Jeksenbi, 25 Qyrkýiek 2022
Alashorda 27648 11481 pikir 19 Sәuir, 2017 saghat 20:54

Alash qozghalysy jәne diny qyzmetshi Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov

Sibiriya men Dala ólkesinen kelgen II Memlekettik Duma deputattarynyng bir toby. Otyrghandardyng sol jaqtan birinshisi – Torghay oblysynyng deputaty Ahmet Birimjanov, ýshinshisi – Aqmola oblysynyng deputaty Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov, ong jaqtan ekinshisi – Semey oblysynyng deputaty Temirghaly Núrekenov.

HH ghasyrdyng basynan zamanauy órkeniyetke say óristegen, býginde Alash atymen atalatyn qazaq últ-azattyq qozghalysynyng bastauynda diny qayratkerler túrghan edi. Úzaq uaqyt otarlyq ezgide kele jatqan qazaq halqynyn   azattyqty ansaghan jana túrpatty sayasy oiy men әreketi, shynynda, diniy-ruhany qyzmetshilerding ot tastauymen tútandy. Qozghalys din adamdarynyng qarsylyq isterinen bastau alyp, birinshi orys revolusiyasynyng dýmpuimen janasha mazmúnda damy bastady.

Búl janasha damudyng ózindik ereksheligi – Resey imperiyasy ornatqan otarlyq ezgige qarsy әreketterdin  ziyaly qauym tarapynan keng qoldaugha ie bola bastauynda edi. Qazirgi Qazaqstannyng sol kezdegi aumaghynda túratyn halyqtardyng ómiri, ekonomikasy men әleumettik qarym-qatynastary jiyrmasynshy jýzjyldyqtyng qarsany men bastalar shaghynda iri ózgeristerge úshyraghany mәlim. 1861 jylghy reforma boyynsha ishki Reseydegi qúl iyelenushilik – sharualardyng basybaylylyghy joyylghan son, erkindik alghan sharualar ishinen qazaq jerine kýnkóris qamymen kóship kelushiler sany arta týsken. Odan, 1891 jylghy Dala Erejesine sәikes, patsha ýkimeti qazaq jer-suyn memleket menshigi dep jariyalaghannan keyin, syrttan orys sharualarynyng qazaq arasyna baq-dәulet izdep kelip qonystanuy, sosyn ókimetting maqsatty týrde kórsetken kómegi arqasynda shúraydy jerlerde óz qojalyghyn qúruy óris aldy.

Búl nauqannyng qanat jangyna, turasyn aitqanda,  «jana jerlerdi» iygeruge qonystanushylardy úiymdasqan týrde kóshirip  aparugha, is jýzinde qazaq jer-suyn kýshtining qúqymen otarlaugha ýkimet mýddeli boldy. Osylay etu arqyly patshalyq biylik ishki orys guberniyalarynda shiyelenise týsken sharualar qozghalysyn әlsiretuden ýmittengen edi. Sol oimen 1901 jyly «qazynalyq jerlerdi» (qazaq jer-suyn) jeke adamdargha bólip beru turaly zang shyghardy. Sharualardy ortalyq oblystardan shet aimaqtargha kóshirip aparyp qonystandyru basqarmasyn qúryp, qazaqtardan tartyp alynghan jerlerdi «qonys audaru qory» esebine aldy. Qazaqstan jerining asty-ýstindegi baylyqtargha týgel túzaq salynyp, bәrin orys jәne shetel kapitaly biyledi. Qazaqtyng jer qoynauy jәne dәstýrli sharuashylyghynyng ónimderi arsyzdyqpen talanyp, qanaushylyq jolmen syrtqa tasyp әketile berdi. Birtindep, qazaqtar Resey ónerkәsibin órkendetuge qajet arzan shiykizat óndirip alatyn tau-ken jәne auylsharuashylyq bazasyna ainaldyryldy. Qazaqtardan barlyq orman-toghaylar, qúnarly, shúrayly jerler, iri sulardyng (Jayyq, Ertis, t.b.) jaghalaulary, eginshilikke qolayly ata-qonystary tartyp alyndy. Qazaqtar shól jәne shóleyt aimaqtargha yghysugha mәjbýr boldy. Shóbi shýigin jayylymdar men shabyndyqtardan airylu jayyla kóship mal baghudy kәsip etken qazaq halqynyng dәstýrli sharuashylyghyna qighashtyqtar, teris ózgerister engizip, shash-etekten ziyan tiygizdi. Túrmys jaghdayyn kýrt tómendetti. Áleumettik tynys-tirshiligine, ruhany ómirine ólsheusiz zor zarar keltirdi. Kedeylengen, qayyrshylyqqa úshyraghan kóshpendiler jataqqa ainaldy. Olardy patsha ýkimeti qazaq jerinde ashylghan týrli kәsipshilikterge jaldap, arzan júmys kýshi retinde, auyr júmystargha salyp paydalandy.

