ghalymdar tórtke bólip qarastyrghan: dәstýrli islamy әdebiyet, islamy astar alghan әdebiyet, sopylyq әdebiyet jәne sopylyq astar alghan әdebiyet.

Mәselen, Hz. Payghambardyng (s.gh.s) «Qúldyng jýregi týzelmeyinshe, imany týzelmek emes. Al tili týzelmeyinshe, jýregi týzelmeydi» ósiyetterine say, qazaq ziyalylardyng boyyndaghy músylmanshylyq paryzdaryn tilimen de, jýregimen de nasihattaghanyn bayqaugha qiyn emes. Músylmanshylyqtyng abzaly jýrektegi imannyng dýnie tirshiliginde kórinis tabuynda ekendigin jaqsy týsingendikten Ábubәkir Kerderi:

«Músylmanshylyq kimde joq

Tilde barda, dilde joq» - dep, ar tazalyghyna negizdelgen imany ilimine adal bolghan. Demek, adamnyng ishki jan-dýniyesi syrtqy dýniyening negizi jәne syrtqy denening әreketining qozghaushy kýshi bolyp tabylady. Jaratushynyng negizgi talaptary – bilim ýirenip, ómirding ruhany jәne materialdyq zandylyqtaryn iygeru, sonyng negizinde ózindi jetildire otyryp, aqiqatty tanyp bilu. Abay atamyzdyng aitqanynday: "Jýrekting kózi ashylsa, Haqtyqtyng týser sәulesi. Ishtegi kirdi qashyrsa, adamnyng hikmet keudesi",- degendey osynyng bәrin oryndauda bilimdilikti, sabyrlyqty, enbeksýigishtikti qamtamasyz etip jәne qoghamgha qyzmet etudi talap etedi.

Qoghamdaghy jat aghymdardyng iydeologiyasyna qarsy «Udy u qaytarady» degendey, aldyn alu júmystarynyng eng belsendi, әri yqpaldysy – dәstýrli ruhany qúndylyqtardy janghyrtu kerek. Jan tazalyghyna, ar tazalyghyna negizdelgen, syrtqy kórinistegi emes, jýrektegi imandy qasiyet tútqan últtyq ruhany qúndylyqtarymyzgha oralu, olardy keninen nasihattau arqyly jat aghymdardyng iydeologiyasyna tosqauyl qoigha bolady.

Qazirgi tanda jastarymyzdyng jadynda dәstýrli diny sana men últtyq iydeologiyanyng qalyptasuyna, diny tanym men ghylymy tanym arasyndaghy ýilesimdilik pen tepe-tendikti janghyrtuyna baylanysty kýn tәrtibindegi ózekti mәselening biri.

Bahtiyar ALPYSBAEV,

Taraz memlekettik pedagogikalyq instituty

«Dintanu ortalyghynyn» bas mamany, dintanushy.

Abay.kz

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