Qazaq eline terendey engen Reseyding kapitalistik ekonomikasy, osylay, jergilikti halyqty ayausyz qanau jәne ezu jolymen damu baghytyn ústandy. Imperiya biyligi qazaqtyng XV–XVIII ghasyrlardaghy últtyq memlekettiligin birjolata joyyp, ornyna – el basqarudyng reseylik jýiesin ornatty. Halyqty jer-suymen bólshektep, birneshe orys guberniyasy men general-gubernatorlyqtaryna qaratty. Ekonomikalyq jәne ruhany túsaular saldy. Meshitter, medreseler ashqyzbady. Búrynnan júmys istep túrghandaryn japty. Odan da soraqysy sol, tipti, halyqty shoqyndyru  baghytyn ústandy. Orys-tuzem mektepteri jýiesin jasap, keneytu arqyly jas úrpaqty orystandyru isin qolgha aldy. Ne kerek, jalpaq kóshpendi eldegi kýlli tynys-tirshilikti  imperiya ómirine beyimdep, san-aluan әkimshilik sharalaryn jýrgizu arqyly, otarshyl kýshter Qazaqstandy HH ghasyrgha  deyin-aq Reseyding basybayly otaryna ainaldyryp ýlgergen bolatyn.

HH ghasyrdyng basyndaghy alghashqy azattyq ansaghan qoghamdyq-sayasy oilar men iydeyalardyng tuuyna osynau otarlyq qamyt basqa salghan qúqyqsyzdyq jәne qaranghylyq ahual týrtki bolghan edi. Sayasy oy jәne azattyq iydeyasy dep biz ómirdegi naqty jaghdaydyn, obektivti aqiqattyng kórinisteri men qúbylystaryn payymgha salyp týsinuge úmtylushylyqty aityp otyrmyz. Búl, sóz joq, qoghamda ozbyr sayasat jetegimen oryn alyp túrghan naqty ahualdy jәne adamnyn  óz qúqtaryn qorghap әdildikke jetuine eshqanday mýmkinshilik qalmaghan jaghdaydy aqylgha salyp paryqtaudyng týri edi. Onday úmtylystyng dýniyege kelui men damuynyng basty sebebi – qazaq qauymy bastan keship otyrghan ekonomikalyq, әleumettik, ruhany kemsitushilikterding shekten shygha shiyelenisuinde jatqan-tyn. Oily azamattardy búghan qanday amal qoldanbaq kerek degen ózekti mәsele tolghantqan edi. Sondaghy tolghanudyng nәtiyjesinde ziyaly azamattardy bas qosugha shaqyru, kenes qúru, ortaq mýddeni aiqyndau jәne sol maqsatta búqaranyng kózin ashu jónindegi sayasy múrat ómirge keldi. Atap aitatyny sol, aghymdaghy sayasatqa syny kóz salugha shaqyratyn osynday iydeyany kóterip, taratu әreketin birinshi kezekte diny qyzmetshiler qolgha aldy.

Sodan birneshe jyl ghana búryn, jana ghasyr qarsanynda, dәlirek aitqanda 1897 jyly, Ándijandaghy din qyzmetkerleri «kәpirlerge qarsy qasiyetti soghys – ghazauat» jariyalaghan. Músylmandardyng eldi otarshyldardan azat etuin maqsat etken kóterilisin bastaugha pәrmen etken-tin. Týrkistan ólkesining bayyrghy túrghyndary (qazaq, qyrghyz, ózbek, t.b.) bas qosyp atsalysqanmen, kóterilis búqaralyq sipat ala almay, tez arada qatygezdikpen basyp-janshyldy. Búl jaghday dinbasylargha da, kókiregi oyau barsha oqyghangha da kórneki sayasy sabaq bergen edi. Ghazauattyng bostandyqqa jetu joly bola almaytynyn kórsetken. Sodan baryp ziyalylardyng sayasy túrghyda órkeniyetke sәikestene oyanu kezeni bastaldy. HH ghasyrdyng bas kezinde otarshyldardyng ozbyr zorlyq-zombylyghy qaljyratyp, sharasyzdyqtan maujyraghan halyqty sayasatqa sergitu, sayasy kýres amaldaryn týrlendiru әreketteri belsendirek jýrgizildi. Solardyng ishinde Kókshetau meshitining diny qyzmetkerleri, atap aitqanda, dinbasy Nauryzbay Talasov pen medrese múghalimi Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov airyqsha daralanady. Olar 1903 jyly qazaqtyng belgili ziyalylaryn el múqtajyn talqylaytyn basqosugha shaqyrdy. Sol orayda ózekti sayasiy-qúqyqtyq iydeyalar men oilar tújyrymdalghan ýndeu-hat (proklamasiya) әzirledi. Ony gektografpen kóbeytip, halyq arasyna jasyryn taratty.

Osy din adamdarynyng patsha әkimshiliginen qúpiya týrde әzirlep, ólkedegi kózi ashyq azamattargha joldaghan ýndeu-hatynda imperiya ýkimetining qazaq jerinde zymiyan maqsat kózdegen aghartu isi taldanghan bolatyn. Onda qazaq balalaryna arnap ashylghan resmy auyl mektepterindegi zalaldy baghyt synaldy. Ghasyrlar boyy qoldanylyp kelgen arab әlipbiyin oqytugha tyiym salyp, ony, tipti, úmytqyzugha tyrysqan әreket әshkerelendi. Balalardy tek orys әripterimen oqyp-jazugha ýiretu sharalarynyng astary ashyldy. Biylik    tarapynan   músylmandyq ilimdi oqytugha rúqsat berilmey otyrghany, qazaqtardyng óz tilinde jazghan ótinishterin әkimshilik buyndarynyng eshbiri qabyldamauy da naqty mysaldarmen taldandy. 1902 jyly Aqmola oblysynda sharua (krestiyan) bastyqtary atty jana lauazymdy sheneunikter taghayyndalghan, osy sharua bastyqtary institutynyng ómirge engiziluine oray qazaqqa qatysty beleng alghan  qaterli is-daghdy ashyp aityldy. Sharua bastyqtary  әmirshildigining saldarynan qazaqtardyng dәstýrli qojalyqtary jana kýizeliske úshyraghany kórsetildi. Atalghan kelensizdikting bәri ýkimet tarapynan sanaly týrde jýrgizilude dep qorytyldy. Proklamasiya avtorlary búlardy ýkimetting qazaqtardy orystandyru, din-islamnan aiyryp, shoqyndyru, túrmysyna kәdimgi orys tirshiligin tanyp, mújyqtandyru baghytyna bet alghan aramza sayasatynyng saldary degen oy aitty. Osylardy bayanday kele, elin de, jerin de alghan otarshyldardyng jymysqy pighylyna qarsy túrugha barsha júrtshylyqty shaqyrdy.

Áriyne, imperiya әkimshiligin proklamasiyanyng sayasy iydeyasy shoshytty. Qazaq dalasyna lezde tarap ketken astyrtyn ýndeu-hatty jandarmeriya sharq úryp izdestirip, soghan baylanysty elge syily әldeneshe ondaghan ziyalylardyng ýilerine tintu jýrgizdi. Kitaphanalaryn, jeke bastarynyng jazbalaryn, saqtalghan hattaryn tәrkiledi, ózderin tergeuge aldy. Kópshiligin týrli әkimshilik jazagha tartty. Birqataryn ózge ólkelerge jer audardy. Basty aiypkerler dep tabylghan diny qyzmetshiler Nauryzbay Talasov  – Sibir ólkesindegi Eniysey guberniyasyna, Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov Yakut oblysyna aidaldy. Mine, osy oqigha jana túrpatty Alash qozghalysynyng bastauyna ainaldy deuge bolady.

II Memlekettik Duma mýshesi Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov.

Kókshetaudaghy el-júrtqa asa qadirdi dinbasy Nauryzbay Talasovty halyq airyqsha qúrmettep, Nauan haziret dep atap ketken-di. Ol HIH ghasyrdyng 60–70-jyldary shamasynda, jas kezinde, basyna týsken ýlken qiynshylyqtargha moyymay,  Búqaragha oqugha barghan. Ózining qabilettiligi men darynynyng arqasynda sol jaqta mektep, medrese tauysqan. On bes jyl oqyghan. Diny ilimdi tereng iygerip, joghary mektepte dәris berip jýrgen. Sol shaqta, Týrkistan ólkesinde ghúlama ghalym retinde shyqqan ataq-danqynan habardar kókshetaulyq jerlesteri oghan qayta-qayta arnayy elshi attandyryp, elge shaqyrtady. Ol shaqyrudy qabyl alady da, Kókshe ónirine oralghan bette halyqty músylmansha sauattandyru isine kirisedi. Meshit ústaydy, medrese ashyp, bala oqytady. Nauan haziretten dәris alyp, onyng layyqty izbasary bola bilgen, bilimin Búqarada jetildirip kelgen diny qyzmetshi jәne medrese múghalimderding biri – Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov edi. (Ony Shahmardan, Shәike molda dep te ataydy, orys qújattarynda – Shaymardan Koshegulov). Mine osy eki ziyalynyng – Kókshetau meshitinde qyzmet etetin asqan bilimdi, ómir tәjiriybesi mol dinbasy men onyng otyzdardaghy jigerli shәkirtining atalghan ýndeudi jazushy, negizgi sayasy oidy tújyrymdaushy túlghalar boluy mýldem tabighy jәit edi.

Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov ýndeude patshalyq biylikting súrqiya sayasatyn әshkereledi, soghan baylanysty algha tartylghan sayasy iydeyany tújyrymdady. Sonday-aq, ózindik pikiri bar ziyaly azamattardy kýn tәrtibindegi zәru de ózekti mәselege oray bas qosyp kenesuge shaqyrudy tikeley úiymdastyryp, jýrgizdi. Tolghandyrghan jәit boyynsha ol óz qolymen kemenger aqyn jәne aghartushy Abay Qúnanbaevqa arnayy hat jazdy. Qosshyghúlovtyng sol hatyn jandarmdar úly oishyl Abaydyng auylyn, hәkim Abaydyng ózi men qasyndaghy adamdardyng qoyyn-qonyshtaryn esh qysylmastan tintkilep, tauyp alghan.

Birinshi orys revolusiyasynyng tegeuirini imperatordy birshama sheginisterge mәjbýrlegeni belgili. Atap aitqanda, 1905 jylghy 18 aqpanda ishki ister ministrine reskript joldap, halyq ókilderi qatysatyn Memlekettik duma qúru jayynda zang dayyndaudy tapsyrdy, halyqtyng óz mún-múqtajdyqtary, talap-tilegi jónindegi ótinish hattaryn ýkimet basshysy atyna joldauyna biyleushi senat arqyly púrsat berdi, al 21 sәuirdegi reskriptimen ar-ojdan bostandyghyn jariya etti. Osy qújattardy arqa tútqan qazaq qayratkerleri petisiya nauqanyna belsene atsalysty. Jer-jerden biylikke júrt tilegi jazylghan hattar joldaudy úiymdastyrghan, sonday әreket arqyly jana sipatty azattyq qozghalysyn óristete týsken. Mәselen, 1905 jyldyng mausymynda Qoyandy jәrmenkesine kelgen qalyng halyq Qarqaraly petisiyasynda qol qoyghan edi.  Býginde júrtshylyqqa keninen mәlim, sol tilek-hat Álihan Bókeyhanov pen Ahmet Baytúrsynovtyng basshylyghymen jazylghan bolatyn. Onda ýkimetting qazaqqa din isterinde jasap otyrghan qiyanaty, Kókshetau diny qyzmetshileri Nauan haziret pen medrese múghalimi Shәimerden Qosshyghúlovtyng aidalyp ketkeni atap aityldy. Ar-ojdan erkindigi, diny isterge kedergi keltirmeu, últtyq mektep-medreseler ashugha shekteu qoymau mәseleleri petisiyada ýkimetke qoyylghan talaptardyng negizgileri qatarynda tújyrymdaldy. otarshyl kýsh ozbyrlyqpen túnshyqtyryp otyrghan ruhany mәselelerdi qalpyna keltiru mәselesi Ýkimetbasyna batys ólkeden joldanghan petisiyada da súraldy. Ólkening dinbasylary men bas adamdary engen qazaq delegasiyasyn qogham qayratkeri Baqytjan Qarataev 1905 jylghy jazda Sankt-Peterburgke bastap bardy. Delegasiya general Ghúbaydolla Jәngirhanovtyng kómegimen II Nikolay patshanyng qabyldauynda bolyp, diny ahualgha qatysty múndaryn shaqty, shaqyrylmaq Memlekettik dumagha qazaq ókilderin de saylau mýmkindigi eskeriluine qol jetkizuge tyrysty.

Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov aidaudan revolusiya dýmpuimen tughan 1905 jylghy «17 qazan maniyfesi» jariya bolysymen bosanyp, Aqmola oblysyna oraldy da, dini-aghartushylyq qyzmetine kiristi. Patsha ýkimetining qyspaghy men qughyn-sýrgini onyng el ishindegi bedelin arttyra týsken. Halyq ony sýiispenshilikpen Shәike molda dep atap ketti. Shәike molda Saha elinde aidauda jýrgende, orys revolusiyasy ruhtandyrghan músylman qozghalysy imperiyada óristey týsken. Qozghalys barysynda, 1905 jylghy tamyzda, Resey músylmandarynyng alghashqy sezi boldy. Ókimet rúqsat bermegendikten, sezd jasyryn jaghdayda, seruen jasaushylardy alyp,  Oka ózeni boyymen jýzetin keme ýstinde ótkizilgen.  Onyng azattyq iydeyasyn Shәimerden molda birden qoldady.  Úzamay kezekti II Býkilreseylik músylmandar sezine delegat bolyp saylandy. Búl jiyngha da biylik  rúqsat bergen joq, sondyqtan da sezd 1906 jylghy qantarda Peterburgte jasyryn jaghdayda ótti. Sezde músylmandardyng halyqtyq sayasy partiyasyn qúru mәselesi kóterildi. Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov osynday qajettilik jayynda ong pikir bildirushiler qatarynan tabyldy. Qúrylmaq músylman partiyasynyng baghdarlamasyn jasau jónindegi komissiya qúramyna saylandy. Osylay ol músylman qozghalysynyng belsendi qayratkerine ainaldy.

II Dumadaghy Músylman fraksiyasy deputattarynyng bir toby. Otyrghandardyng sol jaqtan birinshisi – Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov. Týregep túrghandardyng sol jaqtan ekinshisi – fraksiya tóraghasy Qútlúmúhamed Tevkelev.

Aqmola oblysyndaghy tandap saylaushylar 1906 jyly jazghytúrym Shәike moldany Birinshi Memlekettik dumagha deputat etip saylady. Alayda әkimshilik onyng orys tilin bilu dәrejesi jetimsiz dep tanyp, saylau nәtiyjesin bekitpey qoydy. Sol tústa I Duma da tarqatyldy. Onyng artynsha kezekti músylman sezi shaqyryldy. III Býkilreseylik músylmandar sezi 1906 jyldyng tamyzynda Nijniy Novgorodta ótti. Oghan delegat bop barghan Shәike Qosshyghúlov sezding tóralqasy qúramyna saylanyp, jiyndy basqarysty. Aghymdaghy sayasy ahual, oqu jәne din isteri jónindegi sezding talqylaularyna ýn qosty. Tiyisti qaulylar mәtinderining aqyrghy redaksiyasyn jasaugha, aghymdaghy sayasy sipaty bar talqylaulargha belsene atsalysty. Sezde býkilreseylik músylman partiyasy úiymdyq túrghyda «Resey músylmandar odaghy» bolyp rәsimdeldi. Onyng  júmysyn jýrgizu ýshin jabyq dauyspen ortalyq komiytet jasaqtaldy. Sonda qúrylghan ortalyq komiytetke Shәimerden Qosshyghúlúly da bir auyzdan mýshe bop saylandy.

Býkilreseylik ýshinshi músylman sezi rәsimdegen Resey Músylmandar odaghy baghdarlamasynyng memlekettik, qoghamdyq, aghartushylyq, dini, ekonomikalyq tynys-tirshilikke qatysty irgeli mәselelerdi qozghaytyn tarmaqtary Shәimerden Qosshyghúlúlynyng kózqarastaryna sәikes-tin. Al sonau újymdyq sayasy oidyng negizgi arnasy Resey músylmandarynyng diny ister boyynsha erkindikke, hristiandarmen tendikke qol jetkizudi kózdegen edi. Onda  barlyq balalardy mindetti týrde oqytu jәne bastauysh synyptarda sauat ashudy әueli ana tilinen bastau shegelep aitylghan bolatyn. Baghdarlamanyng týp maqsaty imperiyadaghy kýlli músylman halyqtarynyng barsha sayasi, azamattyq, diny qúqtaryn shekteytin ereje, tәrtip, zang bitkendi joyyp, olardy zannamalyq retpen orys halqynyng qúqtarymen tenestiruge qol jetkizu mәselelerine sayatyn.

1907 jyly Qosshyghúlov Ekinshi Memlekettik Dumanyng deputaty boldy. Saylau  qorytyndysyn bekiterde onyng orys tilin  bilu dәrejesi taghy da dauly mәselege ainalghan, degenmen  búl joly deputattyghy moyyndaldy. Shәimerden Qosshyghúlúly Sankt-Peterburgke attandy. Dumada ol músylman fraksiyasyna tirkelip, óz sayasy pikirine sәikes júmys atqardy. II Dumanyng mýshesi retinde, tatarlardyng «Ýlfat» gazetine qosymsha etip qazaqsha «Serke» gazetin shygharugha atsalysty.

Osy kezende qazaqtyng úly Abay synaytyn teris minez-qúlyqtary  shegine jete sharyqtaghan bolatyn. Iri qogham qayratkerlerining biri Baqytjan Qarataev atap aitqanday, qazaqtyng «bas  adamdary» birde-bir isti pәre almayynsha sheshpeytin dәrejege deyin azghyndaghan. Paraqorlyq últtyq sot jýiesin –   әdet qúqyghymen júmys isteytin biyler sotyn da jaylaghan edi. El ishin dendegen paraqorlyqtyng halyq sotyn  shyrmaghanyna, sóitip,  әdilet syndy qasiyetti úghymnyng qadiri ketkenine jany auyrghandyghy bolar, bәlkim, músylmandyq ilimdi tәp-tәuir bilgendikten shyghar, әiteuir, qazaq arasyndaghy sot jýiesinin  әdet-ghúryp qúqyghy  negizinde júmys isteuine Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov qarsy bolyp, sot isinde sharighat zandaryn basshylyqqa aludy dúrys dep eseptedi. Ol búl túrghyda Dumadaghy  kóptegen  músylman   qayratkerlerimen bir sapta edi. (Birqatar qazaq azamattary, sonyng ishinde II Memduma mýshesi Baqytjan Qarataev, qogham qayratkeri Serәli Lapin sekildi zayyrly joghary bilim alghan zangerler de qazaq elinde sharighat sotynyng júmys isteuin qalaytyn).

II Nikolay patshanyng 1907 jyldyng 3 mausymyndaghy «Ýshinshi mausym tónkerisi» atanyp, qazaqtardy zang shygharu mekemesine ókil saylau qúqynan aiyrghan әigili maniyfesi shyghuy saldarynan, II Memduma quylghan son,  Shәimerden Qosshyghúlúly Aqmola oblysyna oralyp, diny jәne aghartushylyq istermen shúghyldandy. Kenes ókimeti túsyndaghy kadr tapshy alghashqy kezende kóptegen din qyzmetshileri qatarynda  birer mezgil Ahmet Baytúrsynovtyng tóte jazu tәsilimen júmys isteytin sovettik mektepterde múghalim bolghan. Degenmen molda retinde údayy týrtpektelip, sayasy qyspaqta jýrdi de, aqyry, 30-shy jyldary dýniyeden ozdy.

Memlekettik dumanyng Músylman fraksiyasy Aqpan revolusiyasyna deyingi tórt shaqyrylymda da júmys istedi. Ol patshalyq ishindegi bodan halyqtardyng azattyq kóksegen qozghalysynyng ortalyghy ispetti qyzmet atqarghan edi. Músylman qozghalysymen qatar Alash qozghalysynyng damuyna da údayy dem berip túrdy. Birinshi Dumada fraksiya tóraghasynyng orynbasary bolghan ufalyq deputat Sәlimgerey Jantórin Piyterge Duma tarqatylghan shaqta ghana kelip jetken semeylik deputat Álihan Bókeyhanovtyng patsha sheshimine narazy toppen birge Vyborgke attanyp, әigili ýndeuge qol qoiyna әser etti. Ekinshi Dumada Baqytjan Qarataev fraksiyanyng qoldauymen biyik minbeden qazaq jer-suy jәne onyng otarlanuy haqyndaghy ataqty  sózin sóiledi. Ýshinshi jәne Tórtinshi Dumalargha qazaq halqynyng deputat saylay almaghany belgili,  biraq últ qayratkerleri qazaq mәselesin Músylman fraksiyasy arqyly kóterip jýrdi. Mәselen, Qarataev, Serәli Lapin jәne basqa da azamattar III Dumada kóshpendi júrtty jerge ornalastyru jóninden elge jayly zang qabyldatugha fraksiya arqyly әrekettendi. Músfraksiya úiymdastyru burosynyng hatshysy Mústafa Shoqaev 1916 jylghy kóterilisting sebepteri men saldarlaryn zertteu ýshin IV  Memduma komissiyasynyng qúryluyna jәne onyng Týrkistan ólkesinde jemisti júmys atqaruyna atsalysyp, IV Duma mýshesi Mәmed-ngsuf Jafarovtyng kóterilis jayynda jasaytyn bayandamasyn jazugha kómektesti.   Monarhiya qúlaghannan keyingi alghashqy ailarda Músylman fraksiyasy, Resey músylmandarynyng birtútas ortalyghy retinde, jalpaq imperiyadaghy otar halyqtardyn, sonyng ishinde qazaqtardyng da  jer-jerde jinalystar ótkizip, últtyq mýddelerin qorghaytyn úiymdargha úiysuyna múryndyq boldy.

Últ-azattyq qozghalystyng 1-shi orys revolusiyasy auqymynda janasha óristeui jayynda men «1905 jyl» atty tarihiy-tanymdy roman jazghan edim, jurnaldyq núsqasy 1989 jyly jariyalanghan, kitap bolyp 1993 jyly shyqty.  Sodan bergi uaqyttarda, 1905 jyldan 1917 jylgha deyin bir mýshel boyy óristegen Alash qozghalysy men onyng jenisti shyny – 1917 jylghy 12 (25) jeltoqsanda Ekinshi Jalpyqazaq sezi Alash avtonomiyasy jәne onyng Alashorda atalghan ýkimetin qúrghangha deyingi kezendi qamtyghan shygharmalar toptamasyn jazdym. Búlarda músylman qozghalysy jәne onymen tyghyz baylanysta damyghan Alash qozghalysy qarastyrylyp, jogharyda atalghan jәne atalmaghan basqa da últ qayratkerlerining birqatary jayynda әngimelendi. On bólikten túratyn osy toptama etudterining kópshiligi «Ruh-Saray» atty tarihiy-tanymdy kóptomdyqtyng 2004–2010 jyldary shyqqan alghashqy tórt tomynda basyldy. («1905 jyl» romany toptamanyng birinshi bólimine endi). Solardyng bәri jinaqtalyp, «Alash joly» riysәlәsin qúrap otyr. Olar oqyrmangha otanshyldyq ruh beretin taghylymdy tarihy dastan, Alash qozghalysynyng  epopeyasy tәrizdenip, jastardy tarih arqyly tәrbiyeleuge eleuli ýles qosuy tiyis. Alashordanyng 100 jyldyghyna arnalghan búl júmysta din qyzmetshilerining azattyq jolyndaghy kýresine de edәuir kónil bólingen.

Alash qozghalysyna aralasqan diny qayratkerler (ishandar, imamdar, ahundar, damullalar, moldalar) sovet ókimetining týrli reformalary men sayasy nauqandary kezderinde jappay qughyn-sýrginge úshyratyldy.  Kóbi týrli merzimge sottaldy, jer audaryldy, birqatary atylyp ketti. «Ádilet» tarihi-aghartu qoghamy Últtyq qauipsizdik komiytetining arhiyvimen tyghyz baylanysta júmys istey otyryp, «Azaly kitap. Kniga skorbi» degen taqyryppen sayasy repressiyalar  qúrbandary jayyndaghy derekterdi toghyz kitap etip shygharghan bolatyn. Onday basylymdar oblystarda da jýzege asyryldy. Solardyng ishindegi jazyqsyz jazalanghan din qyzmetkerlerin anyqtap, esimderin úlyqtau ong is bolar edi. Ýlgi retinde, orys pravoslavie shirkeui mitropolittik okrugining «Ádilet» qoghamynyng qoldauymen Janalyq qorymyndaghy memorialgha sayasy repressiyalar qúrbany bolghan svyashennikterding tizimi qashalghan estelik taqta qoyghanyn aita ketkim keledi.  Almaty týbindegi Janalyq qorymyna 30–40-shy jyldary tórt mynnan astam atylghandar kómilgen. «Ádilettin» aldynda túrghan bir mindet – sondaghy memorial janynan músylmandar men hristiandargha arnalghan ghibadat etu oryndaryn (shaghyn meshit pen chasovnya) túrghyzyp,  aruaqtardy eske alyp aza tútugha keletinderge jaghday jasau. Múny diny úiymdar arqyly jýzege asyrugha bolary anyq. Osy kýnderi shirkeu búl iske әzirligin bildirip, bilek sybanyp otyr. Sonday yqylas elimizding din basqarmasy, diny oqu oryndary, meshitter tarapynan da tanytylsa oryndy bolar edi.

Alash qozghalysyna ózindik ýles qosqan, stalinizm jyldary qughyn-sýrginge úshyraghan qazaqtyng din-islam qyzmetshilerin eske alyp, Alashordanyng biylghy ghasyrlyq mereyjyly orayynda ruhtaryna taghzym etudi tәuelsizdik azamattarynyng paryzy dep bileyik.

Beybit QOYShYBAEV,

«Ádilet» tarihi-aghartu qoghamy tóraghasynyn

orynbasary, jazushy, tarih ghylymdarynyng kandidaty.

19.04.2017

Ádeb.: Politicheskaya jizni russkih musuliman do Fevraliskoy revolusii, Oksford, 1985; Boyovich M.M. Chleny Gosudarstvennoy dumy. Sozyv II (Portrety y biografiiy), SPb, 1907; Bektúrov J. Shәimerden Qosshyghúlúly//Ana tili, 18.03.1993; Qoyshybaev B. 1905 jyl, A., 1993; Ozganbay O. Gosudarstvennaya Duma Rossiy y Kazahstan, A., 2000; Qoyshybaev B. Ruh-Saray, 1–4-tomdar, A., 2004–2010; Qoyshybaev B. Alash joly, A., 2015.

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